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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Murat Tas, Nilufer Tas and Nilay Cosgun

The purpose of this paper is to examine production of permanent housing in Turkey after the 1999 Marmara earthquake in terms of planning, design, and construction, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine production of permanent housing in Turkey after the 1999 Marmara earthquake in terms of planning, design, and construction, and to identify problems that were faced. Earthquake survivors face many problems that affect the return to normalcy, including disruptions in temporary and permanent housing. To improve the earthquake survivors' social‐psychological status, it is imperative to shorten the transition from temporary to permanent housing. For the transition to be as brief as possible, planning, design, and construction of permanent housing need to be carried out seamlessly.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey is carried out among those who took part in the permanent housing production in Kocaeli, where, after the Marmara earthquake in 1999, permanent housing practices were dense.

Findings

As a result of the study, the most important problem in the production process is found to be the limited time allocated for design and construction, and the restrictions in construction materials and elements imposed by the administration. Serious losses in the disaster make the ground state the factor of greatest priority in choosing the settlement area.

Research limitations/implications

Kocaeli is chosen as the study area because after the earthquake, nearly 40 per cent of the permanent housing was constructed in Kocaeli. The study involves a multi‐dimensional inquiry in the context of site selection, area design, housing design, construction, and supervision criteria.

Originality/value

These data can serve as a resource for government/planners who develop policies for meeting post‐disaster reconstruction.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2013

Miha Šrekl, Blaž Bratina, Mykhaylo Zagirnyak, Boris Benedičič and Damijan Miljavec

The purpose of this paper is the investigation of eddy currents induced in the axial‐flux permanent‐magnet machine housing by the leakage flux and the introduction of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the investigation of eddy currents induced in the axial‐flux permanent‐magnet machine housing by the leakage flux and the introduction of permanent magnets in the steady‐state AC finite‐element analysis and coupling their effects with the transient thermal analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed approach is based on the finite‐element method as well as on using the basic analytical equations. The approach was first applied in the magneto transient analyses. Because of the different physical transient‐time constants, the steady‐state AC analysis coupled with transient thermal should be used.

Findings

The permanent magnets in the steady‐state AC analysis coupled with the transient thermal analysis can be simulated by coils with an imposed current of a frequency depending on the number of pole pairs and rotation speed. Using any of the electrically conductive materials for the axial‐flux inner slotless stator permanent‐magnet machine housing should be avoided.

Originality/value

The leakage flux induced by permanent magnets and spreading into the axial‐flux permanent‐machine housing is first defined by using the magneto‐transient finite‐element analysis and further used in the steady‐state AC analysis coupled with the transient thermal analyses, all in 3D. Based on the results of these analyses, the temperature distribution in entire machine is calculated and compared with the measurement results.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2014

Peter M. Lawther

Housing is perhaps the most common component of a community’s manufactured capital wealth stocks damaged or destroyed by natural disasters. Consequently the restoration of…

Abstract

Housing is perhaps the most common component of a community’s manufactured capital wealth stocks damaged or destroyed by natural disasters. Consequently the restoration of housing in the recovery process takes on a paramount significance. This significance is magnified by the complexity of housing restoration and the varying and specialised skill sets required to deliver it. Such complexity is exemplified through both the different phases of post-disaster housing required following a disaster and the role of housing in the broader socio-ecological system of a community. Housing is inextricably linked to livelihoods, physical and mental health, security and social capital. Successful post-disaster restoration of housing must identify and embrace such linkages. This paper explores this notion through examination of the impact of the permanent housing reconstruction of the T. Vilufushi community, Maldives, following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, which completely destroyed the island of Vilufushi. The community were temporarily relocated for 4½ years whilst Vilufushi was totally reconstructed by the Government of Maldives and the British Red Cross. Such reconstruction was undertaken to cater for not only the original population of 1800, but also a projected population of 5000, as the Government of Maldives utilised the opportunity afforded by the Tsunami to pursue its longstanding population consolidation policy. The post-occupancy impact of the permanent housing reconstruction program upon the wider socio-ecological system of the Vilufushi community is explored via a qualitative research methodology utilising the four wealth capitals of sustainable development as its analytical framework. Field data collection methods comprised focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. This was supplemented with ongoing document collection and review. Data was analysed using a pattern match technique / content analysis, preceding a holistic recovery network analysis. Results of the research indicate that the delivery of the permanent housing on Vilufushi has undermined the human, natural and social capital wealth stocks of the community. The implications are that permanent housing reconstruction needs to be considered as much as a social process, as an engineering process. This in turn, has implications for the skillsets of those charged to deliver such projects, and also the organisations that employ them.

