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Article

Erum Ishaq, Usman Raja, Dave Bouckenooghe and Sajid Bashir

Using signaling theory and the literature on psychological contracts, the authors investigate how leaders' personalities shape their followers' perceptions of the type of…

Abstract

Purpose

Using signaling theory and the literature on psychological contracts, the authors investigate how leaders' personalities shape their followers' perceptions of the type of psychological contract formed. They also suggest that leaders' personalities impact their followers' perceived contract breach. Furthermore, the authors propose that power distance orientation in organizations acts as an important boundary condition that enhances or exacerbates the relationships between personality and contract type and personality and perceived breach.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through multiple sources in Pakistan from 456 employees employed in 102 bank branches. Multilevel moderated path analyses provided reasonably good support for our hypotheses.

Findings

The leaders' personalities impacted the relational contracts of their followers in the cases of extraversion and agreeableness, whereas neuroticism had a significant relationship with the followers' formation of transactional contracts. Similarly, agreeableness, neuroticism and conscientiousness had significant relationships with perceived breach. Finally, the power distance of the followers aggregated at a group level moderated the personality-contract type and personality-perceived breach relationships.

Research limitations/implications

This research advances understanding of psychological contracts in organizations. More specifically, it shows that the personality of leader would have profound impact on the type of contract their employees form and the likelihood that would perceive the breach of contract.

Originality/value

This research extends existing personality-psychological contract literature by examining the role of leaders' personalities in signaling to employees the type of contract that is formed and the perception of its breach. The role of power distance organizational culture as a signaling environment is also considered.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Gopal Das

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influences of store attributes on store personality dimensions across different consumer segments. Subsequently, the study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influences of store attributes on store personality dimensions across different consumer segments. Subsequently, the study examines impact of store personality dimensions on consumer store choice behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

A mall-intercept survey was undertaken using a systematic sampling of department store shoppers of age 18 years and above in Kolkata, a metropolitan city of India. Questionnaire was used to collect data from busy shopping malls or centres located in different places of Kolkata. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the objectives of this study.

Findings

Results revealed that different sets of store attributes positively affect the various store personality dimensions differently across the segments. The study also found the positive impacts of store personality dimensions on consumer store choice behaviour.

Originality/value

Arguably, this study is the first to explore the link between store attributes and store personality across the consumer segments, and the impacts of store personality dimensions on consumer store choice behaviour.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article

Marilyn Giroux, Frank Pons and Lionel Maltese

In the highly saturated sports industry where sport teams represent a complex offering loaded with intangible and tangible attributes, it is important to implement…

Abstract

Purpose

In the highly saturated sports industry where sport teams represent a complex offering loaded with intangible and tangible attributes, it is important to implement appropriate marketing strategies that will ultimately contribute to the development of strong brand equity. In this paper, the authors focused on the relationship between brand variables and marketing activities on the development of brand equity. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to study the impact of brand personality on the evaluation of marketing promotional activities and the impact on the brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents (2,400) were recruited through an online survey and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The survey revealed that the congruence between the brand personality and the promotional activities has a positive impact on its evaluation and on brand equity. In addition, the results showed that consumers who consider the financial strength of the team as an important factor evaluate more positively the value of congruent and incongruent promotional activities.

Practical implications

Brand managers should maintain consistency between their brand personality and their promotional activities in order to maintain and increase their brand equity.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the literature by investigating the impact of brand personality on the evaluation of promotional activities. Also, it examines an important factor (financial consciousness) that could influence how fans react in front of an incongruent promotional activity. This research brings a better understanding of the impact of brand personality on marketing strategies and brand equity.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article

Nilesh Arora, Sanjeev Prashar, Sai Vijay Tata and Chandan Parsad

Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a…

Abstract

Purpose

Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a celebrity with a brand creates a human image for a brand and helps in personifying its image. The consumer perceives the brand as an individual and relates his personality, as well as the personality of the celebrity with that of the brand. It becomes pertinent for marketers to understand how brand-celebrity personality congruence and brand-consumer personality congruence affect the brand reputation, uniqueness and purchase intentions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the two personality congruence aspects – brand & celebrity personalities and brand & consumer personalities, and their impact on the reputation of the brand and its uniqueness. Further, the paper aims to examine the impact of the brand reputation and brand uniqueness on purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses Aaker’s five-factor personality scale to study the personality congruence effects on brand reputation, brand uniqueness and purchase intentions. The literature review was carried out to categorize factors related to celebrity personality, brand personality and consumer personality. The data for this study was collected through questionnaires from 1,235 respondents. In the first step, congruencies between celebrity, brand and consumer personality were determined. This was followed by a two-stage structural equation modelling for assessing the model fit and testing the hypotheses.

