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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Sheshadri Chatterjee

The purpose of this study is to identify how the privacy policy can be framed for protection of personal data and how the latest judgement of full bench of Supreme Court…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify how the privacy policy can be framed for protection of personal data and how the latest judgement of full bench of Supreme Court of India has dealt with right to privacy in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the latest Supreme Court judgement on right to privacy and historical cases on right to privacy in India. This paper uses Indian Constitution as a source of Information for study along with case laws and judgements of different courts in India.

Findings

This paper tries to find if personal data privacy is a fundamental right in India. In addition, the paper provides recommendations to different concerned authorities on protecting personal information in online platform.

Research limitations/implications

This study deals with privacy issues so far as Indian citizens are concerns and does not focus on other countries. Moreover, the study tries to understand the issue of fundamental rights from Indian Constitution perspective. In addition, the recommendations provided to the policymakers and other authorities of India have wide implications for formulation of new policy and management of personal data, so that it should not go to wrong hands and the personal data and privacy is protected of the citizens.

Practical implications

Millions of people put their personal information in online platform. In addition, there are few government initiatives in India such as Aadhaar card where the biometric information is taken from the residents of India, and in many cases, the personal data are compromised under various circumstances. As the personal data of the citizens are in question, thus the study has direct practical implication mainly for all the citizens whose personal data are available in online platform.

Social implications

This study has social implication as it dealt with the “personal data” of the citizens of India. As the paper discusses the issue of protection of personal data in the context of right to privacy, thus this study has a direct social impact so far as online citizen of India is concerned.

Originality/value

This paper is timely, original and discusses the contemporary issue of online data privacy and fundamental right in India. This paper is a useful resource for the researchers, policymakers and online users who deal with personal data-, right to privacy and data privacy policy-related areas.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 61 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2021

Jillian Carmody, Samir Shringarpure and Gerhard Van de Venter

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate privacy concerns arising from the rapidly increasing advancements and use of artificial intelligence (AI) technology and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate privacy concerns arising from the rapidly increasing advancements and use of artificial intelligence (AI) technology and the challenges of existing privacy regimes to ensure the on-going protection of an individual’s sensitive private information. The authors illustrate this through a case study of energy smart meters and suggest a novel combination of four solutions to strengthen privacy protection.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors illustrate how, through smart meter obtained energy data, home energy providers can use AI to reveal private consumer information such as households’ electrical appliances, their time and frequency of usage, including number and model of appliance. The authors show how this data can further be combined with other data to infer sensitive personal information such as lifestyle and household income due to advances in AI technologies.

Findings

The authors highlight data protection and privacy concerns which are not immediately obvious to consumers due to the capabilities of advanced AI technology and its ability to extract sensitive personal information when applied to large overlapping granular data sets.

Social implications

The authors question the adequacy of existing privacy legislation to protect sensitive inferred consumer data from AI-driven technology. To address this, the authors suggest alternative solutions.

Originality/value

The original value of this paper is that it illustrates new privacy issues brought about by advances in AI, failings in current privacy legislation and implementation and opens the dialog between stakeholders to protect vulnerable consumers.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Muhammad Al-Abdullah, Izzat Alsmadi, Ruwaida AlAbdullah and Bernie Farkas

The paper posits that a solution for businesses to use privacy-friendly data repositories for its customers’ data is to change from the traditional centralized repository…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper posits that a solution for businesses to use privacy-friendly data repositories for its customers’ data is to change from the traditional centralized repository to a trusted, decentralized data repository. Blockchain is a technology that provides such a data repository. However, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) assumed a centralized data repository, and it is commonly argued that blockchain technology is not usable. This paper aims to posit a framework for adopting a blockchain that follows the GDPR.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the Levy and Ellis’ narrative review of literature methodology, which is based on constructivist theory posited by Lincoln and Guba. Using five information systems and computer science databases, the researchers searched for studies using the keywords GDPR and blockchain, using a forward and backward search technique. The search identified a corpus of 416 candidate studies, from which the researchers applied pre-established criteria to select 39 studies. The researchers mined this corpus for concepts, which they clustered into themes. Using the accepted computer science practice of privacy by design, the researchers combined the clustered themes into the paper’s posited framework.

