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Ibrahim Duyar and Inayet Aydin

This study focuses on assistant principals, the “forgotten future workforce” of educational leadership. We explored the current landscape of assistant principalship within…

Abstract

This study focuses on assistant principals, the “forgotten future workforce” of educational leadership. We explored the current landscape of assistant principalship within the context of work performance, including both task and discretionary performance, and the future career aspirations of assistant principals from a cross-national perspective. Specifically, the study aimed to fulfill the following objectives: (a) to identify the factors affecting the task and discretionary performance of assistant principals, (b) to identify the factors affecting three future career aspirations of assistant principals, and (c) to determine whether the influences of these factors differ by national origin. Personal initiative and perceived organizational support (POS) were the independent variables. This study also examined the demographic attributes of the participants and their schools. Two randomly selected samples, which composed of 227 Turkish and 144 American assistant principals were the participants. The data-gathering instrument incorporated the revised versions of the Personal Initiative Scale (Fay & Frese, 2001), the Perceived Organizational Support Scale (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986), and the School Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (DiPaola & Tschannen-Moran, 2001). The findings of the study showed that personal initiative and POS significantly predicted the task performance, discretionary performance, and certain future career aspirations of assistant principals. National origin appeared to be a significantly differentiating factor of the assistant principals' task performances, discretionary performances, and future career aspirations. We drew conclusions and provided suggestions for future research.

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Discretionary Behavior and Performance in Educational Organizations: The Missing Link in Educational Leadership and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-643-0

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Article

Karin Olesen and Michael D. Myers

Discusses the use of information technology to facilitate communication and collaboration. In this action research project a groupware product called Lotus NotesTM was…

Abstract

Discusses the use of information technology to facilitate communication and collaboration. In this action research project a groupware product called Lotus NotesTM was implemented to facilitate communication and collaboration amongst the senior management team. Although there was a real need for change, and the project received strong support from senior management on the basis that it would enable radical changes in coordination within the workgroup, these radical changes did not occur. The authors analyse the reasons for failure, and suggest that the project failed because of institutional forces which inhibited dramatic changes in work habits.

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Information Technology & People, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article

Sangyeal Han and Heetae Yang

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive research model that can explain customers’ continuance intentions to adopt and use intelligent personal assistants (IPAs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive research model that can explain customers’ continuance intentions to adopt and use intelligent personal assistants (IPAs).

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes and validates a new theoretical model that extends the parasocial relationship (PSR) theory. Partial least squares analysis is employed to test the research model and corresponding hypotheses on data collected from 304 survey samples.

Findings

Interpersonal attraction (task attraction, social attraction, and physical attraction) and security/privacy risk are important factors affecting the adoption of IPAs.

Research limitations/implications

First, this is the first empirical study to examine user acceptance of IPAs. Second, to the authors’ knowledge, no research has been conducted to test the role of PSR in the context of IPAs. Third, this study verified the robustness of the proposed model by introducing new antecedents reflecting risk-related attributes, which has not been investigated in prior PSR research. But this study has limitations that future research may address. First, key findings of this research are based only on data from users in the USA. Second, individual differences among the survey respondents were not examined.

Practical implications

To increase the adoption of IPAs, manufacturers should focus on developing “human-like” and “professional” assistants, in consideration of the important role of PSR and task attraction. R&D should continuously strive to realize artificial intelligence technology advances so that IPAs can better recognize the user’s voice and speak naturally like a person. Collaboration with third-party companies or individual developers is essential in this field, as manufacturers are unable to independently develop applications that support the specific tasks of various industries. It is also necessary to enhance IPA device design and its user interface to enhance physical attraction.

