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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Peter Barnes

A new development which has emerged from this Department marks the beginning of an expansion into other foods besides cereals. It also marks the beginning of the wider use of…

Abstract

A new development which has emerged from this Department marks the beginning of an expansion into other foods besides cereals. It also marks the beginning of the wider use of fluorescence in monitoring and controlling food processing.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 86 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1984

Peter Barnes

Cereal grains contain relatively small quantities of lipids, usually from 2 to 6%, but these lipids are, nevertheless, important constituents of the grain and grain products. They…

Abstract

Cereal grains contain relatively small quantities of lipids, usually from 2 to 6%, but these lipids are, nevertheless, important constituents of the grain and grain products. They consist mainly of oily triglycerides together with phospholipids and glycolipids (fatty materials containing phosphorus and sugars respectively) and influence the performance of wheat flour in breadmaking, the flavour of oatmeal, the colour of pasta and the storage stability of cereals. The fatty acids in the cereal lipids are mostly polyunsaturated, which is good news in terms of nutrition but a problem during storage; oxidation of the polyunsaturated acids can lead to off‐flavours.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 84 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Peter Barnes

The domestication of grasses took place some 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Strains were gradually selected whose seeds remained attached to the fruiting head long enough for the crop…

Abstract

The domestication of grasses took place some 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Strains were gradually selected whose seeds remained attached to the fruiting head long enough for the crop to be harvested and these strains gave rise to the wheat and barley we know today. Wheat grain was ground between stones to a coarse flour and as early as the Roman period sieves were used to separate bran from the fine flour to allow a more palatable bread to be baked. Even when advanced to the watermill and windmill, stone‐grinding still left a proportion of the germ in the flour in a powdered state. We now know that this flour must have stored badly, soon gone rancid and lost its baking qualities due to the presence of oil from the fine particles of raw germ. With the advent of the roller‐mill in the nineteenth century came the possibility of removing the intact germ to produce a stable flour and to yield wheat germ which could be stabilised, safely stored and used in its own right as a nutritious food. The purpose of this article is to discuss the nature, source, applications and composition of wheat germ and in particular its nutritional value.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 80 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Peter J. Barnes

Examines the health hazards presented by fraud in the food and drinks industry, and provides examples involving factors such as counterfeiting, re‐labelling and substitution of…

1460

Abstract

Examines the health hazards presented by fraud in the food and drinks industry, and provides examples involving factors such as counterfeiting, re‐labelling and substitution of inferior ingredients. Gives detailed information relating to impure olive oil in the USA and toxic rapeseed in Spain. Considers advances in methodology for detection of adulteration and methods for the prevention of fraud and adulteration. Notes the systems put in place by Nestlé and J. Sainsbury plc. Concludes that the competition between fraudsters and the food and drinks industry is likely to increase in the future, especially as the threat to consumer safety becomes more apparent.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1979

Peter Barnes

Developments in minicomputer power have introduced into education and training what amounts to a new computer era. Whereas once the large‐scale data processing mainframe computer…

Abstract

Developments in minicomputer power have introduced into education and training what amounts to a new computer era. Whereas once the large‐scale data processing mainframe computer was typical of the bigger educational institutions such as universities and polytechnics, today more and more smaller establishments such as comprehensive schools, public schools, and training colleges are in the market for their own in‐house installation as more and more mini‐based computer systems fall within educational budgets.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

Mason Gaffney

A tax based on land value is in many ways ideal, but many economists dismiss it by assuming it could not raise enough revenue. Standard sources of data omit much of the potential…

4069

Abstract

Purpose

A tax based on land value is in many ways ideal, but many economists dismiss it by assuming it could not raise enough revenue. Standard sources of data omit much of the potential tax base, and undervalue what they do measure. The purpose of this paper is to present more comprehensive and accurate measures of land rents and values, and several modes of raising revenues from them besides the conventional property tax.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies 16 elements of land's taxable capacity that received authorities either trivialize or omit. These 16 elements come in four groups.

Findings

In Group A, Elements 1‐4 correct for the downward bias in standard sources. In Group B, Elements 5‐10 broaden the concepts of land and rent beyond the conventional narrow perception, while Elements 11‐12 estimate rents to be gained by abating other kinds of taxes. In Group C, Elements 13‐14 explain how using the land tax, since it has no excess burden, uncaps feasible tax rates. In Group D, Elements 15‐16 define some moot possibilities that may warrant further exploration.

Originality/value

This paper shows how previous estimates of rent and land values have been narrowly limited to a fraction of the whole, thus giving a false impression that the tax capacity is low. The paper adds 14 elements to the traditional narrow “single tax” base, plus two moot elements advanced for future consideration. Any one of these 16 elements indicates a much higher land tax base than economists commonly recognize today. Taken together they are overwhelming, and cast an entirely new light on this subject.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Abstract

Details

One Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-784-1

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Emese Peter Fáyné

The absorption of the New Member States (NMS) after the 2004 enlargement and their integration into Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is perhaps the most important challenge…

Abstract

Purpose

The absorption of the New Member States (NMS) after the 2004 enlargement and their integration into Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) is perhaps the most important challenge facing the European Union (EU). The article seeks to address the issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The article is based upon observations of contemporary events within Hungary and relates the political process with issues of fiscal governance.

Findings

The NMS of the EU, unlike Great Britain and Denmark will not have an “opt‐out” – the right to remain outside EMU. Indeed, the NMS have declared that they want to join the monetary system as soon as is feasible. This is the next major step in the integration process for Hungary. In particular, the article observes that there has been an electoral business cycle which overrides Hungary's longer term commitment to qualify for EMU and provides an insight into the process of achieving EMU membership in one NMS.

Originality/value

The article discusses how Hungary has elaborated its strategy for entry into EMU, but the target date has been changed mainly because of the problems of significant budget deficits. This inability to maintain consistent progress towards entry indicates that there are issues of fiscal governance which need to be resolved.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1975

Those who move among the people with their eyes open will not doubt that the number of non‐smokers is increasing, but mostly among older adults. Sales of cigarettes, despite the…

Abstract

Those who move among the people with their eyes open will not doubt that the number of non‐smokers is increasing, but mostly among older adults. Sales of cigarettes, despite the ban on advertising and the grim warning printed on packets, do not reflect this however, which can only mean that those who still smoke are the heavy smokers. This is a bad sign; as is the fact that youngsters, including a high percentage of those at school, openly flaunt the habit. The offence of using tobacco or any other smoking mixture or snuff while handling food or in any food room in which there is open food (Reg. 10(e)), remains one of the common causes of prosecutions under the Food Hygiene Regulations; it has not diminished over the years. The commonest offenders are men and especially those in the butchery trade, fishmongers and stall‐holders, but, here again, to those who move around, the habit seems fairely widespread. Parts of cigarettes continue to be a common finding especially in bread and flour confectionery, but also in fresh meat, indicating that an offence has been committed, and only a few of the offenders end up in court. Our purpose in returning to the subject of smoking, however, is not to relate it to food hygiene but to discuss measures of control being suggested by the Government now that advertising bans and printed health warnings have patently failed to achieve their object.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 77 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1984

“Consumerism”, for want of a better description, is given to the mass of statutory control (which shows no sign of declining) of standards, trading justice to the consumer, means…

Abstract

“Consumerism”, for want of a better description, is given to the mass of statutory control (which shows no sign of declining) of standards, trading justice to the consumer, means of redress to those who have been misled and defrauded, advice to those in doubt; and to the widespread movement, mostly in the Western world, to achieve these ends.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 86 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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