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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Nigel Hemmington, Peter Beomcheol Kim and Cindie Wang

Importance-performance analysis (IPA) is an effective tool for firms to prioritise service quality attributes, but has limitations in evaluating and enhancing service…

Abstract

Purpose

Importance-performance analysis (IPA) is an effective tool for firms to prioritise service quality attributes, but has limitations in evaluating and enhancing service quality within a competitive environment. The purpose of this paper is to present an evolved model of IPA – importance-performance benchmark vectors (IPBV) – as a benchmarking tool and investigate its applicability in the context of hotel service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical studies based on self-completion survey data from 150 customers of two full-service hotels in Taiwan were conducted in to examine the practical utility of IPBV.

Findings

Eight key benchmark typologies were identified and expressed as vectors in the IPBV model which are as follows: “sustainable advantage”, “potential strength”, “false advantage or outstanding advantage”, “cease-fire competition”, “false disadvantage or on-hand disadvantage”, “potential weakness”, “dangerous warning” and “head-on competition”.

Research limitations/implications

The paper extends the methodology to more cases, and other service industries to test further the discriminatory power of the model and to explore the descriptors in the IPBV vector model. Alternative seven-point or nine-point Likert scales could be explored to test the discriminant validity using means. The alternative IPA diagonal approach focussing on GAP analysis may reveal alternative interpretations for the IPBV vector model. Other extended models of IPA, which include competitor analysis, should be compared in practice using a data set where both quantitative and qualitative data could be generated.

Practical implications

The paper proposes the two-dimensional IPBV model which retains the advantages of IPA, but also includes competitor or benchmark comparisons which enable organisations to analyse their relative competitive position. The two-part model provides both quantitative information and qualitative interpretation of relativities. The graphical matrix models provide simple quantitative analysis of attributes, whilst the IPBV vector model provides qualitative interpretations of the eight competitive market positions. Vector analysis enables the development of competitive strategies relative to benchmarks, or within a competitive set. Importance is retained and means that organisations can benchmark against a range of competitors prioritising specific attributes for resource allocation.

Social implications

The interpretive utility of the model should be explored with practitioners and decision makers in the service industries. The model has been designed for practical use in industry to inform operational and strategic decision making, its usefulness in practice should be explored and the attitudes of practitioners to the model should be tested.

Originality/value

Traditional approaches to benchmarking have adopted a one-dimensional approach that does not include a measure of the relative importance of the service quality dimensions in specific markets. This research develops a two-dimensional advanced model of IPA, called IPBV, which is based on vector relationships between key attributes of service quality. These vectors are explored and described in competitive terms and the model is discussed with regard to its implications for industry, practitioners and researchers.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Peter Beomcheol Kim, Gyumin Lee and Jichul Jang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a research model of employee empowerment along with its contextual determinants (i.e. leader-member exchange (LMX) and schedule…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a research model of employee empowerment along with its contextual determinants (i.e. leader-member exchange (LMX) and schedule flexibility) and primary consequence (i.e. service performance) for restaurant workers in New Zealand and South Korea. The study further examines a moderating role of national differences derived from the power distance theory for the hypothesized paths between empowerment and its determinants and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized traditional paper-and-pencil surveys for data collection. A final sample of 303 service employees from restaurants in New Zealand (n=152) and South Korea (n=151) was used to test research hypotheses by structural equation modeling using LISREL (version 8.80).

Findings

The study concludes with two core findings supporting research hypotheses. First, as hypothesized, employees who consider their schedule flexible with high LMX quality with their immediate supervisor are more likely to feel empowered, and empowered workers are more likely to perform well in customer services. Furthermore, the results show that the impact of schedule flexibility and LMX on empowerment and the impact of empowerment on service performance are more salient among South Korean employees than their New Zealand counterpart.

