The purpose of this paper is to account for, and conceptualize, the internal and external forces that influence higher education business schools as they strive to…
The purpose of this paper is to account for, and conceptualize, the internal and external forces that influence higher education business schools as they strive to integrate sustainability issues into their curricula in the effort to achieve a more sustainable (yet capitalist) world.
A case study approach is used for the research, which is grounded in the relevant literature, to investigate sustainable development issues in the context of a Swedish business school (university level). The empirical data consists of a review of internal documents plus e-mail surveys and interviews and discussion seminars with university teachers/researchers and key administrators.
Two tentative models are presented that map the various internal and external forces behind business schools’ curriculum change. One important finding describes how supply and demand influences business schools and recruiters of business students.
Because this research is based on a single case study, the analysis and the mapping in the paper are somewhat limited in their general applicability. However, the research context of the business school permits drawing conclusions that may apply to a broad class of colleges or departments in higher education. In addition, because the research is supported by significant ideas from the literature, general inferences may be drawn about business school curricula.
The two tentative models provide a holistic framework that adds to the understanding of the composition and interrelationship of influential forces on business schools when major changes in curricula and their management are contemplated.
The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the association between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the development of carer…
The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the association between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the development of carer burden. Although this association has been well established in the literature, it is not clear whether there are individual symptoms or clusters of symptoms that are particularly burdensome for carers.
A systematic review of the available literature was carried out to determine whether any specific symptom or cluster of symptoms was most closely associated with carer burden. In addition, the categorisation of behavioural symptoms, conceptualisations of burden and methods of measurement used were examined and quality of the studies appraised.
A total of 21 studies measured the association between at least one individual symptom or symptom cluster and carer burden, with all studies finding at least one symptom to be significantly associated with burden. The majority of studies were of fair to good quality. However, there was considerable heterogeneity in focus, analysis, recruitment and measurement of behaviour and burden.
Symptoms, which were found to be significantly associated with carer burden, were aggression/agitation, frontal systems behaviour, disinhibition, disrupted eating and sleeping behaviour, unusual motor behaviour, anxiety and psychotic symptoms. However, because of the heterogeneity of studies, there was insufficient evidence to establish whether any symptoms are more important than others in the development of carer burden. Future focus on clarifying the dimensions of carer burden and the mechanisms by which BPSD impact negatively on carers could inform the development of effective interventions.