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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Caspar Krampe, Enrique Strelow, Alexander Haas and Peter Kenning

This study is the first to examine consumer’s neural reaction to different merchandising communication strategies at the point-of-sale (PoS) by applying functional…

1222

Abstract

Purpose

This study is the first to examine consumer’s neural reaction to different merchandising communication strategies at the point-of-sale (PoS) by applying functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). By doing so, the purpose of this study is to extend consumer neuroscience to retail and shopper research.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted in which 36 shoppers were exposed to a realistic grocery shopping scenario while their brain haemodynamics were measured using mobile fNIRS.

Findings

Results revealed that mobile fNIRS appears a valid method to study neural activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the field of “shopper neuroscience”. More precisely, results demonstrated that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) might be crucial for processing and predicting merchandising communication strategy effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

This research gives evidence that certain regions of the PFC, in particular the OFC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), are crucial to process and evaluate merchandising communication strategies.

Practical implications

The current work opens a promising new avenue for studying and understanding shopper’s behaviour. Mobile fNIRS enables marketing management to collect neural data from shoppers and analyse neural activity associated with real-life settings. Furthermore, based on a better understanding of shoppers’ perceptual processes of communication strategies, marketers can design more effective merchandising communication strategies.

Originality/value

The study is the first to implement the innovative, mobile neuroimaging method of fNIRS to a PoS setting. It, therefore, opens up the promising field of “shopper neuroscience”.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Xian Liu, Helena Maria Lischka and Peter Kenning

This research aims to systematically explore the cognitive and emotional effects of values-related and performance-related negative brand publicity and investigate how the…

1644

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to systematically explore the cognitive and emotional effects of values-related and performance-related negative brand publicity and investigate how the psychological effects translate into different behavioural outcomes. In addition, it examines the relative effectiveness of two major brand response strategies in mitigating negative publicity.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental studies were conducted to test the hypotheses. Study 1 examines the effects of values- and performance-related negative brand publicity, using a 3 (negative brand publicity: values-related vs performance-related vs control) × 2 (brand: Dove vs Axe) between-subjects experiment. Study 2 further compares the effects of two major brand response strategies on consumers’ post-crisis perceived trustworthiness and trust and responses towards a brand involved in negative publicity. A 2 (negative brand publicity: values-related vs performance-related) × 2 (brand response strategy: reduction-of-offensiveness vs corrective action) between-subjects design was used.

Findings

The results suggest that values-related negative brand publicity is perceived as being more diagnostic and elicits a stronger emotion of contempt, but a weaker emotion of pity than performance-related negative brand publicity. Moreover, values-related negative brand publicity has a stronger negative impact on consumer responses than performance-related negative brand publicity. Interestingly, compared to perceived diagnosticity of information and the emotion of pity, the emotion of contempt is more likely to cause differences in consumer responses to these two types of negative brand publicity. Regarding brand response strategy, corrective action is more effective than reduction-of-offensiveness for both types of negative brand publicity, but the advantage of corrective action is greater for the performance-related case.

Originality/value

This research enriches the negative publicity and brand perception literature, showing the asymmetric cognitive, emotional and behavioural effects of values- and performance-related negative brand publicity. It also identifies the psychological mechanisms underlying consumer responses to negative brand publicity, and it provides empirical evidence for the relative effectiveness of two major brand response strategies.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2018

Marco Hubert, Mirja Hubert, Marc Linzmajer, René Riedl and Peter Kenning

The purpose of this study is to examine how consumer personality trait impulsiveness influences trustworthiness evaluations of online-offers with different trust-assuring…

1546

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how consumer personality trait impulsiveness influences trustworthiness evaluations of online-offers with different trust-assuring and trust-reducing elements by measuring the brain activity of consumers. Shoppers with high degrees of impulsiveness are referred to as hedonic shoppers, and those with low degrees are referred to as prudent consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate the differences between neural processes in the brains of hedonic and prudent shoppers during the trustworthiness evaluation of online-offers, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and region-of-interest analysis to correlate neural activity patterns with behavioral measures of the study participants.

Findings

Drawing upon literature reviews on the neural correlates of both trust in online settings and consumer impulsiveness and using an experimental design that links behavioral and fMRI data, the study shows that consumer impulsiveness can exert a significant influence on the evaluation of online-offers. With regard to brain activation, both groups (hedonic and prudent shoppers) exhibit similar neural activation tendencies, but differences exist in the magnitude of activation patterns in brain regions that are closely related to trust and impulsiveness such as the dorsal striatum, anterior cingulate, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the insula cortex.

Research limitations/implications

The data provide evidence that consumers within the hedonic group evaluate online-offers differently with regard to their trustworthiness compared to the prudent group, and that these differences in evaluation are rooted in neural activation differences in the shoppers’ brains.

