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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Sandra L. Fielden, Marilyn J. Davidson and Peter J. Makin

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and…

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Abstract

The success or failure of a new business is often dependent on overcoming a series of potential barriers, eg securing sufficient financial backing, adequate and appropriate guidance and training etc. Yet, in light of the substantial growth rate of micro and small businesses, there has been little research into the experiences of potential and new business owners during the start‐up of such enterprises. To date there has been no systematic study of this group in the UK, and many questions remain unanswered. This study of micro and small business during the initialisation and formation of new venture creation (eg pre‐start‐up, 0‐6 months and 6‐12 months∥ sought to answer some of those questions. It identifies the needs of new business owners, the barriers they encounter, and the strategies they use to overcome those obstacles. The findings indicate that financial difficulties and the attitudes of banks towards new business owners are the main barriers to successful enterprise creation, with mentors and more specific advice cited as the assistance regarded as affording the greatest benefit to potential and new business owners. In addition, small and micro business owners are going out of business, or are unable to fulfil their potential, because they are denied access to those factors that promote success.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Peter J. Makin and David J. Hoyle

Describes the application of Organizational Behaviour Modification(OBMod), and in particular the Premack Principle, to improving theperformance of a number of professional…

Abstract

Describes the application of Organizational Behaviour Modification (OBMod), and in particular the Premack Principle, to improving the performance of a number of professional electrical engineers. The design and implementation of the behavioural change scheme was undertaken by the engineers′ manager who received approximately one day′s training in the theory and practice of OBMod. Analysis of the behaviour of the engineers revealed that, while they had the ability and resources required to undertake their jobs effectively, their efforts were not resulting in the desired performance. Analysis using the Premack Principle revealed that much of their efforts were being directed towards necessary, but not essential, aspects of their jobs. A scheme of reinforcement was devised for each engineer, involving regular feedback and praise from the manager. Results over a period of one year showed the section moving from the bottom to the top of comparable sections within the organization. Individual improvements in output ranged from 31 to 270 per cent while that for the section as a whole rose by 73 per cent.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

David J. McDonald and Peter J. Makin

The proportion of the workforce on temporary contracts of employment is increasing, as organisations use non‐permanent staff as a flexible resource. Rousseau and…

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21954

Abstract

The proportion of the workforce on temporary contracts of employment is increasing, as organisations use non‐permanent staff as a flexible resource. Rousseau and Wade‐Benzoni suggested such temporary staff have a different psychological contract with the organisation than their permanent counterparts. Temporary staff, it is argued, will have a transactional contract, with the emphasis upon the economic elements of the contract while permanent staff will have a more relational contract, involving commitment to the organisation, and an interest in a satisfying job. These differences, it is argued, will influence staff attitudes and behaviour. The article tests these suggestions on employees of a large holiday sector organisation. The results present a consistent picture, at variance with the above suggestions. The levels of relational and transactional contracts of permanent and temporary staff did not differ significantly. In addition they had higher, rather than lower, levels of job satisfaction and commitment to the organisation.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Peter J. Makin and Valerie J. Sutherland

An important distinction in psychology is between external and internaldeterminants of behaviour. Behaviour may be perceived as beingdetermined either by factors internal…

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1941

Abstract

An important distinction in psychology is between external and internal determinants of behaviour. Behaviour may be perceived as being determined either by factors internal to the individual (e.g. personality) or by external factors, in particular the consequences that follow the behaviour. External factors are central to the behavioural approach. The tendency for people to underestimate the importance of external factors in influencing behaviour is discussed. An application of the behavioural approach to accident reduction is described and the benefits and problems associated with its implementation discussed. The importance of workforce participation and involvement are emphasized. In addition, it is suggested that the commitment of management, especially at the highest levels, is required if the programme is to maintain long‐term effectiveness.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Sandra L. Fielden, Marilyn J. Davidson, Adel J. Dawe and Peter J. Makin

While the general trend in the UK is towards an increase in female owned small businesses, during the last few years the number of North West of England businesses owned…

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2722

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While the general trend in the UK is towards an increase in female owned small businesses, during the last few years the number of North West of England businesses owned by women has fallen by 12.5 per cent. Aims to investigate the barriers preventing women from entering into growth businesses in the North West. The research included discussions with 12 service providers as well as in‐depth interviews and focus groups with 99 potential and established female business owners. The main barriers blocking women’s ownership of small businesses involved the widely held stereotype of business owners as “white, middle class, males”, cultural differences, a shortage of premises for new businesses and the lack of appropriate childcare.

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Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

Cary L. Cooper, Peter Makin and Charles Cox

Understanding how to manage the boss requires an awareness of thedifferent types of bosses, their personality and their managementstyles. Describes six different types of…

Abstract

Understanding how to manage the boss requires an awareness of the different types of bosses, their personality and their management styles. Describes six different types of manager: the bureaucrat, the autocrat, the wheeler‐dealer, the laissez‐faire manager, the reluctant manager, and the open manager. Suggestions are given, using behaviour modification as a framework, as to how each of these can best be influenced by a subordinate.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to…

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15636

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Since the first Volume of this Bibliography there has been an explosion of literature in all the main areas of business. The researcher and librarian have to be able to uncover specific articles devoted to certain topics. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume III, in addition to the annotated list of articles as the two previous volumes, contains further features to help the reader. Each entry within has been indexed according to the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus and thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid information retrieval. Each article has its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. The first Volume of the Bibliography covered seven journals published by MCB University Press. This Volume now indexes 25 journals, indicating the greater depth, coverage and expansion of the subject areas concerned.

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Management Decision, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Dawn L. Rothe and Victoria E. Collins

The inherent violence of the patriarchal spectacle is at times decried through mass social movements such as the #MeToo or black lives matter movements in response to…

Abstract

The inherent violence of the patriarchal spectacle is at times decried through mass social movements such as the #MeToo or black lives matter movements in response to overt political displays of power or policies reinforcing inequalities of gender, race and ethnicity. While critical criminologists and feminists have spent decades on topics such as these, what is, more often than not, ignored is the banal patriarchal oppression women across the globe endure during their everyday lives. Moreover, women, most notably in the Global North and the United States in particular, assent to their oppression through the willingness of allowing the innate violence of an unequal patriarchal system of harm and violence. Our specific focus is on the routinisation of everyday life women participate in reinforcing the status quo of the patriarchal carceral state. We also suggest that social change must be more than reactions and demands for processes of change within the social structure that maintain the overall patriarchal state and structure of society: rather resistance must equal revulsion and rejection for a revolutionary social change to the innate violent system.

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The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1986

The big changes over recent years and their rapid development in Food Retailing have resulted in different shopping practices, for the institution, the hotel, restaurant…

Abstract

The big changes over recent years and their rapid development in Food Retailing have resulted in different shopping practices, for the institution, the hotel, restaurant and the home. Different cuisines have developed, foods purchased, both in cooking practices and eating habits, especially in the home. Gone are the old fashioned home economics, taking with them out of the diet much that was enjoyed and from which the families benefitted in health and stomach satisfaction. In very recent times, the changes have become bigger, developments more rapid, and the progress continues. Bigger and bigger stores, highly departmentalised, mechanical aids of every description, all under one roof, “complex” is an appropriate term for it; large open spaces for the housewife with a car. The development is in fact aimed at the bulk buyer — rapid turnover — the small household needs, not entirely neglected, but not specially catered for. Daily cash takings are collosal. This is what the small owner‐occupied general store, with its many domestic advantages, has come to fall in the late twentieth century.

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British Food Journal, vol. 88 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 1996

Abstract

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The Peace Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-482-0

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