Findings

From the study results, it is observed that brand-celebrity congruency influences brand reputation and brand uniqueness. However, brand-consumer congruency had an effect only on brand reputation and not on brand uniqueness. Both brand reputation and uniqueness have favourable impact on consumers purchase intentions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature on celebrity endorsement by extending the discussion with personality-based congruence. The research deciphered two aspects of identification, i.e. consumer-brand personality congruence and brand-celebrity congruence. The paper hypothesized the favourable association between brand personality and consumer personality congruence and brand uniqueness. However, it was observed that brand personality-consumer personality identification had an insignificant influence on brand uniqueness. This is contrary to the findings of some studies in the literature. Further investigation of this relationship in the future may add a new dimension to the identification context.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Ifigeneia Leri and Prokopis Theodoridis

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderation effects of the Big Five personality traits on the relationships between holistic experience constructs (i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderation effects of the Big Five personality traits on the relationships between holistic experience constructs (i.e. servicescape and other visitors’ behaviours), emotional responses and revisit intention in the context of winery visitation experiences in Greece.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts a holistic approach to visitor experience and suggests that visitors base their experience perception on the servicescape’s attributes and other visitors’ suitable behaviours. Path analysis was adopted to measure the impact of these constructs on visitors’ emotions and the role these emotions play in predicting visitors’ revisit intentions. The moderation effect of the Big Five personality traits in such relationships was examined using the SPSS PROCESS. A self-administered, highly structured questionnaire was distributed to winery visitors in Greece; a total of 615 responses were used in data analysis.

Findings

The results indicate that all the examined relationships become stronger as a result of visitors having high or average scores for openness, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, or low scores for neuroticism.

Research limitations/implications

The findings enhance the existing literature pertaining to experiential marketing, wine tourism marketing and the role of personality in tourism by providing new insights.

Practical implications

The overall findings may benefit wineries in their efforts to carry out the following: increase visitors’ revisit intentions; design and manage the winery environment and the winery experience effectively; and design marketing strategies.

Originality/value

The paper’s originality lies in providing information to clarify the role of visitors’ personalities as a contributing factor to their emotional stimulation and their revisit intentions in terms of both constructs of experience (i.e. servicescape and other visitors’ behaviours). Furthermore, this study attempts to respond to recent calls to conduct multidimensional research on the servicescape construct, focusing on both the substantive staging of the servicescape and the communicative staging of the servicescape. Finally, the present study provides new and practical insights regarding the winery experience in the Greek context – an area where very limited research has been conducted so far.

标题:个性特征如何影响游客的体验、情绪刺激和行为?以葡萄酒旅游为例¿

目的

本研究的目的是在希腊酒庄参观体验情境下探讨五大人格特质对整体体验建构(即服务场景、其他游客行为)、情绪反应和的重游意愿之间关系的调节作用。

设计/方法/思路

本研究采用了一种游客体验的整体性方法, 并建议游客将他们的体验感知建立在服务景观的属性和其他游客的适当行为上。采用路径分析法来衡量这些建构对游客情绪的影响, 以及这些情绪在预测游客重访意图中所起的作用。运用SPSS软件, 分析了五大人格特质在关系中的调节作用。给希腊的酒庄游客发放了高度结构化的自填问卷, 最终回收615份问卷用于数据分析。

