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The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on pertussis immunisations among the Asian population.
A systematic review was carried out using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The review performed searches using the keywords: immun*, vaccine* AND whooping cough or Bordetella pertussis OR B pertussis AND Asia*. The search was conducted on four electronic databases, namely, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
In total, 13 studies of relevance were included in the review after screening 206 articles. The studies were categorised into three literature sections which were: epidemiology of pertussis, vaccine effectiveness studies in Asia and strategies aimed to increase uptake of immunisations against pertussis.
Due to financial constraints, the authors only had access to articles published in the English language and full text articles which may limit the generalisability of the review.
The review is useful in providing insight into the general trends of pertussis immunisations among Asians and in aiding future research in this area.
Relational autonomy proposes that persons are socially embedded, with decisions being made within social relationships. Through this theoretical lens, this article…
Relational autonomy proposes that persons are socially embedded, with decisions being made within social relationships. Through this theoretical lens, this article explores how the healthcare professional–patient relationship can affect pregnant women’s decisions to accept pertussis and influenza vaccines.
Hackney was chosen as the study site as it has very low vaccine uptake rates. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant and recently pregnant women, as well as 10 healthcare professionals. Interviews explored experiences of the UK's National Health Service (NHS) health care and views towards vaccination in pregnancy. An observation of a consultation between a pregnant patient and her General Practitioners (GPs) was also conducted in order to understand how the vaccination discussion takes place.
The findings of this study indicate that advice from friends and family can greatly influence a pregnant woman’s vaccination decisions. The patient’s social context, including influences on her decisions, must be understood by healthcare professionals, so that discussions about concerns can take place. If close relationships with patients are formed, healthcare professional advice is more likely to be trusted. With support from healthcare professionals, patients feel competent, empowered to make the right decision for them, and are more likely to vaccinate.
This research will help to inform contextualised policies aimed at increasing vaccination acceptance and reducing inequality in access to vaccination during pregnancy in Hackney.
To the author’s knowledge, this chapter is the first to apply the theory of relational autonomy to views towards maternal vaccination and decision making. It provides valuable insights into how healthcare professionals’ interactions with their pregnant patients can influence vaccination acceptance. The chapter contains advice on how both healthcare professionals and policy-makers can include mothers in vaccine decision-making processes in more personalised ways, by adopting a dialogue that appreciates and understands the social processes around vaccination concerns.
Immunization is a key primary prevention activity which hasassisted in the reduction of childhood morbidity and prematuremortality. Uptake rates for two‐year‐old children…
Immunization is a key primary prevention activity which has assisted in the reduction of childhood morbidity and premature mortality. Uptake rates for two‐year‐old children are now in excess of 90 per cent throughout the UK and for the vast majority of infants immunization is a routine procedure with a high benefit‐to‐risk ratio. Concerns about particular children, either because of their previous medical history or an adverse vaccine event, have been responded to in various ways. The experiences of a specialist immunization facility established in 1987, which since inception has seen just over 3,000 children are described. The clinic operates four sessions a week, with two held in the District General Hospital and two in community clinics; the resource requirements for the clinic are identified. A parent satisfaction survey for the first 1,700 attenders was undertaken in 1992 and the results are reported; their comments led to changes in the method of service delivery. A study of GPs′ views was also undertaken at the same time; their satisfaction with the service is reflected in the continuing level of referrals. It is believed that all provider units should consider developing a similar facility for five reasons. First, it provides a source of expert advice for both professionals and parents; second, it facilitates the immunization of children with problem histories; third, it enables the investigation of serious post‐vaccination adverse events; and fourth, the clinic provides a means of co‐ordinating and delivering neonatal immunizations (including BCG, HBV, Varicella zoster and the vaccination of pre‐term infants). And finally the clinic offers training for health care staff involved in primary immunization programmes and travel vaccination services.