Findings

The paper posits a framework that provides architectural tactics for designing a blockchain that follows GDPR to enhance privacy. The framework explicitly addresses the challenges of GDPR compliance using the unimagined decentralized storage of personal data. The framework addresses the blockchain–GDPR tension by establishing trust between a business and its customers vis-à-vis storing customers’ data. The trust is established through blockchain’s capability of providing the customer with private keys and control over their data, e.g. processing and access.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides a framework that demonstrates that blockchain technology can be designed for use in GDPR compliant solutions. In using the framework, a blockchain-based solution provides the ability to audit and monitor privacy measures, demonstrates a legal justification for processing activities, incorporates a data privacy policy, provides a map for data processing and ensures security and privacy awareness among all actors. The research is limited to a focus on blockchain–GDPR compliance; however, future research is needed to investigate the use of the framework in specific domains.

Practical implications

The paper posits a framework that identifies the strategies and tactics necessary for GDPR compliance. Practitioners need to compliment the framework with rigorous privacy risk management, i.e. conducting a privacy risk analysis, identifying strategies and tactics to address such risks and preparing a privacy impact assessment that enhances accountability and transparency of a blockchain.

Originality/value

With the increasingly strategic use of data by businesses and the contravening growth of data privacy regulation, alternative technologies could provide businesses with a means to nurture trust with its customers regarding collected data. However, it is commonly assumed that the decentralized approach of blockchain technology cannot be applied to this business need. This paper posits a framework that enables a blockchain to be designed that follows the GDPR; thereby, providing an alternative for businesses to collect customers’ data while ensuring the customers’ trust.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 22 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Matina Tsavli, Pavlos S. Efraimidis, Vasilios Katos and Lilian Mitrou

This paper aims to discuss the privacy and security concerns that have risen from the permissions model in the Android operating system, along with two shortcomings that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the privacy and security concerns that have risen from the permissions model in the Android operating system, along with two shortcomings that have not been adequately addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of the applications’ evolutionary increment of permission requests from both the user’s and the developer’s point of view is studied, and finally, a series of remedies against the erosion of users’ privacy is proposed.

Findings

The results of this work indicate that, even though providing access to personal data of smartphone users is by definition neither problematic nor unlawful, today’s smartphone operating systems do not provide an adequate level of protection for the user’s personal data. However, there are several ideas that can significantly improve the situation and mitigate privacy concerns of users of smart devices.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed approach was evaluated through an examination of the Android’s permission model, although issues arise in other operating systems. The authors’ future intention is to conduct a user study to measure the user’s awareness and concepts surrounding privacy concerns to empirically investigate the above-mentioned suggestions.

Practical implications

The proposed suggestions in this paper, if adopted in practice, could significantly improve the situation and mitigate privacy concerns of users of smart devices.

Social implications

The recommendations proposed in this paper would strongly enhance the control of users over their personal data and improve their ability to distinguish legitimate apps from malware or grayware.

Originality/value

This paper emphasises two shortcomings of the permissions models of mobile operating systems which, in authors’ view, have not been adequately addressed to date and propose an inherent way for apps and other entities of the mobile computing ecosystem to commit to responsible and transparent practices on mobile users’ privacy.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2002

Timothy R. Graeff and Susan Harmon

Consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about the privacy of their personal information and information about their purchase behaviors. The current study examines…

Abstract

Consumers are becoming increasingly concerned about the privacy of their personal information and information about their purchase behaviors. The current study examines the extent to which consumers are concerned with how their personal information is collected and used, their awareness and knowledge of data collection practices using discount (loyalty) cards, the relationship between demographics and privacy concerns, and the relationship between privacy concerns and purchase behaviors. Results from a telephone survey of 480 consumers suggest that even though consumers are concerned about how personal information is collected and used, very few consumers are aware of how discount (loyalty) cards are used to collect personal level purchase data. Results also suggest that concerns about the use of personal information vary by demographic market segments, and that privacy concerns are significantly related to consumers’ purchasing behaviors on the Internet.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Zhihong Gao and Susan O’Sullivan-Gavin

Given the unique cultural-political context of China, this paper aims to investigate two research questions: What has been the development trajectory of policy-making on…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the unique cultural-political context of China, this paper aims to investigate two research questions: What has been the development trajectory of policy-making on consumer privacy protection in China, and what factors have shaped its development over the years?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a historical approach and examines the development of Chinese consumer privacy policy during four periods: 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010-present.