发现

结果表明, 由于游客在开放性、外向性、亲和性和尽责性方面有较高或平均的得分, 或在神经质方面得分较低, 所有被调查的关系变得更强了。

研究局限/意义

丰富了现有的关于体验营销、葡萄酒旅游营销和个性在旅游中的作用的文献。

实际影响

总的研究结果将有利于酒庄努力实现以下目标:a.增加游客的重游意愿;b.有效地设计和管理酒庄环境和酒庄体验;c.设计营销策略。

创意/价值

通过提供信息, 明确了游客的个性在两种体验构建(即服务场景和其他来访者行为)中作为情感刺激和重游意愿的促成因素的作用。此外, 本研究试图响应最近对服务场景构建进行多维研究的呼吁, 既关注服务场景的实质阶段(SSoS), 也关注服务场景的交际阶段(CSoS)。最后, 本研究提供了关于在希腊背景下的酒庄体验的新的、实用的见解——目前为止, 相关领域的研究都还非常有限。

关键词

关键词 葡萄酒旅游, 酒庄体验, 游客情感, 游客行为意向, 五大人格特质

Cómo afectan los rasgos de la personalidad a la experiencia del visitante, la estimulación emocional y el comportamiento? El caso del turismo enológico

Objetivo

El objetivo de este estudio es investigar el efecto moderador de los Cinco Grandes rasgos de la personalidad sobre las relaciones entre los constructos de la experiencia holística (como, por ejemplo, servicescape, otros comportamientos de los visitantes) las respuestas emocionales, y la intención de repetir en el contexto de las experiencias de la visita de bodegas en Grecia.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio adopta un enfoque holístico de la experiencia del visitante y sugiere que los visitantes basan su percepción de la experiencia en los atributos del servicescape y en otros comportamientos adecuados de los visitantes. Se utilizó el análisis de pautas (Path Analysis) para medir el impacto de estos constructos en las emociones de los visitantes y el papel que estas emociones juegan en la predicción de las intenciones de repetir de los visitantes. El efecto moderador de los Cinco Grandes rasgos de personalidad en tales relaciones fue examinado usando SPSS PROCESS. Se distribuyó un cuestionario autoadministrado y altamente estructurado a los visitantes de bodegas en Grecia; se utilizaron 615 respuestas para el análisis de los datos.

Resultados

Los resultados indican que todas las relaciones examinadas se vuelven más fuertes en el caso de los visitantes que tienen puntuaciones altas o medias de apertura, extraversión, amabilidad y conciencia, o bajas puntuaciones de neurotismo.

Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones

Los resultados mejoran la literatura existente relativa al marketing experiencial, el marketing del turismo enológico y el papel de la personalidad en el turismo, proporcionando nuevas perspectivas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los resultados globales pueden beneficiar a las bodegas en sus esfuerzos por llevar a cabo lo siguiente: a. aumentar la intención de los visitantes de repetir, b. diseñar y gestionar el entorno de la bodega y la experiencia enológica de manera efectiva, y c. diseñar estrategias de marketing.

Originalidad/interés

La originalidad del trabajo radica en proporcionar información para aclarar el papel de la personalidad de los visitantes como un factor que contribuye a su estimulación emocional y sus intenciones de repetir en términos de ambos constructos de la experiencia (p. ej., servicescape y otros comportamientos de los visitantes). Además, este estudio intenta responder a los recientes requerimientos de realizar investigaciones multidimensionales sobre el constructo servicescape, centrándose tanto en la puesta en escena sustantiva del servicescape como en la puesta en escena comunicativa de la misma. Por último, el presente estudio aporta nuevas ideas prácticas sobre la experiencia enológica en el contexto griego, un ámbito que, hasta ahora, cuenta con un número limitado de investigaciones.

Palabras clave

Enoturismo, Experiencia enográfica, Emociones del visitante, Intenciones conductuales del visitante, Cinco grandes rasgos de personalidad

tipo de papel

trabajo de investigación

Details

Tourism Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article

Rainer Hensel and Ronald Visser

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to analyse what personality traits impact entrepreneurial cognitive and social strategic decision-making skills…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to analyse what personality traits impact entrepreneurial cognitive and social strategic decision-making skills, originating from the effectuation framework.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 128 participants from an entrepreneurial pre-launch programme were assessed by experienced incubator and business coaches. Personality was measured by a Big Five test. Based on a confirmatory factor analysis, the relationships were analysed between personality and three core dimensions of the effectuation framework: the bird-in-hand principle, the crazy quilt principle and the pilot in the plane principle.