Details

Open House International, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Nuwan Tharanga Dias, Kaushal Keraminiyage and Kushani Kulasthri DeSilva

After tsunami 2004, it was estimated that more than 98,000 permanent houses had to be rebuilt. However, ten years on, as communities, are they satisfied in their new…

2451

Abstract

Purpose

After tsunami 2004, it was estimated that more than 98,000 permanent houses had to be rebuilt. However, ten years on, as communities, are they satisfied in their new homes? What are the indicators affecting the long-term satisfaction of resettled communities in relation to their new permanent houses. The purpose of this paper is to qualitatively evaluate the level of long-term satisfaction of two tsunami affected resettled communities in Sri Lanka in a bid to identify the indicators affecting the long-term satisfaction of post disaster resettled communities in relation to permanent housing.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to the thorough literature review conducted to evaluate the state of the art in the subject area, a series of interviews were conducted with experts and tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to gather primary data for this research. The literature review is used to establish the initial list of indicators of long-term satisfaction of resettlements. The expert interviews and the community interviews were used to verify and refine the initially identified indicators.

Findings

A sustainable resettlement programme is just not merely reconstruction of a set of houses. A resettlement programme should re-establish the socio-economic and cultural life of people. Reconstruction of a house does not solve the housing issue; it is vital to look in to the indicators which can convert a house into a home and the surrounding into a neighbourhood.

Originality/value

This paper makes a significant contribution in terms of identifying indicators affecting the long-term community satisfaction with resettlement programmes taking into account economic, social and cultural factors with a special emphasis on post tsunami resettlements in Sri Lanka.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Sara Ghanbarzadeh Ghomi, Gayan Wedawatta, Kanchana Ginige and Bingunath Ingirige

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of post-disaster housing reconstruction projects, propose the conceptual living-transforming disaster relief…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of post-disaster housing reconstruction projects, propose the conceptual living-transforming disaster relief shelter (LTFDR-shelter) approach where temporary shelter is incrementally transformed into a more permanent dwelling by using living technologies and investigate its applicability to provide sustainable post-disaster housing following natural-hazard-induced disasters.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey with 120 household recipients of three Sri Lankan post-disaster housing projects was employed to explore how the post-disaster housing projects have performed against the occupants' expectations. Furthermore, the new proposed LTFDR-shelter conceptual approach's applicability to address the existing issues found in the study was investigated.

Findings

The paper evaluates and identifies the physical and technical, and socio-economic performance issues of post-disaster housing and discusses the applicability of the proposed LTFDR-shelter conceptual approach as an efficient tool to adequately improve the identified factors integrating three phases of relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction employing living technology.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study's scope was limited to the occupant view of the performance of post-disaster housing in Sri Lanka, the findings and conceptual LTFDR-shelter approach could be of particular relevance to other developing countries affected by similar disasters. Further research is recommended to investigate and develop this concept in depth.

Originality/value

This study lays the conceptual foundation for a new theoretical approach in post-disaster housing, which encourages more interdisciplinary collaborations and empirical investigations that potentially enhance post-disaster housing performance and facilitates the application of living technology in the built environment.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Arindam Biswas

Natural disasters not only cause dilapidated buildings and damaged infrastructure but also delay crucial aid for those affected in the event of a disaster and…

Abstract

Purpose

Natural disasters not only cause dilapidated buildings and damaged infrastructure but also delay crucial aid for those affected in the event of a disaster and post-disaster recovery. An institutionally well-managed post-disaster housing strategy provides opportunities for physical and mental healing of its occupant. The time requires occupiers to remain in the temporary housing varies with circumstances. This paper aims to review post-disaster housing scenarios in India in comparison to two Asian cases from Indonesia and Japan. The study focuses on understanding Indian post-disaster housing strategies through a comparative review.

Design/methodology/approach

The research selects coastal cities of Tamil Nadu state, where the post-disaster temporary shelter and rehabilitation was planned and implemented after the Tsunami in 2004. The Tsunami created havoc in Nagapattinam and Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu. Nagapattinam district reported 6,051 fatalities and many more homeless people. After the Tsunami, the government took measures to supply safe, secured and on-site shelter provisions. Surprisingly, many such shelters were never occupied. In many instances, people actually preferred to spend years in a temporary shelter rather occupying government housing. This paper evaluates such events and investigates India’s post-disaster shelter strategy against the derived best practices. This study is based on the sequential/logical reasoning and understanding of the facts. Discussions and findings from this study can be further generalised into a comprehensive policy discussion.

