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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1950

THE centenary celebration is that of the apparently prosaic public library acts ; it is not the centenary of libraries which are as old as civilization. That is a…

Abstract

THE centenary celebration is that of the apparently prosaic public library acts ; it is not the centenary of libraries which are as old as civilization. That is a circumstance which some may have overlooked in their pride and enthusiasm for the public library. But no real librarian of any type will fail to rejoice in the progress to which the celebration is witness. For that has been immense. We are to have a centenary history of the Public Library Movement—that is not its title—from the Library Association. We do not know if it will be available in London this month; we fear it will not. We do know its author, Mr. W. A. Munford, has spent many months in research for it and that he is a writer with a lucid and individual Style. We contemplate his task with a certain nervousness. Could anyone less than a Carlyle impart into the dry bones of municipal library history that Strew these hundred years, the bones by the wayside that mark out the way, the breath of the spirit that will make them live ? For even Edward Edwards, whose name should be much in the minds and perhaps on the lips of library lovers this month, could scarcely have foreseen the contemporary position ; nor perhaps could Carlyle who asked before our genesis why there should not be in every county town a county library as well as a county gaol. How remote the days when such a question was cogent seem to be now! It behoves us, indeed it honours us, to recall the work of Edwards, of Ewart, Brotherton, Thomas Greenwood, Nicholson, Peter Cowell, Crestadoro, Francis Barrett, Thomas Lyster, J. Y. M. MacAlister, James Duff Brown and, in a later day without mentioning the living, John Ballinger, Ernest A. Baker, L. Stanley Jast, and Potter Briscoe—the list is long. All served the movement we celebrate and all faced a community which had to be convinced. It still has, of course, but our people do now allow libraries a place, more or less respected, in the life of the people. Librarians no longer face the corpse‐cold incredulity of the so‐called educated classes, the indifference of the masses and the actively vicious hostility of local legislators. Except the illuminated few that existed. These were the men who had the faith that an informed people was a happier, more efficient one and that books in widest commonalty spread were the best means of producing such a people. These, with a succession of believing, enduring librarians, persisted in their Struggle with cynic and opponent and brought about the system and the technique we use, modified of course and extended to meet a changing world, but essentially the same. Three names we may especially honour this September, Edward Edwards, who was the sower of the seed; MacAlister, who gained us our Royal Charter ; and John Ballinger, who was the person who most influenced the introduction of the liberating Libraries Act of 1919.

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New Library World, vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Peter Greenwood

Abstract

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Peter Greenwood

The purpose of this paper is to investigate epoxysilane‐modified silica sols as surfactant‐free inorganic pigments dispersants and as co‐binders/reinforcing agents for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate epoxysilane‐modified silica sols as surfactant‐free inorganic pigments dispersants and as co‐binders/reinforcing agents for silicate paints.

Design/methodology/approach

The performance of epoxysilane‐modified silica sols as dispersants for titania was studied using a polyacrylate‐based dispersant as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of silica sols, with or without silane modification, to potassium silicate on binder properties was investigated.

Findings

Significant improvements were obtained in stability towards settling in water‐based titania pigments pastes and in light‐scattering efficiency (as much as 50 per cent) for the optimal size of the silica particle of 5 nm. The number of silane molecules per nm2 silica particle surface must exceed a critical value of at least 1 molecule of epoxysilane per nm2 particle surface. Additionally, improved stability towards gelling, water resistance and film‐forming properties of sol‐silicate binder mixes were achieved for epoxysilane‐modified silica sols.

Research limitations/implications

Only epoxysilane‐modified silica sols were studied in this report. Titania pigment was examined but other important pigments (e.g. iron oxides) remain to be studied. In addition, only sol‐silicate mixes were investigated and not fully formulated silicate paints.

Practical implications

A method that produces stable, high‐performing, surfactant‐free inorganic pigments pastes. Furthermore, stable, high‐ratio, sol‐silicate binders can be obtained with improved water resistance and film properties for use in silicate paints.

Originality/value

The present method provides an easy route to obtain stable surfactant‐free inorganic pigments pastes, as well as makes stable, high‐ratio, sol‐silicate mixes/paints.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Peter Greenwood and Borje Gevert

The purpose of this paper is to study methods of reacting the surface of the particles of silica sols with silanes, primarily gamma‐glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study methods of reacting the surface of the particles of silica sols with silanes, primarily gamma‐glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and study some basic properties of the modified sols and the nature and structure of the silane groups attached to the particle surface.

Design/methodology/approach

The surface of the silica particles was modified by reacting the silica sols with aqueous solutions of silanes, chiefly GPTMS. The presence and structure of silane groups on the particle surface were established by Si‐NMR and C‐NMR, respectively.

Findings

Several silanes were studied but silica sols could be readily modified only with GPTMS and glycidoxypropylmethoxydiethoxysilane (GPMDES), most readily if the silanes were pre‐hydrolysed in water. Higher degrees of silylation were preferably done by continuous addition of silane. Lower degrees of modification can be achieved at room temperature by the stepwise addition of the silane solution. The silylation of the silica surface with GPTMS significantly reduces the number of charged surface groups and silanol groups. GPTMS binds covalently to the silica surface and the epoxy ring opens and transforms into a diol. Silica sols modified with GPTMS and GPMDES are stable toward aggregation.