Originality/value

This study is the first empirical attempt to examine user acceptance of IPAs, as most of the prior literature has concerned analysis of usage patterns or technical features.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 118 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article

Shirley Daniels

The personal digital assistant (PDA) is what Apple (the computercompany) thinks we have all been waiting for. They coined the term acouple of years ago to refer to a…

Abstract

The personal digital assistant (PDA) is what Apple (the computer company) thinks we have all been waiting for. They coined the term a couple of years ago to refer to a small, hand‐held electronic device which would allow common clerical tasks such as note‐taking, maintaining a contact list keeping a diary and so on. A true PDA did not at the time exist, although companies such as Casio and Sharp had moved up from plain calculators to provide machines that could maintain addresses and telephone numbers and a simple diary. These were designed to replace the personal organizer rather than the computer and were limited in a number of respects. They did work, although most of the people I know who had tried them, soon reverted to old‐fashioned pen and paper. It was generally too time‐consuming to work your way through to the data that you wanted to access or to input new data on the very tiny keyboards.

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Work Study, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Book part

Denise J. Uitto and Ritu V. Chopra

Training, particularly in the form of comprehensive professional development, continues to be a need for paraeducators (also known as teacher assistants). Training needs…

Abstract

Training, particularly in the form of comprehensive professional development, continues to be a need for paraeducators (also known as teacher assistants). Training needs begin with an initial set of knowledge and skills and is built based upon the paraeducator’s role with individual students and the educational settings. Standards or guidance documents are available from a few individual states within the United States, higher education systems, and professional organizations that serve individuals with exceptional needs and agencies. An international professional organization, Council for Exceptional Children [CEC] (2011), identified a common skill set that reinforces standards for defining curricula when providing training to paraeducators. Key to their ongoing professional development is the on-the-job coaching by the education professional (teacher), to support the application of skills into the inclusive setting. Various forms of professional development are available including online trainings in addition to face-to-face.

Details

Working with Teaching Assistants and Other Support Staff for Inclusive Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-611-9

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Article

Chris Creed

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the experiences in working collaboratively with physically impaired visual artists and other stakeholders (e.g…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the experiences in working collaboratively with physically impaired visual artists and other stakeholders (e.g. disability arts organisations, charities, personal assistants, special needs colleges, assistive technologists, etc.) to explore the potential of digital assistive tools to support and transform practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors strategically identified key organisations as project partners including Disability Arts Shropshire, Arts Council England, the British Council, SCOPE, and National Star College (a large special needs college). This multi-disciplinary team worked together to develop relationships with disabled artists and to collaboratively influence the research focus around investigating the current practice of physically impaired artists and the impact of digital technologies on artistic work.

Findings

The collaborations with disabled artists and stakeholders throughout the research process have enriched the project, broadened and deepened research impact, and enabled a firsthand understanding of the issues around using assistive technology for artistic work. Artists and stakeholders have become pro-active collaborators and advocates for the project as opposed to being used only for evaluation purposes. A flexible research approach was crucial in helping to facilitate research studies and enhance impact of the work.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to discuss experiences in working with physically impaired visual artists – including the benefits of a collaborative approach and the considerations that must be made when conducting research in this area. The observations are also relevant to researchers working with disabled participants in other fields.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article

Mateusz Tomasz Kot and Grzegorz Leszczyński

Interactions are fundamental for successful relationships and stable cooperation in a business-to-business market. The main assumption in research on interactions, so…

Abstract

Purpose

Interactions are fundamental for successful relationships and stable cooperation in a business-to-business market. The main assumption in research on interactions, so obvious that usually not stated by researchers, is that they are set between humans. The development of artificial intelligence forces the re-examination of this assumption. This paper aims to conceptualize business virtual assistants (BVAs), a type of intelligent agent, as either a boundary object or an actor within business interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

Reference is made to the literature on business interactions, boundary objects and identity attribution to problematize the process of interpretation through which BVA obtains an identity. The ARA model and the model of interaction process is used to create a theoretical framework.

