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The employment practices of major American companies underwent a marked transformation in the fifteen-year period dating roughly from the beginning of World War I to the…
The employment practices of major American companies underwent a marked transformation in the fifteen-year period dating roughly from the beginning of World War I to the oncoming of the Great Depression in late 1929 (Jacoby, 1985; Lescohier, 1935). At the start of World War I, the practice of personnel management was unknown in American industry. Instead, employment practices were largely informal, unscientific and administered in a decentralized, often heavy-handed and capricious manner by foremen and gang bosses. Labor was typically viewed as a commodity to be bought for as little possible and used for only as long as needed, leading to an employment relationship that was short-term and insecure. The prevailing methods of management were also highly autocratic and arbitrary, with workers expected to obey whatever orders were given and at risk of being fired for any offense real or imagined.
The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration's (CAA) new image Swedish travellers first became acquainted with CAA's new image as it was presented at all 19 airports across…
The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration's (CAA) new image Swedish travellers first became acquainted with CAA's new image as it was presented at all 19 airports across the nation in May 1997. Approximately 3,500 employees downed newly designed uniforms, working attire, protective clothing, cleaning clothes and fire‐fighting clothes. These new clothes are part of an effort to promote CAA's new image as a modern, business‐oriented and offensive concern. The new clothes will help to visually manifest CAA's development process and accentuate the continuing process of development in which CAA is engaged. The new image is definitive, classic and quality‐minded. A second reason for the change of apparel is that it is thought that well‐functioning and attractive working clothes will raise employee self‐esteem and work enjoyment.
It is commonly recognized that the transition to democracy in Korea was associated with economic progress. However, not many scholars have given attention to the role of…
It is commonly recognized that the transition to democracy in Korea was associated with economic progress. However, not many scholars have given attention to the role of bureaucracy during the process of democratization, due to the fact that bureaucracy is usually thought of as belonging to politics, not democracy. As a refutation of this general view, first, this chapter argues that bureaucracy has been an important contributor to political modernization. Since the post-1945 period, the ‘ceiling’ strategy, which limits the total number of civil servants, was introduced into the personnel management method and system of checks and balances to limit undue political influence over staffing and to control bureaucratic expansion. Second, through this strategy as policy, the bureaucracy legitimately tried to avoid undemocratic political power by standardized process and allow coordination. The ceiling policy is originally the product of historical context during colonial and authoritarian period, but the bureaucracy utilizes it as the instrument to reduce corruption. The contribution of this chapter is provoking the new insights about democratization from bureaucrat’s perspective which is rarely highlighted.
The results of a survey on personnel practicesand the way different members of an organisationperceive the personnel function are reported. Thearticle focuses on the…
The results of a survey on personnel practices and the way different members of an organisation perceive the personnel function are reported. The article focuses on the manufacturing sector, comparing personnel practices in high‐ and medium‐technology companies. The relative importance which personnel superiors, line managers and personnel managers attached to the various personnel activities is also explored. The survey was conducted in Singapore in 1988 and included 58 medium‐technology and 22 high‐technology firms. The sample of 80 firms included 60 MNCs of non‐Singaporean origin.
An outstanding example of the development of the co‐operative movement in U.S. higher education is the University Council for Educational Administration. An outgrowth of…
An outstanding example of the development of the co‐operative movement in U.S. higher education is the University Council for Educational Administration. An outgrowth of the Kellogg — C.P.E.A. program, U.C.E.A. membership now numbers 48 leading universities. The Council's mission is to improve the professional preparation of administrative personnel in education through the creation and use of new modes of university inter‐communication and co‐operation. Much attention has been paid to the development of case studies (written, taped and filmed) and simulation materials, and to the encouragement of research and the development of theory in educational administration. Present plans include the establishment of a professional journal, the establishment of an abstracting service and the promotion of communication on the international level.
The chapter furnishes empirical evidence about the extent and profiles of autonomy of EU agencies, the modalities whereby they are steered and controlled, and the…
The chapter furnishes empirical evidence about the extent and profiles of autonomy of EU agencies, the modalities whereby they are steered and controlled, and the interactions they have in EU policy networks. It thus provides the bases for a more complete picture of the EU multi-level administration.