Research limitations/implications

Only organo‐reactive silanes were studied.

Originality/value

This is the first work to study the modification by silanes of silica aquasols with high concentrations of silica. The silane modification can extend the use of silica to areas of applications previously inaccessible to silica sols.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2010

Peter Greenwood, Börje S. Gevert, Jan‐Erik Otterstedt, Gunnar Niklasson and William Vargas

The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to produce white composite pigments consisting of a silica core with a titania shell.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to produce white composite pigments consisting of a silica core with a titania shell.

Design/methodology/approach

Silica cores were coated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) via forced hydrolysis of a solution prepared from titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). The morphology, surface charge and particle size of obtained composite particles were studied.

Findings

Dispersions of well‐dispersed composite particles, having silica cores of uniform size in the range from 300 to 500 nm with a homogeneous titania coating are obtained. The coating thickness corresponded to 150‐400 per cent by weight of titania based on the core. Modification of the silica core by incorporation of 1.5 aluminosilicate sites per square nanometre of core surface proves to be favourable in achieving a homogeneous coating on the silica core. Deposition of such titania coating is also favoured by agitating the dispersion well, keeping electrolyte content low, maintaining pH at 2.0 and the temperature at 75°C during the coating process.

Research limitations/implications

Only TiCl4 is used as titania source. In addition, only silica cores obtained by Stöber synthesis are used while commercially available silica solutions made from sodium silicate are not used.

Practical implications

The process offers a method of producing a white composite pigment with a narrow particle size distribution in order to maximise light scattering as well as using a core with lower density than the shell. This kind of particle would be of interest for coating applications and white inorganic inks.

Originality/value

The developed method provides a straightforward process to produce well‐defined composite particles.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Richard A. Wright and J. Mitchell Miller

Although numerous studies recently have appeared that identify the most‐cited scholars and works in the general criminology and criminal justice literature and in several…

Abstract

Although numerous studies recently have appeared that identify the most‐cited scholars and works in the general criminology and criminal justice literature and in several specialty areas, no previous citation study has specifically examined the police studies literature. Through an analysis of 370 articles and research notes appearing from 1991 to 1995 in the areas of police studies, published in Criminology, Justice Quarterly, and four academic periodicals devoted to police studies, we list the 50 most‐cited scholars and the 36 most‐cited works. The lists of the most‐cited scholars and works in the specialty area of police studies are compared to general lists taken from leading criminology and criminal justice journals and introductory textbooks. We conclude with some thoughts about the relevance of citation analysis to specialists in police studies.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

In the matter of food purity and control Hospital Catering Services have been outside the law, a privileged position where the general law of food and drugs have never…

Abstract

In the matter of food purity and control Hospital Catering Services have been outside the law, a privileged position where the general law of food and drugs have never applied and the modern regulatory control in food hygiene has similarly not applied. In the eyes of the general public hospital catering standards have always been high above the general run of food preparation. As the NHS continued, complaints began gradually to seep out of the closed community, of dirt in the kitchens and prevalent hygiene malpractices. The general standard for most hospitals remained high but there were no means of dealing with the small minority of complaints which disgusted patients and non‐cater‐ing staff, such as insect and rodent infestations, and an increase in the frequency of food poisoning outbreaks.

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British Food Journal, vol. 88 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

Susan A. MacManus

Government’s e-procurement system has not caught on as rapidly as has e-Bay! This article examines the slow implementation rate of public e-procurement systems. It…

Abstract

Government’s e-procurement system has not caught on as rapidly as has e-Bay! This article examines the slow implementation rate of public e-procurement systems. It challenges the notion that efficiency gains alone can entice governments to leave traditional procurement systems and principles behind. Four traditional procurement principles are reexamined to see whether they are deterrents to e-commerce: (1) low bid wins and that’s a must; (2) separation between the vendor and user is desirable to avoid claims of favoritism; (3) fixed price and fixed term contracts are best for government; and (4) open access is absolutely imperative in all situations. The jury is still out as to whether the new commerce is contingent upon a reformulation of these principles.

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Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1975

Consumer belt‐tightening is by no means reflected in the business gifts industry where manufacturers report buoyant demand. But with less cash around, the emphasis is on…

Abstract

Consumer belt‐tightening is by no means reflected in the business gifts industry where manufacturers report buoyant demand. But with less cash around, the emphasis is on presents that look more expensive than they actually cost.

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Industrial Management, vol. 75 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-6929

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Ahmed Riahi‐Belkaoui

This paper examines how accounting quality, as measured by earnings opacity, affects the stock market wealth effect, which in turn is shown to be linked to economic…

Abstract

This paper examines how accounting quality, as measured by earnings opacity, affects the stock market wealth effect, which in turn is shown to be linked to economic growth. Stock market wealth effect is negatively affected by earnings opacity. The data also indicate that the exogenous component of the stock market wealth effect — the component defined by earnings opacity‐ is positively associated with economic growth. The direct effect of earnings opacity on economic growth is, as expected negative, but insignificant.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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