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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Peter L. Cruise

Beginning in the late 1940s, classical Public Administration was challenged by the works of Herbert Simon and the movement he started, logical positivism. Although only…

Abstract

Beginning in the late 1940s, classical Public Administration was challenged by the works of Herbert Simon and the movement he started, logical positivism. Although only writing in the field for a few years, Simon shifted the locus and focus of the field so dramatically, for a time it almost disappeared from view. This article examines Simonʼns legacy, first by exploring its philosophical antecedents and its later epistemological progeny. The article concludes with an assessment of how the field of Public Administration responded to Simonʼns challenge in the late twentieth century and now, early in the twenty first century.

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International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Peter L. Cruise

The Information Age, while offering public managers great opportunities in networked organizations and relationships using New Public Management (NPM) techniques, also…

Abstract

The Information Age, while offering public managers great opportunities in networked organizations and relationships using New Public Management (NPM) techniques, also presents great challenges if traditional public sector ethical approaches and value orientations have been replaced with postmodernist logic. Using the backdrop of NPM and postmodernism, this article examines the ability of one tool - program evaluation - to continue to offer useful information for public managers and the elected leaders they serve.

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International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 2 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Peter L. Cruise

Since the 1950s, the unifying epistemological perspective in American public administration has been logical positivism, most notably as defined and promoted by Herbert…

Abstract

Since the 1950s, the unifying epistemological perspective in American public administration has been logical positivism, most notably as defined and promoted by Herbert Simon. In recent years, logical positivism has been under attack for limiting inappropriately the scope of inquiry within the field, forcing it to ignore important, value‐laden issues critical to government and the public sector. The willingness to address value‐laden issues was at the core of what was to become the field of public administration in the early twentieth‐century. This article examines the philosophical roots of logical positivist movement, its dramatic effects upon public administration, and the subsequent counter attacks on the movement. The article concludes that although logical positivism’s attack on public administration initially weakened the field, as a result practitioners and scholars were eventually to demand increased rigor and higher standards of inquiry for research in the field.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-252X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Mark F. Griffith

This article is about John Locke who was a British philosopher that profoundly influenced the founders of the United States, the principles upon which the United States…

Abstract

This article is about John Locke who was a British philosopher that profoundly influenced the founders of the United States, the principles upon which the United States was established, and the American system of administration. Many influential leaders in America today acknowledge that the government is Lockeian, which is only the beginning of the continuing importance of Locke for the 21st century. While Locke pre-dated the formal study of organizational theory and behavior many of his ideas directly influence those fields--particularly his ideas on education and economy

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International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Abstract

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Gender and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-322-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

John Hollister

Investigates “cruising” (how homosexual men move around to various meeting sites), and how men keep this from intruding into their “normal” lives. Highlights how Laud…

Abstract

Investigates “cruising” (how homosexual men move around to various meeting sites), and how men keep this from intruding into their “normal” lives. Highlights how Laud Humphreys researched this phenomenon through, initially, observing 12 “tearoom” regulars, while acting as a lookout. Herein the author primarily observed a highway rest area, but also urban parks, tearooms and commercial sex clubs – interviewing 19 regulars. Gives more specific details in the article. Concludes that cruising sites are not constant and uniform.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1978

Charles A. Stansfield

Students of tourism have long recognized the Caribbean area as a popular tourist objective. The visitors have come primarily from North America; as Burkart and Medlik…

Abstract

Students of tourism have long recognized the Caribbean area as a popular tourist objective. The visitors have come primarily from North America; as Burkart and Medlik ob‐served, “…the principal tourist reception areas in the world lie up to about 1,000 miles or so from the generating source or, to put it another way, at about two hours flying time”. The Caribbean's large and expanding tourist trade may be attributed to, in addition to this obviously significant factor of proximity, the physical geographic factors of tropical climate, sandy beaches and varied topography. The Caribbean's cultural geographic assets include its diversity of colonial heritage and its variety of racial and ethnic populations. The unique economic and social situation of this region of the world, together with the continuing role of the U. S. as a prime generating source, will probably result in continued encouragement of and catering to this impressive tourist trade. Of particular note to students of tourism is the rising volume of cruiseship traffic within the Caribbean. This aspect of tourist trade illustrates some significant interrelationships of transport and tourism. This study's objectives are the analysis and interpretation of contemporary cruise‐ship traffic patterns, specifically in terms of studying the relationships which are apparent among various ports of origin and their related ports of call.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Blaine Branchik