Much of the discussion surrounding the antivaccine movement focuses on the decision of parents to not vaccinate their children and the resulting danger posed to others. However, the primary risk is borne by the child left unvaccinated. Although living in a developed country with high vaccination rates provides a certain amount of protection through population immunity, the unvaccinated child is still exposed to a considerably greater risk of preventable diseases than one who is vaccinated. I explore the tension between parental choice and the child’s right to be free of preventable diseases. The chapter’s goal is twofold: to advocate for moving from a dyadic framework – considering the interests of the parents against those of the state – to a triadic one, in which the interests of the child are given as much weight as those of the parent and the state; and to discuss which protections are available, and how they can be improved. Specific legal tools available to protect that child are examined, including tort liability of the parents to the child, whether and to what degree criminal law has a role, under what circumstances parental choice should be overridden, and the role of school immunization requirements in protecting the individual child.
The purpose of this article is to assess important changes made to the vaccines used for childhood and adolescent immunisation in August 2004. These changes resulted in a…
The purpose of this article is to assess important changes made to the vaccines used for childhood and adolescent immunisation in August 2004. These changes resulted in a number of patient safety incidents.
The changes are reviewed for the way that risk assessment and risk management were used in their development. An analysis of recent claims and complaints handled by the Medical Protection Society is then used to broaden the debate.
The August 2004 changes to the childhood vaccination programme contained unnecessary and avoidable risks of patient safety incidents, which could have been avoided if existing advice had been followed. Errors continue to be seen in the administration of childhood immunisation in primary care. These are driven both by systems and human factors.
This paper will be of use to those working in primary care who wish to ensure that childhood and adolescent immunisations are carried out correctly.
The paper highlights risk‐management issues that are relevant to childhood and adolescent immunisation.
In these days of jargon and slang, to the purist it must seem that little is described by its real name, that is, during conversation. Most people refer to the city as “the smoke” and the city‐dweller's pseudonym for the country is “out in the sticks”, which, of course, could mean that “the sticks” are kindling to a fire that has not been lit, with the city “smoke” as the end‐product of the fire that is burning up those who rush hither and thither in its bedlamite streets and ugly office blocks. The cottage, the church and inn no longer completely fill the lives of the villagers; they now have piped water supplies, electricity and telephones; deep freezers, colour television and cars; they have moved closer to the city standards of comfort and convenience without losing any of the enduring qualities which make them different. And the countryman is very different to the town‐dweller—in outlook, habit and countenance. Even the villager who works in the town and city, and nowadays there are many of them, would not change his home in the country for a flat or terrace house in a mean street, despite the long journeying to and fro. At one time, it had to be a special type of girl who chose a home in these rural settings, with few or perhaps no neighbours and no corner‐shop, but now more and more are realizing that life in a village is easier on the whole family.
Payment for healthcare services in the USA has shifted from fee for service to compensation based on value and quality. The indicators used for payments are a variety of…
Payment for healthcare services in the USA has shifted from fee for service to compensation based on value and quality. The indicators used for payments are a variety of clinical measures, including administration of vaccines to patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of programs in health systems to improve vaccination rates and patient outcomes.
A search of the literature was conducted to find examples of vaccine programs in US health systems, and also to identify policies to improve immunization rates.
Successful programs for improving vaccination rates require advocacy and support of leadership, a systematic and multidisciplinary approach, and an evaluation of local resources and capacity. Numerous examples exist of medical, nursing, and pharmacy led programs that improve vaccination rates. The department in charge has relied on the support of other groups to ensure the success.
Mandatory vaccination of healthcare personnel (HCP) in the health system has been a growing trend in the USA. Although there has been some resistance to mandatory vaccinations for HCP, the standards and requirements have resulted in improved rates in health systems, which ultimately improve efficiency and protects patients.
This review describes considerations for implementing a successful vaccination program in a health system and provides examples of specific strategies. An overview of mandatory vaccinations for HCP is also described.