Practical implications

Marketers need to be made aware of the fact that neurological insights can be used for market segmentation, because consumers’ decision-making processes help explain behavioral outcomes (here, trustworthiness evaluations of online-offers). In addition, consumers can learn from an advanced understanding of their brain functions during decision-making and their relation to personal traits such as impulsiveness.

Originality/value

Considering the importance of trust in online shopping, as well as the fact that personality traits such as impulsiveness influence the purchase process to a high degree, this study is the first to systematically investigate the interplay of online trustworthiness perceptions and differences in consumer impulsiveness with neuroscientific methods.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2022

Rabea Schrage, Lasse Meißner, Reinhard Schütte and Peter Kenning

Due to recent developments of indoor location-tracking technologies, brick-and-mortar retailers are now able to add location-based marketing capabilities to their existing…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to recent developments of indoor location-tracking technologies, brick-and-mortar retailers are now able to add location-based marketing capabilities to their existing retail apps, providing retailers with new opportunities to interact with customers inside of their stores. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing the customers' adoption intention of location-based retail apps for stationary retailing.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the technology acceptance model, a conceptual model was developed. A Web-based survey was conducted in Germany with a final sample of 501 cases. Structural equation modelling was performed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results confirmed the positive relationship between attitude and the customers' intention to use location-based retail apps. Perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment promote a positive attitude toward location-based retail apps, while privacy concerns and fear of spam hinder the formation of a favorable attitude. Subjective norms have a positive effect on customers' usage intention.

Practical implications

The results help retailers who want to establish location-based retail apps at the point of sale (e.g. in the context of omni-channel strategies).

Originality/value

As previous research about location-based apps has mainly used empirical data from either Chinese or American samples, less is known about the perception of European customers. Research indicates that existing findings might not be transferable to European countries due to differences in values, social norms or regulations. Also, the failure of Shopkick in Germany illustrates the need for more research. Based on this, using a German sample to answer the research question, this study aims to provide a European perspective on location-based retail apps, and thereby extend existing research.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Peter Gilroy

Abstract

Details

Journal of Integrated Care, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1476-9018

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Bodil Stilling Blichfeldt, Aurimas Pumputis and Kiya Ebba

Travelers are both surrounded by and perform places, thus making places ambiguous sites that “come alive” when travelers use them and engage in various performances. A…

Abstract

Purpose

Travelers are both surrounded by and perform places, thus making places ambiguous sites that “come alive” when travelers use them and engage in various performances. A place many travelers pass through is the airport. Airports are places where travelers’ performances are restricted in many ways and waiting is a key element of the airport experience. This paper contributes with knowledge on what airport terminals “are”, not as designs or material objects but as places enacted by travelers. In doing so, the paper aims to emphasize on both how travelers “see” airports and how they use them.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses different qualitative methods and notions of time and waiting. Sources of data are small-scale netnography, focus group interviews, observations done at airports and qualitative interviews.

Findings

The study shows that airport terminals are heterogeneously enacted environments that are heavily inscribed with the mundane act of waiting and travelers use a series of different strategies to “use”, “spend” and “kill” time. Furthermore, whereas more affluent travelers spend waiting time using airports’ commercial offerings (shopping, restaurants, bars, etc.), less affluent travelers do not have the same options.

Research limitations/implications

The research points to airport terminals as not only “places of movement and mobility” but also “places of waiting” inscribed with boredom and travelers actively fight boredom by spending, using and killing time in a variety of ways. Furthermore, the study points to significant differences between affluent travelers and other travelers and differences between people travelling alone and in groups. Therefore, a call is made for research focusing on less affluent travelers, people traveling in groups and on waiting and waiting time.

Practical implications

The study suggests that airports are more than consumerscapes and places of movement, hereby questioning the current focus on commercial revenues.

Social implications

The study points to airport space as space “inhabited” not only by travelers willingly taking on the roles as consumers but also by travelers that kill, spend and use waiting time in other ways, hereby questioning the idea that airports are places for the “elite”.

Originality/value

Travelers associate airports with boredom and inscribe them with waiting. However, travelers “fight” boredom and waiting with performances and acts designed to use, spend, pass and “kill” time. Hereby, travelers not only accept but also construct the seemingly mundane act of waiting as restricted, negotiated and confined, but nevertheless meaningful performances.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Inga Wobker, Tim Eberhardt and Peter Kenning

Due to the rising number of product, service, and shopping possibilities available to consumers, food shopping has become increasingly more complex. As a result, consumers…

1566

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the rising number of product, service, and shopping possibilities available to consumers, food shopping has become increasingly more complex. As a result, consumers can become confused, and this state of confusion may influence their purchase behaviour (e.g. may cause them to not buy a product) and the personal needs they have in a shopping environment (e.g. certification to signal product quality, salesperson consultation for assistance in decision making, or governmental regulation). However, trust can reduce complexity, and may thereby moderate the influence of consumer confusion for negative outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to identify outcomes of consumer confusion and to investigate the moderating role of broader-scope trust on the negative outcomes of this confusion.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed to study potential negative outcomes of consumer confusion. In order to assess consumer confusion and the degree of negative outcomes, a telephone survey method for the questionnaire was applied, querying 516 participants who regularly bought food products.