The research is a survey-based design. A questionnaire was administered between July 2009 and April 2010 to 30 EU agencies included in the study population. The questionnaire was sent to the executive director of all the agencies included in the study. Questions were closed-ended, either in the form of multiple choices – with one answer or with check-all-that-apply and an option for ‘other’ to be filled – or in scale format. The resulting data set included ratio, interval, ordinal, and nominal scales. The reference model employed for the investigation relies on the analytical model developed within the framework of the research project COST Action IS0651 CRIPO (Comparative Research into Current Trends in Public Sector Organization – see also ‘Acknowledgements’) for the study of public agencies in Europe (Verhoest, Van Thiel, Bouckaert, & Lægreid, 2012).
EU agencies display a rather low level of managerial, especially financial, autonomy; conversely, they enjoy relatively high policy autonomy. As to the way in which multiple ‘parent’ administration steer EU agencies, it emerges a composite picture, in which the crossroads of steering and control by the parent administrations and accountability by the agency lies in the executive director. In terms of interactions within policy networks, EU agencies interact in a significant way with the European Commission, with national-level agencies in the pertinent policy field, and with specific technical bodies where they are part of the configuration of the policy sector, whilst interactions with national ministries as well as with other EU agencies are rare. No single model can capture in full the overall features of EU agencies, although the ‘community level institution’ model seems to capture a number of the profiles of these agencies.
Both the literature on EU multi-level administration and research agendas in public management can benefit from inclusion of – and in-depth empirical knowledge about – EU agencies. The chapter provides important empirical evidence to these purposes.
EU agencies are actors in European public policy-making, albeit to a varied extent depending on the sector. The extent of autonomy and the way in which they are held to account are crucial aspects for an enhanced understanding of their influence on European public policy-making, as is their location in European policy networks.
Research presented in this chapter is the first systematic empirical investigation of EU agencies encompassing networking, steering and control and autonomy of EU agencies, based on primary data.
This chapter aims to clarify the future of the HR profession in the digital age by translating and extrapolating results of recent studies in a creative way. The main…
This chapter aims to clarify the future of the HR profession in the digital age by translating and extrapolating results of recent studies in a creative way. The main question is ‘What will be the effects of digitization on the HRM profession?’
The methodological approach is threefold. A theoretical concept of digital impact on the HRM profession is constructed based on a task-based analysis of the Ulrich roles. Second, in two sessions HRM Professionals reflect on the main question and give assessments. Third, a secondary analysis is carried out on the HRM practice monitor and five hypotheses are tested (primary role of HR, time spent in an activity cluster, typification of the HRM department).
The outcomes give no clear and unequivocal picture yet. Although the theoretical concept, actual research, professional literature and consulted professionals indicate that the HRM profession is already or will soon get more strategic due to digitization, the secondary analysis of the HRM practice monitor does not confirm that tendency.
The limitations of this research comprise flaws in the HRM practice monitor, the questionable web instrument and the lack of a clear and broadly accepted definition of digitization. Follow-up research seems to be very worthwhile and has a lot of possible starting points.
This research offers a new way of looking at the HRM profession in transition by combining the Ulrich model with a task-based analysis. Furthermore the evidence is based on 4 years (2012–2015) of data collection.
This research investigates the relationship between personnel managers and other managers in the organisation. The evidence reported in this study demonstrates that personnel managers, in the main, perceived themselves to be in the forefront with other professionals in contributing to corporate success, whereas managers in sales, finance and production departments have a less impressive view of personnel managers' influence in achieving corporate goals. However, they recognised the importance of personnel managers and their functions in the organisation per se.
Provides an historical study of the intellectual thought of Leonard Dupee White. Contends that L.D. White is one of the major theorists and practitioners in public administration and is generally ignored. White taught, researched, studied and discovered theoretical concepts and practical methods that are still useful today. Examines the major themes found in White’s writings by chronologically progressing through his works and the major activities of his life. Brings to the forefront a portion of public administrations’ neglected intellectual heritage and makes it useful for the present.