Originality/value

Based on job characteristics, work adjustment, and social exchange theories, this study develops and tests a research model of employee empowerment including service context-relevant determinants, i.e., schedule flexibility and LMX, as well as a crucial work outcome, i.e., service performance, using two different national samples. The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge in understanding the organizational dynamic of employee empowerment in the service industry, suggesting that managers incorporate relevant contextual practices to promote empowerment, which ultimately enhances employees’ service performance. It is also recommended that such practices are carefully implemented, taking into consideration the cultural background of the workforce.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Peter BeomCheol Kim and Kevin D. Carlson

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether agreement between frontline employee self-ratings and supervisory ratings of service performance functions as an indicator…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether agreement between frontline employee self-ratings and supervisory ratings of service performance functions as an indicator of healthy supervisor-subordination relationships above and beyond what might be indicated simply by either supervisory ratings or self-ratings.

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses were tested using a sample of 220 matched pairs of frontline service workers and their immediate supervisors from nine full service hotels in the USA.

Findings

The results show that higher levels of agreement in service performance ratings between employees and supervisors is associated with higher levels of leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational commitment.

Practical implications

Senior managers can refer to the level of performance rating agreement between customer service employees and their supervisors in assessing supervisors’ competency to manage their work relationship with their subordinates.

Originality/value

This study examined rating agreement in a service performance context and found rating agreement between subordinates and their supervisor may have a unique effect on service worker effectiveness, producing a unique incremental effect on LMX and organizational commitment. This is important given that few attempts have been made to examine service performance from both subordinates’ and supervisors’ perspectives and the implication that rating agreement may have for improving employee service performance.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Lerzan Aksoy, Linda Alkire (née Nasr), Sunmee Choi, Peter Beomcheol Kim and Lu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for guiding social innovation in service (SIS), defined as the creation of novel, scalable and sustainable market based…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for guiding social innovation in service (SIS), defined as the creation of novel, scalable and sustainable market based service offerings that solve systemic societal problems.

Design/methodology/approach

This research provides a review and synthesis of transdisciplinary literatures to establish a basis for the conceptual framework proposed for SIS.

Findings

It is argued that the primary unit of an SIS is the service firm and that there are micro-, meso-, and macro-level actors and enablers in the ecosystem that can help bring about SIS. Examples from the hospitality and tourism industry are used to demonstrate key points.

Practical implications

Benefits of an SIS to companies include growth through new markets and innovative value offerings, sustainable supply chains in production, building consumer value and trust in the company/brand, attracting and retaining talent and being proactive in including social and environmental measures of success in customer metrics and company financial reporting.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the social innovation and service literature by: offering a new, scientifically supported view of an SIS; providing managers with a framework to guide social innovation within their service firm and for the benefit of their company and its stakeholders; and directing service scholars to research issues necessary to advance SIS.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Mahesh Subramony, David Solnet, Markus Groth, Dana Yagil, Nicole Hartley, Peter Beomcheol Kim and Maria Golubovskaya

The purpose of this paper is to explore the changing nature of the relationship between service workers and their work arrangements. Building upon classical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the changing nature of the relationship between service workers and their work arrangements. Building upon classical and contemporary management theories and examining current trends and disruptions in employment relationships, it proposes a dynamic and relational model applicable to the management of service work in future decades (notionally in the year 2050).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces and develops the concept of worker–ecosystem relationship as a core construct to describe the participation and productivity of workers in the significantly transformed work environment of 2050.

Findings

This paper argues that in work ecosystems – defined as relatively self-contained and self-adjusting systems – work arrangements will evolve toward less-clearly defined employment relationships characterized by long-term social contracts, tightly defined work roles and physical proximity of workers and organizations.

Originality/value

A novel yet theoretically rooted construct of work ecosystems is introduced, using this new lens to predict changes in the nature of service work in 2050.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

BeomCheol (Peter) Kim, Erwin Losekoot and Simon Milne

This study seeks to investigate the impact of empowerment on both organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and average check size per customer for individual restaurant…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to investigate the impact of empowerment on both organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and average check size per customer for individual restaurant servers in the United States.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical study was designed by using three different sources of information: employees' self‐reports, supervisor‐ratings and system‐generated productivity indexes. The study obtained a final sample of 108 servers who are in charge of table services such as order‐taking and delivering food with a point of sales (POS) system.

Findings

The results demonstrate that influence, a dimension of empowerment, has a positive effect on supervisor‐rated OCB whereas attitude, the other dimension of empowerment, has a positive impact on average check size per customer. In addition, OCB appears to be negatively related to average check size per customer.

