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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Peter Fuchs

The purpose of this paper is to implement the idea of the sphere on systems theory (type: Niklas Luhmann) and to test whether this theory can be used to gain a sharper approach to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to implement the idea of the sphere on systems theory (type: Niklas Luhmann) and to test whether this theory can be used to gain a sharper approach to the complex of ideas of the sphere. The main theme is “the conceptual blurriness of the word sphere.” This essay analyzes the societal and historical semantics of the concept of sphere and nearby notions in the thought traditions in medieval society until the modern, i.e. the functionally differentiated society. Nearby notions as limitationality and boundary are discussed, as well as sphere as a “lexicalized metaphor.” At the end, the paper turns to the concept of sphere in modern society that is based on the distinction “public/private” and applies the discussion to the system of mass media.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper can be classified as a “conceptual essay” that draws on basic systems theoretical concepts.

Findings

The result of the theoretical considerations is that the word “sphere” represents nothing more than a “catchword” and can hardly lay the groundwork for empirical and theoretical research that would be instructive with regard to the new media and their massive influence on society.

Originality/value

This paper was researched and written solely by the author. All sources are clearly identified.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Klaus Weiermair

The paper attempts to answer the question as to the determinants of the typical size configuration of firms in Central Europe's hospitality industry. In discussing the…

Abstract

The paper attempts to answer the question as to the determinants of the typical size configuration of firms in Central Europe's hospitality industry. In discussing the historically fragmented character of hospitality and tourism and the associated conduct and performance characters of this industry, the paper presents different possible growth scenarios and/or possibilities for the hotel accommodation sector including internationalisation. In the concluding section of the paper the consequences of the twin forces ofglobalisation and heightened competition and a quickened pace of technological change are analyzed with respect to the industry's pattern of growth and development.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 56 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Abstract

Details

George Spencer Brown's “Design with the NOR”: With Related Essays
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-611-5

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2015

Matthias Fuchs, Peter Fredman and Dimitri Ioannides

This chapter offers an experience-based report about the development of the first Scandinavian PhD program in tourism studies at Mid-Sweden University. This process is documented…

Abstract

This chapter offers an experience-based report about the development of the first Scandinavian PhD program in tourism studies at Mid-Sweden University. This process is documented through a framework which, rather than having the coherence of a single clearly bounded discipline, focuses on tourism as a study area encompassing multiple disciplines. Tourism knowledge is derived through a synthesis of fact-oriented positivist methodologies and critical theory. The theoretical framework employed to develop the graduate program in tourism studies is presented by critically discussing its multidisciplinary base and briefly outlining future veins of further development.

Details

Tourism Education: Global Issues and Trends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-997-3

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Protest Technologies and Media Revolutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-647-4

Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Santiago Gabriel Calise

The purpose of this chapter is to explore, analyze, and compare the different solutions that Luhmann has provided throughout his work to the problem of the psychic element. We…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to explore, analyze, and compare the different solutions that Luhmann has provided throughout his work to the problem of the psychic element. We depart from the construction of a corpus of texts that includes most of the Luhmann's published production. They are chronologically analyzed to observe the evolution and changes. The categories of this analysis are divided according to the two distinct periods of Luhmann's production. For the preautopoietic writings, we looked at system/environment as inside/outside the system, and selectivity as the difference between process and system. In the autopoietic writings, we analyzed operation and selection, medium and form, operation and observation, structural coupling and operational closure, and differentiation. The chapter shows how, from an initial superposition of concepts, Luhmann distinguished the personal aspect (a structural trait) from the operation of the system. Then, the problem becomes how to unify all the capacities of consciousness under a single operation. We individualize the two main hypotheses and their shortcomings. This also includes the discussion of the possibility of differentiation of consciousness. The chapter avoids discussing single texts or temporally limited concepts. Instead, it discusses the problem throughout the complete work of Luhmann. As a result, it identifies the distinct hypotheses, their changes, and their weaknesses, offering a systematic study of the theme.