Findings

Specific patterns (moderation effects) as opposed to levels of personality traits proved to be relevant. The bird-in-hand and the crazy quilt principles are related to the moderating effect between sensitivity to feedback, sociability and ambition. The pilot in the plane principle was related to the whole pattern of entrepreneurial key qualities embedded in the extraversion domain. Furthermore, relationships of personality with key issues in the effectuation framework were found, examples being reflecting on a high diversity of means or on own talents, conducting a thorough risk analysis and engaging in inspirational networking. The final model revealed a direct positive influence of the capacity to conduct a thorough risk analysis on the overall capacity to apply the effectuation principles.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study is the exclusion of the lemonade principle from the final model. This being based on unsatisfying model fit indices. Another limitation is the cross-sectional design, as well as the chosen research context: the pre-launch entrepreneurial programme.

Practical implications

The research results shed a light on the impact that personality plays in adoption of effectual decision making.

Social implications

The effectuation framework is widely used by individual entrepreneurs, SMEs and start-ups, to design innovative business models or implement an up-scaling strategy.

Originality/value

Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the effectuation framework. Moreover, evidence-based insights are offered to entrepreneurs that intent to mobilise effectual behaviours.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article

Shamshad Ahmed, Farhat Rehman and Arslan Sheikh

This paper aims to identify the personality traits (agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism) of library and information…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the personality traits (agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism) of library and information science (LIS) students in Pakistan. The difference among the personality traits of LIS students toward their information needs and seeking behavior is also analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Two instruments, namely, BFI scale and a self-structured instrument were used to collect the data. Kruskal–Wallis test was applied to find out differences among the personality traits of LIS students toward their information needs and seeking behavior.

Findings

Findings of the study revealed that out of 320 respondents, 186 possessed openness to experience, while only 7 possessed extraversion personality trait. Moreover, the students having extraversion personality trait were, generally, more concerned toward information needs. On the other hand students having conscientious trait were increasingly more seekers of information. Overall, the conscientiousness was identified as the most suitable personality trait for LIS students. A significant difference was also observed among all the personality traits of LIS students.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will help in the identification of LIS individual’s personality. The library managers can use these personality traits for the selection of suitable library professionals for their libraries.

Originality/value

This study can be valuable for the induction of new library professionals and also help managers in assigning the duties based on these personality traits.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

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Article

Panisa Lanjananda and Paul G. Patterson

Nurses in hospital settings are a primary contact point and the way their behaviors are perceived by patients is a critical determinant of overall patient satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

Nurses in hospital settings are a primary contact point and the way their behaviors are perceived by patients is a critical determinant of overall patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to empirically test and extend knowledge of the determinants of customer‐oriented behavior (COB) of contact personnel in a high‐contact service setting (healthcare industry). The paper contributes to the literature by examining two groups of constructs – dispositional variables (e.g. personality traits of the service provider) as well employee perceptions of service climate, mediated by surface traits and organizational commitment, on the dependent variable, COB of nurses in a hospital context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved both qualitative (focus groups) and a large‐scale survey, with a final sample of 270 nurses from five hospitals in Thailand. The dependent variable was a self‐reported measure of COB. Tests for common method bias suggested however that this was not a problem. All measures were sourced from the literature and demonstrated sound measurement properties. The conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

Analysis supported the hypothesized model. Basic personality (extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) as well as customer orientation as surface trait (COS) all impact either directly or indirectly, on nurses' COB. Nurses' perceptions of the service climate and their commitment to the hospital are also significant predictors.

Research limitations/implications

Future research might attempt to obtain objective measures of nurses' performance in lieu of self‐report measures. Further, as the healthcare industry has very specific characteristics (high affect, high anxiety among patients, high customization, etc.) this model should be tested in a variety of service settings. For healthcare managers, the findings, especially related to basic personality traits, have important implications for the type of person that should be recruited. The adage “Hire for attitude, but train for skill” certainly applies here.