The purpose of this paper is to recount the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry (known today as the cruise industry). This is a unique industry…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to recount the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry (known today as the cruise industry). This is a unique industry that has survived and thrived for almost 175 years despite dramatic environmental changes. This history focuses on passenger shipping in and out of the USA first from/to European ports, later focusing on cruises from the USA to the Caribbean, today’s most popular cruise destination.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adapts the Hollander et al. (2005) approach and incorporates primary data such as fare lists, advertisements and promotional materials, as well as secondary data from a variety of expert works and government reports.

Findings

This study finds that the industry’s marketing history can be divided into six periods or phases: immigration and luxury (mid-nineteenth century to 1914); World War I (1914-1918); tourism, alcohol and luxury (1918-1939); World War II (1939-1946); jet age emergence (1946-1970); and cruising for all (1970 to the present day). Continuing industry growth; increasing focus on new geographic, and every-smaller demographic and psychographic markets; promotional emphasis on cuisine and activities; and positioning as a mass-consumed luxury are trends for the future.

Research limitations/implications

Space constraints limit the information mostly to Europe-to-North America sailings of British and German transatlantic lines early in the paper, and to USA-to-Caribbean cruises in later phases.

Practical implications

This study illustrates how an industry can completely reinvent all elements of its marketing strategy in response to changing social and technological forces. It adds to a growing body of industry marketing histories.

Originality/value

Although much has been written about maritime history, no known work has examined the history of the marketing of the maritime passenger industry. It augments the growing body of industry-specific marketing histories.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Peter Jones, David Hillier and Daphne Comfort

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on the sustainability reports published by the two market leaders in ocean cruising industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a commentary on the sustainability reports published by the two market leaders in ocean cruising industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins with short reviews of the growing interest in the commitment to corporate sustainability and of the growth and market structure of the ocean cruising industry by way of setting the context for the commentary. This commentary is based on a review of the most recent sustainability reports published by the two leading ocean cruising companies which account for almost 75 per cent of total industry revenues.

Findings

The findings of the paper reveal that the two major ocean cruising companies, namely, Carnival Corporation and Royal Caribbean Cruises, published extensive sustainability reports covering a wide range of environmental, social, economic and governance issues. The other leading ocean cruising companies posted limited information on their approach to sustainability on their corporate websites and some posted no information on sustainability. However, the authors suggest that given that the two major cruising companies account for 70 per cent of ocean cruising passengers, the industry compares favourably in its sustainability reporting with other players in the hospitality industry and the service sector. That said, the authors also suggest that approaches to sustainability within the cruising industry, which are based on continuing growth, present testing management challenges for the leading cruising companies.

Originality/value

The paper provides an accessible commentary on current approaches to sustainability in the ocean cruising industry, and as such, it will interest professionals working in the cruise industry and more generally in the hospitality industry as well as academics and students interested in hospitality management and sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Branislav Ftorek, Milan Saga, Pavol Orsansky, Jan Vittek and Peter Butko

The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the two energy saving position control strategies for AC drives valid for a wide range of boundary conditions including an…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the two energy saving position control strategies for AC drives valid for a wide range of boundary conditions including an analysis of their energy expenses.

Design/methodology/approach

For energy demands analysis, the optimal energy control based on mechanical and electrical losses minimization is compared with the near-optimal one based on symmetrical trapezoidal speed profile. Both control strategies respect prescribed maneuver time and define acceleration profile for preplanned rest-to-rest maneuver.

Findings

Presented simulations confirm lower total energy expenditures of energy optimal control if compared with near-optimal one, but the differences are only small due to the fact that two energy saving strategies are compared.

Research limitations/implications

Developed overall control system consisting of energy saving profile generator, pre-compensator and position control system respecting principles of field-oriented control is capable to track precomputed state variables precisely.

Practical implications

Energy demands of both control strategies are verified and compared to simulations and preliminary experiments. The possibilities of energy savings were confirmed for both control strategies.

Originality/value

Experimental verification of designed control structure is sufficiently promising and confirmed assumed energy savings.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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