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2015

David J. Connor

This chapter focuses on the critical work of Dorothy Lipsky and Alan Gartner’s Inclusion and School Reform: Transforming America’s Classrooms, specifically through their 1987…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the critical work of Dorothy Lipsky and Alan Gartner’s Inclusion and School Reform: Transforming America’s Classrooms, specifically through their 1987 piece, Beyond Special Education: Toward a Quality System for All Students. The chapter explores the five broad, interrelated areas of: (1) The Separate Special Education System; (2) Inclusive Education; (3) School Restructuring; (4) The Reform of Education and the Remaking of American Society; and (5) Amplification of Inclusion Issues. The chapter shows how the work of Lipsky and Gartner examines each theme in a discrete way whilst also showing how they are interrelated, analogous to jigsaw pieces that ultimately create a more comprehensive analysis of inclusive education scholarship and practice.

Details

Foundations of Inclusive Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-416-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Peter Filipp Fuchs, Klaus Fellner and Gerald Pinter

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in a finite element simulation, the failure of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB), exposed to an impact load, to better evaluate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in a finite element simulation, the failure of a multilayer printed circuit board (PCB), exposed to an impact load, to better evaluate the reliability and lifetime. Thereby the focus was set on failures in the outermost epoxy layer.

Design/methodology/approach

The fracture behaviour of the affected material was characterized. The parameters of a cohesive zone law were determined by performing a double cantilever beam test and a corresponding simulation. The cohesive zone law was used in an enriched finite element local simulation model to predict the crack initiation and crack propagation. Using the determined location of the initial crack, the energy release rate at the crack tip was calculated, allowing an evaluation of the local loading situation.

Findings

A good concurrence between the simulated and the experimentally observed failure pattern was observed. Calculating the energy release rate of two example PCBs, the significant influence of the chosen type on the local failure behaviour was proven.

Originality/value

The work presented in this paper allows for the simulation and evaluation of failure in the outermost epoxy layers of printed circuit boards due to impact loads.

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Klaus Weiermair

The paper is concerned with the tourism industry's increased demand for better educated and/or trained manpower and the general requirements of higher levels of know‐how on…

Abstract

The paper is concerned with the tourism industry's increased demand for better educated and/or trained manpower and the general requirements of higher levels of know‐how on account of secular changes in the demand for higher quality tourism products, technological changes and a more competitive global environment. After discussing the general patterns of skill and know‐how acquisition in tourism in the context of today's labour markets and tourism schooling/training systems the paper speculates on possible causes for know‐how deficits assumed to be particularly prevalent in alpine tourism (section II and III). Following this section IV reports on qualification and know‐how deficits on the basis of a self‐assessment survey carried out among 144 tourism enterprises comprising the typical tourism value chain of alpine tourism. Conclusions are drawn up in V.

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Mike Peters

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the leadership skills and entrepreneur's or owner/manager's ability to motivate apprentices and other young employees. Specifically, the…

8851

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the leadership skills and entrepreneur's or owner/manager's ability to motivate apprentices and other young employees. Specifically, the artical investigates young employees' perceptions about leadership and motivational behaviour in small‐ and medium‐sized hotels.

Design/methodology/approach

The first part of the paper provides a literature review of entrepreneurial skills in general and human resource management in particular. The second part presents a survey that was carried out in 2003 in the Alpine region of South Tyrol to assess apprentices' evaluation of entrepreneurial leadership behaviour in small‐ and medium‐sized hotels.

Findings

The findings show that entrepreneurs in small‐ and medium‐sized hotels cannot meet young employees' job expectations – difficulties in communication and planning as well as low motivation and insufficient career options are mentioned as core problems in tourism enterprises.

Research limitations/implications

It is argued that some stakeholder groups within an enterprise, such as young trainees or apprentices, might have deeper insights into entrepreneurial processes and leadership skills. However, more research is needed to support these findings as the study is limited by its sample size and focus on the Alpine region of South‐Tyrol, Italy.

Practical implications

The results suggest that entrepreneurs should establish better motivational structures within their enterprises. In particular, they must consider that the development of career paths is a very important instrument in motivating young apprentices to work in the tourism industry.

Originality/value

This paper investigates the main characteristics of small business entrepreneurs in tourism and reports associated skills in the management of human resources. This paper also presents a survey that was carried out in 2003 to assess the evaluation of trainees of leadership behaviour in small‐ and medium‐sized tourism enterprises (SMTEs).

Details

Education + Training, vol. 47 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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