Findings

Chinese policy-making on consumer privacy protection has made steady advancement in the past few decades due to factors such as technological development, elite advocacy and emulation of other markets; however, the effects of these factors are conditioned by local forces.

Originality/value

To date, most studies of consumer privacy issues have focused on Western countries, especially the European Union and the USA. A better understanding of how consumer privacy policy has developed in China provides important lessons on the promotion of consumer privacy protection in other developing countries.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Ash Watson and Deborah Lupton

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from the Digital Privacy Story Completion Project, which investigated Australian participants' understandings of and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings from the Digital Privacy Story Completion Project, which investigated Australian participants' understandings of and responses to digital privacy scenarios using a novel method and theoretical approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The story completion method was brought together with De Certeau's concept of tactics and more-than-human theoretical perspectives. Participants were presented with four story stems on an online platform. Each story stem introduced a fictional character confronted with a digital privacy dilemma. Participants were asked to complete the stories by typing in open text boxes, responding to the prompts “How does the character feel? What does she/he do? What happens next?”. A total of 29 participants completed the stories, resulting in a corpus of 116 narratives for a theory-driven thematic analysis.

Findings

The stories vividly demonstrate the ways in which tactics are entangled with relational connections and affective intensities. They highlight the micropolitical dimensions of human–nonhuman affordances when people are responding to third-party use of their personal information. The stories identified the tactics used and boundaries that are drawn in people's sense-making concerning how they define appropriate and inappropriate use of their data.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the value and insights of creatively attending to personal data privacy issues in ways that decentre the autonomous tactical and agential individual and instead consider the more-than-human relationality of privacy.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/OIR-05-2020-0174

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Michael Rogers Rubin

This is the second of three articles addressing the critical issue of abusive data collection and usage practices and their effect on personal privacy. The first article…

Abstract

This is the second of three articles addressing the critical issue of abusive data collection and usage practices and their effect on personal privacy. The first article, which appeared in consecutive issue 17 of Library Hi Tech, discussed the individual under assault. This article discusses the evolution of data protection laws within countries and international organizations that have enacted such laws, and compares the scope, major provisions, and enforcement components of the laws.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Vanishree Rudraswamy and David A. Vance

Information privacy is currently regarded as one of the key ethical issues of the information age. Rapid technological developments and the advent of Internet based…

Abstract

Information privacy is currently regarded as one of the key ethical issues of the information age. Rapid technological developments and the advent of Internet based commerce or electronic commerce (e‐commerce) have forced several nations of the world to enact legislation to protect the information privacy of their citizens and corporations. Transborder data flows (TBDFs) have been known to have a significant impact on multinational and transnational corporations with respect to international data transfers. This paper discusses the issues and implications of TBDFs and provides a comparative account of the privacy laws on individual data protection in different countries. Also proposed is a theoretical model relating to diffusion of social policies of use with respect to the adoption and diffusion of privacy laws by different nations of the world in a global e‐commerce environment.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 14 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Joyce Hoese Addae, Michael Brown, Xu Sun, Dave Towey and Milena Radenkovic

This paper presents an initial development of a personal data attitude (PDA) measurement instrument based on established psychometric principles. The aim of the research…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an initial development of a personal data attitude (PDA) measurement instrument based on established psychometric principles. The aim of the research was to develop a reliable measurement scale for quantifying and comparing attitudes towards personal data that can be incorporated into cybersecurity behavioural research models. Such a scale has become necessary for understanding individuals’ attitudes towards specific sets of data, as more technologies are being designed to harvest, collate, share and analyse personal data.

Design/methodology/approach

An initial set of 34 five-point Likert-style items were developed with eight subscales and administered to participants online. The data collected were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and MANOVA. The results are consistent with the multidimensionality of attitude theories and suggest that the adopted methodology for the study is appropriate for future research with a more representative sample.

Findings

Factor analysis of 247 responses identified six constructs of individuals’ attitude towards personal data: protective behaviour, privacy concerns, cost-benefit, awareness, responsibility and security. This paper illustrates how the PDA scale can be a useful guide for information security research and design by briefly discussing the factor structure of the PDA and related results.

Originality/value

This study addresses a genuine gap in research by taking the first step towards establishing empirical evidence for dimensions underlying personal data attitudes. It also adds a significant benchmark to a growing body of literature on understanding and modelling computer users’ security behaviours.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

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