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It is argued that the behaviour of organizational members is influencedto a large extent by characteristics of their work settings.Furthermore, since individuals must…
It is argued that the behaviour of organizational members is influenced to a large extent by characteristics of their work settings. Furthermore, since individuals must change their behaviour in order for organizational improvement to occur, planned organizational change can be viewed as an attempt to change organizational work setting characteristics such that individuals will adopt new, desirable behaviours. Based on these premisses, explores the relationship between organizational work settings and behaviour. In particular, three work setting features that are often the target of intervention activity – goals, managerial behaviour, and job designs – are examined regarding their relationships with a set of employee behaviours relevant to planned organizational change and, potentially, organizational performance. Only goals demonstrate a significant relationship with the frequency of these behaviours. Furthermore, the three work setting variables do not appear to have an interactive effect on behaviour. Consistency in behaviour is found to be related to the extent to which important dimensions of the work setting variables are congruent with each other. Implications for future research are discussed.
Signs of increased collaboration within and between organizations are readily apparent. An emerging “new paradigm” literature suggests that this trend is part of a…
Signs of increased collaboration within and between organizations are readily apparent. An emerging “new paradigm” literature suggests that this trend is part of a fundamental transformation toward a more collaborative global culture. In this chapter, I first outline the key premises of an alternative “theory of reality” articulated by this literature, which integrates evidence and ideas from a variety of fields of human knowledge and experience. Next, I contrast the basic assumptions of the current “competition paradigm” with those of the new, emerging “collaboration paradigm.” Based on the foundation provided by these new paradigm ideas, I then provide a description of “collaborative organizing.” This new model of organization is described in terms of three categories of features pertaining to the purpose, design, and functioning of these organizational systems. While most of these characteristics are currently receiving considerable attention in both theory and practice of organizations, the collaborative organizing model reflects an initial attempt to integrate these features into a coherent whole that constitutes a new “ideal type” of organization. As an ideal type, I argue that this model provides a better fit with contemporary environmental conditions than the Weberian bureaucratic hierarchy. As such, it can serve as a “desired future state” to guide organizations as they undertake the transformation to a more collaborative mode of operating. The chapter concludes with additional comments regarding the possibility of a global transformation to the collaborative paradigm.
This chapter presents a very broad synopsis of the intensification of education governance. It opens by narrating the multifaceted nature of governance and in what way it…
This chapter presents a very broad synopsis of the intensification of education governance. It opens by narrating the multifaceted nature of governance and in what way it has developed as the axiom for professed policy problems that national educational systems are experiencing. The chapter chronicles the amplification of education governance and it explicates the metamorphosis and myriad typographies that “governance” has taken in responding to perceived endogenous and exogenous policy problems. It explains how managerialism and neo-corporate reforms sought to destabilize the activities of education governance and the results. In making this argument, it suggests that new public management policy prescriptions in education were part of the earliest form of disruptive innovation in education. It advances that educational managerialism, in hollowing out national educational systems, has generated the perfect breeding ground for the rise of newer modus operandi (or modes, styles, and arrangements) that governs and regulates education systems through the use of different techniques and mechanisms. The second half of the chapter discusses five different modus operandi that are inchoate in the post-managerialist era and highlights that in education, we have progressed beyond the movement from government to governance across national education systems and these systems are now employing additional modes of governance (vertical and horizontal) across different scales. The chapter concludes by drawing on the concept of a “Wicked Problem” (an unsolvable or difficult problematic, that is, fluid, paradoxical, and unfinished) to insinuate that education governance is an example of a wicked problem that has been and continues to be shaped by the ideological contours of endogenous and exogenous policy influences.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
I. INTRODUCTION This study attempts to extend and expand previous research conducted by the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde on the adoption and diffusion of…
In beginning its work at the end of the 1950s, the Aslib Research and Development Department inevitably faced the task of identifying the most significant problems for investigation, at the same time having the need to establish appropriate experimental techniques. Most of the projects undertaken since that time have dealt with current problems, and to an extent the advent of new technologies and techniques to the information world (mechanization in the 'sixties, management studies in the early 'seventies, on‐line working and publication problems in more recent years) is reflected in the work reported below. What follows is a complete bibliography of publications by members of the Department from its formation up to the end of 1977.
This paper provides an introduction to the use of n‐grams in textual information systems, where an n‐gram is a string of n, usually adjacent, characters extracted from a…
This paper provides an introduction to the use of n‐grams in textual information systems, where an n‐gram is a string of n, usually adjacent, characters extracted from a section of continuous text. Applications that can be implemented efficiently and effectively using sets of n‐grams include spelling error detection and correction, query expansion, information retrieval with serial, inverted and signature files, dictionary look‐up, text compression, and language identification.
This paper aims to develop a novel strategy to manufacture poly-lactic acid (PLA) filaments reinforced with Mg particles for fused filament fabrication of porous scaffolds…
This paper aims to develop a novel strategy to manufacture poly-lactic acid (PLA) filaments reinforced with Mg particles for fused filament fabrication of porous scaffolds for biomedical applications.
The mixture of PLA pellets and Mg particles was extruded twice, the second time using a precision extruder that produces a filament with zero porosity, constant diameter and homogeneous dispersion of Mg particles. The physico-chemical properties of the extruded filaments were carefully analysed to determine the influence of Mg particles on the depolymerisation of PLA during high temperature extrusion and the optimum melt flow index to ensure printability.
It was found that the addition of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticizer was necessary to allow printing when the weight fraction of Mg was above 4%. It was possible to print porous face-centre cubic scaffolds with good geometrical accuracy and minimum porosity with composite filaments containing PEG.
The new strategy is easily scalable and seems to be very promising to manufacture biodegradable thermoplastic/metal composite filaments for 3D printing that can take advantage of the different properties of both components from the viewpoint of tissue engineering.
This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt…
This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt that the Great Depression exerted an enormous influence on economic thought, but the exact nature of its impact should be examined more carefully. In this chapter, I examine the transformation from a perspective which emphasizes the interaction between economic ideas and economic events, and the interaction between theory and policy rather than the development of economic theory. More specifically, I examine the evolution of what became known as macroeconomics after the Depression in terms of an ongoing debate among the “stabilizers” and their critics. I further suggest using four perspectives, or schools of thought, as measures to locate the evolution and transformation; the gold standard mentality, liquidationism, the Treasury view, and the real-bills doctrine. By highlighting these four economic ideas, I argue that what happened during the Great Depression was the retreat of the gold standard mentality, the complete demise of liquidationism and the Treasury view, and the strange survival of the real-bills doctrine. Each of those transformations happened not in response to internal debates in the discipline, but in response to government policies and real-world events.