Practical implications

The findings are important given that few studies have examined the impact of empowerment on organizationally meaningful outcomes since past empowerment studies predominantly related empowerment to attitudinal and/or behavioral outcomes measured by self‐reports. The relationship between two consequences of empowerment raises a managerial issue. Given that OCB has a negative relationship with an individual's average check size, it would be problematic to reward servers individually solely based on objective indicators of performance.

Originality/value

This study presents empirical evidence that empowered employees are more likely to demonstrate helping behaviors and generate larger check sizes.

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Vincent P. Magnini, Gyumin Lee and BeomCheol (Peter) Kim

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model in which exercise, mediated by emotional intelligence and trust, can result in increased job satisfaction and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and test a model in which exercise, mediated by emotional intelligence and trust, can result in increased job satisfaction and organizational commitment of frontline hotel workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected from a judgment sample of frontline workers at nine full‐service hotels in South Korea. A total of 210 questionnaires were retrieved.

Findings

This study finds that: frequent exercise among hotel workers leads to higher levels of emotional intelligence among them; this emotional intelligence then spawns increased cognition‐based trust in their managers, affect‐based trust in their managers, and overall job satisfaction; the heightened level of cognition‐based trust also has a direct path to overall job satisfaction; and overall job satisfaction results in bolstered organizational commitment.

Research limitations/implications

It could prove informative for future research to investigate the relationships between these constructs in different contexts and settings.

Practical implications

Regarding exercise, those working in the hotel business should be encouraged to make fitness activities part of their lifestyles. In terms of emotional intelligence, this trait should be gauged in the selection process and can also be developed through on‐going training efforts. With respect to associate/manager trust, managers are advised to continually demonstrate “evidence of trustworthiness”.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine the consequences of exercise among hotel workers. The cascading effects found in this study hold practical value for hoteliers.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Vincent P. Magnini, Sunghyup (Sean) Hyun, BeomCheol (Peter) Kim and Muzaffer Uysal

The purpose of this paper is to test whether a hospitality worker's degree of individualism/collectivism influences his/her organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test whether a hospitality worker's degree of individualism/collectivism influences his/her organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), comfort with empowerment, and leader‐member exchange (LMX) in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested through the use of a sentence completion experiment conducted on American and Korean hotel workers. To increase generalizability, results were then replicated through the use of an identical sentence completion experiment conducted on American and Korean restaurant workers.

Findings

This research first confirms the notion that hospitality workers in a collective nation are more apt to possess a collective mindset in their work environments than those in an individualistic nation. Moreover, this research finds that hospitality workers in a collective nation demonstrate more OCB, possess lower comfort levels with empowerment, and possess higher levels of LMX than hospitality workers in an individualistic nation.

Research limitations/implications

It would prove informative for future research to test these relationships in other contexts and settings.

Practical implications

These findings demonstrate the need to consider country culture when interpreting and managing OCB, employee empowerment, and LMX tendencies in hospitality settings.

Originality/value

Research that examines the influences of individualism/collectivism on OCB, comfort with empowerment, and LMX is scarce.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Gabriel Gazzoli, Murat Hancer and BeomCheol (Peter) Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine why employee‐level customer orientation (CO) influences the customer experience in a service setting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why employee‐level customer orientation (CO) influences the customer experience in a service setting.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the dyadic nature of the study, a two‐way sample design was used which integrated employee responses with customer responses. A total of 186 employees and 1,117 customers participated in the study. The data was aggregated at the employee level of analysis.

Findings

The study found that job satisfaction and employee commitment mediated the relationship between employee‐level CO and a customer's perception of interaction quality. Additionally, interaction quality is shown to be positively related to customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Although the design of the research utilized data from both customers and employees from several restaurant outlets in the USA, all the restaurants belonged to one chain (reflecting a single corporate culture), and thus it may be difficult to generalize the results.

Originality/value

This study extends the CO theory by explaining how and why CO affects a customer's perceptions from an organizational behavior (OB) perspective, with job satisfaction and organizational commitment as mediators. This is important as the few studies that attempted to explain the effect of CO on customers' experience through mediating variables took a marketing perspective instead of an OB view. Practically, this research highlights the important role that human resource management may have from the interactive marketing perspective.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

Fevzi Okumus

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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