Findings

The results clearly suggest that consumer confusion evokes various negative outcomes that are of relevance for food retailing. The intensity of the influence of consumer confusion on several of those negative outcomes could be decreased by broader-scope trust. Further, an interaction effect linked to gender was observed.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first international journal publication on the moderating role of trust on the outcomes of consumer confusion.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Linn Viktoria Rampl, Tim Eberhardt, Reinhard Schütte and Peter Kenning

The rising number of food safety scandals during recent years has led to increased uncertainty about food consumption choices. Additionally, new production process…

4864

Abstract

Purpose

The rising number of food safety scandals during recent years has led to increased uncertainty about food consumption choices. Additionally, new production process technologies, increased attention toward product ingredients, and obesity concerns have affected general levels of trust in food. Consequently, trust is an ever more decisive factor for success in food industry buyer‐seller relationships and, hence, in the retail food market. Although considerable research has investigated trust in organizations, research in the food retailing industry needs further investigation. The aim of this paper is to identify variables related to consumer trust in food retailers. Only when consumer trust in food retailers is understood can retailers effectively apply corresponding strategies to secure long‐term success.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an established model of trust in organizations, the authors developed a questionnaire to test drivers (ability, benevolence, integrity), outcomes (risk taking, loyalty) of specific trust in food retailers, as well as moderators (propensity to trust, perceived risk).

Findings

Study results support the hypothesized model, showing that specific trust in a food retailer strongly predicts risk taking and, in turn, loyalty. The food retailer's ability and integrity were identified as relevant to specific trust, while the customer's propensity to trust was shown to moderate the relationship between benevolence and specific trust. The results further indicate that the perceived risk affects the relationship between specific trust and risk taking.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to apply and test an established model of trust in the food‐retailing market.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Peter Kenning, Vivian Hartleb and Helmut Schneider

This paper aims to add insights on consumers' price knowledge in food retailing using a theory‐based multi‐method approach.

1220

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to add insights on consumers' price knowledge in food retailing using a theory‐based multi‐method approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides data from one questionnaire and two experimental studies. The aim of the first study was to address price recall. To do so, data were collected on the accuracy of grocery‐shopper price knowledge for 20 carefully selected products. Using the mall intercept method, three trained interviewers queried 300 randomly selected people in the store, but prior to shopping. After a period of four weeks the subjects were contacted by phone and asked whether they would like to participate in a second two‐step experiment. A total of 105 of the original 300 shoppers agreed to take part in the second study, in which a recognition task in terms of a computer experiment was accomplished with and without financial incentives.

Findings

The results of these studies confirmed the authors' expectations, based on theoretical considerations that: the level of price recall is lower than the level of price recognition; incentives have no influence on price‐knowledge in the recognition task; and price‐knowledge for private labels is significantly higher in the recall, as well as in the recognition task. Moreover, in regression analyses it was found that there was no significant influence of age, gender, price‐consciousness, duration of customership, and shopping transactions per week on price recall and/or price recognition.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited with respect to branch, time period, and culture.

Originality/value

This paper is the first using a multi‐method approach to measure price‐recall and price‐recognition in food retailing. Moreover, it adds evidence concerning the differences of price‐knowledge due to the nature of the brand. Finally, it is shown that incentives and certain demographics have no influence on price‐knowledge.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Peter Kenning

In the last perhaps ten years the interest of marketing research in the subject of trust increased dramatically. Although well known in several scientific disciplines, in…

8083

Abstract

Purpose

In the last perhaps ten years the interest of marketing research in the subject of trust increased dramatically. Although well known in several scientific disciplines, in marketing research trust is often conceptualized without the concept of general trust. Therefore, one main aim of this paper is to broaden marketing research understanding of trust by showing how general trust (which has the character of a personal trait) and, in comparison, specific trust (which is associated with a specific retailer) affects buying behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

After a review of trust‐literature the paper identifies two subcategories of trust, which might be relevant for buying behaviour: general trust and specific trust. It then aims to test their influence on retail food buying behaviour empirically. To do so, it uses for the first time in marketing research the ITS‐Rotter‐scale for measuring general trust.

Findings

The results, including data from about 331 subjects in the German food‐retailing market, indicate that general as well as specific trust positively affects buying behaviour. In contrast to expectations, it was found general and specific trust to be unrelated. Moreover, it was found that, the influence of specific trust on buying behaviour increases when customers scored lower on the ITS‐Rotter‐scale indicating lower levels of general trust.

Originality/value

This paper is the first in marketing literature which integrates the concept of general trust and uses the ITS‐Rotter‐scale for measuring general trust in a marketing related context. Accordingly, it provides for the first time evidence on the positive influence of general trust on buying behaviour. It shows that general trust is able to substitute lacking specific trust.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000