Findings

This paper contributes to the literature on business interactions, and to the core of the IMP discussion, in three aspects. The first provides a framework to understand the phenomenon of an artificial entity as an interlocutor in business interactions. While doing that a new type of entity, BVA, is introduced. The second contribution is the exploration and augmentation of the concept of a business actor. The third calls attention to BVA as a boundary object. These issues are seen as essential to move forward the discussion about the meaning of business interaction in the near future.

Originality/value

This paper conceptualizes the presence of a new entity – BVA – in the business landscape.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part

Thomas R. Konrad

Over 3 million intermittently employed and socially disadvantaged workers receive low wages and limited benefits in diverse long-term care settings and employment…

Abstract

Over 3 million intermittently employed and socially disadvantaged workers receive low wages and limited benefits in diverse long-term care settings and employment arrangements as they try to become a positively valued unified occupation: “direct care workers.” Before this occurs, these workers must overcome negative definitions imposed by three powerful institutions: professional guilds, employers, and states. Care workers’ legitimacy is challenged as nursing labels them “unlicensed, assistive personnel,” defining them in terms of their task relationship to nurses rather than their social relationship to clients. Care workers’ identity is obscured as corporate rationalization nullifies their unique contributions with task unbundling, part-time work, short staffing, and turnover undermining bonding with colleagues and clients. State regulation impedes care workers’ integration, segmenting similar workers under different regulatory regimes, defining workers negatively rather than by their educational attainments and competencies. Overcoming this triple negation will require not just cultural change, but also real structural changes, and can occur only through concerted actions involving coalitions. Labor market intermediaries, public authorities, labor unions, workforce investment boards, philanthropic organizations, and government interagency groups are among those supporting direct care workers’ advancement by strategically coordinating licensing, purchasing, and developing the workforce. Recent federal policy changes and health reform legislation have enhanced recognition of this occupation and are providing new resources for its development.

Details

Access to Care and Factors that Impact Access, Patients as Partners in Care and Changing Roles of Health Providers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-716-2

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Article

Andrea Strinić, Magnus Carlsson and Jens Agerström

The purpose of the current study is to investigate occupational stereotypes among a professional sample of recruiters and other employees on the two fundamental dimensions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the current study is to investigate occupational stereotypes among a professional sample of recruiters and other employees on the two fundamental dimensions of warmth and competence.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a survey to collect professionals´ (mostly recruiters´) ratings of preselected occupations. Participants were asked to rate warmth and competence attributes. Factor and cluster analysis were employed to investigate the two-dimensional structure of the warmth/competence space and how and whether occupations cluster as predicted by the stereotype content model (SCM).

Findings

Almost all occupations showed a clear two-factorial structure, corresponding to the warmth/competence dimensions. A five-cluster solution was deemed appropriate as depicting how occupations disperse on these dimensions. Implications for stereotyping research, the design of hiring discrimination experiments, and HRM are discussed.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous related research, in which participants select the included occupations themselves, the authors included prespecified common occupations, which should be important for representativeness. In addition, previous research has been conducted in the United States, while the authors conduct this study in a European context (Sweden). Finally, instead of studying students or participants with unspecified work experience, the authors focus on professionals (mostly recruiters).

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Jesus G. Boticario and Elena Gaudioso

University distance learning is benefiting from the intensive use of Internet resources. The variety of information and services offered, together with different kinds of…

Abstract

University distance learning is benefiting from the intensive use of Internet resources. The variety of information and services offered, together with different kinds of students, are impeding efficient use of this medium. In order to alleviate these problems and other associated ones, a Web site is being developed to facilitate personalised access to these resources. This site is based on three essential elements: new teaching materials to make the most of the medium, alternative teaching organisation adapted to the requirements of the different protagonists (students, lecturers and tutors) and an interactive system, WebDL, which facilitates personalised and adaptive access to information and communication requirements to each and every user at each and every moment. To date, the resources and material for three computer studies courses are being developed at Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), whose delivery depends on the Artificial Intelligence Department.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

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