Originality/value

The paper's contribution lies in analyzing the impact that both basic personality (extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) as well as surface traits, have on nurses' behavior; and simultaneously examining the impact of nurses' perceptions of service climate and organizational commitment.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article

S.R. Nikhashemi and Naser Valaei

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impacts of brand personality and functional congruity on various components of brand loyalty (i.e. cognitive, affective, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impacts of brand personality and functional congruity on various components of brand loyalty (i.e. cognitive, affective, and conative) by examining the moderating role of gender.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is examined by considering car as a product brand stimulus. Using a self-structured questionnaire, 263 usable responses are considered for data analysis by applying the structural equation modelling method.

Findings

The findings indicate that all hypotheses on the relationships between brand personality, functional congruity, and stages of brand loyalty are supported except for the relationship between brand personality and conative loyalty, whereby brand personality indirectly have impacts on conative brand loyalty via functional congruity. The outcome of the multi-group analysis shows that the impact of brand personality and functional congruity on cognitive, affective, and conative brand loyalty varies across gender groups.

Practical implications

The results indicate that if marketing managers are willing to create cognitive, affective as well as conative brand loyalty among consumers, they ought to tally their consumers’ purchasing and evaluation criteria with the functional and symbolic attributes. If the target consumers were motivated to purchase the product based on the symbolic attributes (as preferred by females in the present study), more attention should be focussed on communicating and delivering the symbolic attributes during their marketing campaign; on the other hand, if the consumers were inclined to buy product based on the utilitarian functions (as preferred by males in the current study), more emphasis should be placed on the functional values and attributes.

Originality/value

This study is the first to utilise self-congruity and the elaboration likelihood model to explain the influence of brand personality and functional congruity on each component of brand loyalty within the automobile industry’s context. This study on the moderating role of gender shows that the effect of brand personality and functional congruity is different across gender groups. The findings can help marketers to design an effective brand positioning and marketing strategies in order to stay competitive.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article

Michael Polemis

We use disaggregated survey data set to investigate the impact of personality traits on the level of education in the USA. We attempt to shed light on the contribution of…

Abstract

Purpose

We use disaggregated survey data set to investigate the impact of personality traits on the level of education in the USA. We attempt to shed light on the contribution of each of the Big Five personality traits on the education decision made by the individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

We use the quantile regression analysis in order to investigate to what extent certain aspects of personality may help an individual to invest in education.

Findings

Our findings uncover a significant effect of noncognitive skills on the level of education. It is shown that people with high emotional stability and agreeableness invest in human capital, especially when we move to the higher quantiles of the conditional distribution function. Moreover, we argue that the estimated signs of the traits remain stable across the quantiles, while the relevant curvatures indicate for the first time in the empirical literature, the presence of nonlinear effects. Last, our model survived robustness checks under the inclusion of two aggregated higher-order factors, namely “Alpha” and “Beta.”

Research limitations/implications

Although we used several control variables (e.g. Gender, Age) to address the impact of noncognitive skills on education, special attention should be given to the use of additional socioeconomic indicators such as the skin color of participants, the urbanization rate, the level of unemployment, the level of income, parental education among others. These measures affect the causality driven by the inclusion of certain economic and demographic characteristics and minimize the endogeneity bias drawn from the inclusion of the sample variables. One additional limitation is that the survey-based data refer only to people with higher education (>13 years of study). Therefore, our empirical findings must be tested on a richer sample to capture the effect of personality traits on a broad spectrum of educational stages (e.g. early learning years, primary education, secondary education, etc.).

Originality/value

Our empirical findings add enough new insights to the existing literature. First, we attempt to assess the role of noncognitive skills proxied by the Big Five Inventory (hereafter “BFI”) on the education decision made by the individuals. Second, we provide fresh evidence of nonlinear effects between personality traits and education totally ignored by the existing literature. Our third contribution is to analyze the role of personality in enhancing the importance of investment in higher education as a determinant of individual behavior. In this way, we contribute to the growing field of behavioral economics since the study of noncognitive skills offers a range of new ideas and expanding research opportunities for social scientists (economists, psychologists, sociologists, etc.).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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