Findings

The paper finds that the manner of planning and design of post-disaster housing programmes influence medium- to long-term recovery of its occupant. A certain element of trade-off between implementation and quality of habitation results into compromises to achieving the desired outcome. When faced with socio-political, economic and financial constraints, the decision-makers are required to make trade-offs in deciding the manner and quantum of allocating resources. Coordination among these agencies is troublesome. It is true for all countries and there is no distinct answer to it. Public consultation and community participation in long-term rehabilitation are crucial to meet the aspiration of the local people.

Originality/value

The paper contributes in discussing a comparison of post-disaster housing rehabilitation between India and the two cases from Indonesia and Japan. As a review paper, the objective is to highlight the synthesis and overall understanding of post-disaster housing strategies from two cases and compare it with India.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Mustafa Kırca and Şerif Canbay

This study aims to investigate whether changes in consumer interest rate, exchange rate and housing supply have permanent effects on housing inflation in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether changes in consumer interest rate, exchange rate and housing supply have permanent effects on housing inflation in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, data from 2010M01 to 2020M06 and changes in consumer interest rate, exchange rate, housing supply and housing inflation were used. Relationships between variables are analyzed first by the Granger causality tests and then the conditional frequency domain causality tests. The conditional frequency domain causality test specifically reveals the permanent causality between variables, whether there is a permanent effect.

Findings

According to the Granger causality test results, there are causality relationships from changes in the consumer interest rate and exchange rate to housing inflation. However, there is no causality relationship between housing supply and housing inflation. According to the conditional frequency domain causality test results, there is causality for the permanent and mid-term from changes in the consumer interest rate to housing inflation and causality for the mid-term and temporary from changes in the exchange rate to housing inflation. Additionally, it was found that there are causality relationships between changes in the consumer interest rate and changes in the exchange rate.

Research limitations/implications

The first limit of the study is that only 2010M01-2020M06 months can be considered. Because the date that variables started common is 2010M01. Besides, there is a limit in the study in variables used. Many variables, both micro and macro, can be added to affect housing inflation.

Originality/value

Housing inflation is a remarkable issue in Turkey. There is an increase in the number of studies on the subject in recent years. For this reason, the study is trying to contribute by approaching the subject from a different angle. The most important contribution of the study is that it has not been investigated whether the determinants of housing inflation have permanent or temporary effects, which were not done in previous studies. In addition, the method used reveals how many months the effects of changes in exchange rates, consumer interest rates and housing supply on housing inflation last. Based on the findings obtained from the methods, important economic and political implications have been put forward in depth.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Patricia Fraser, Martin Hoesli and Lynn McAlevey

The purpose of this paper is to compare responses of house prices in three important markets when faced with permanent and temporary shocks to income. It additionally…

1793

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare responses of house prices in three important markets when faced with permanent and temporary shocks to income. It additionally decomposes each historical house price series into its permanent, temporary and deterministic components.

Design/methodology/approach

Using quarterly data over 1973‐2008, two‐variable systems of house prices and income are specified for three major house‐owning economies: New Zealand (NZ), the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA).

Findings

NZ and UK housing markets are sensitive to both permanent and temporary shocks to income, while the US market reacts to temporary shocks with the permanent component having a largely insignificant role to play in house price composition. In NZ, the temporary component of house prices has tended to be positive over time, pushing prices higher than they would have been otherwise; while in the UK, both permanent and temporary components have tended to reinforce each other.

Originality/value

The paper uses state‐of‐the‐art methods to analyse the relationships between income and house prices in three economies.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

E.L. Quarantelli

The terms “sheltering” and “housing” areused in a variety of unclear and inconsistent ways in the disasterliterature. Proposes a differentiation among emergency…

2471

Abstract

The terms “sheltering” and “housing” are used in a variety of unclear and inconsistent ways in the disaster literature. Proposes a differentiation among emergency sheltering, temporary sheltering, temporary housing and permanent housing. Indicates how they are paid differential attention in American disaster planning and gives specific observations about the four patterns, noting especially how they differ from one another. Suggests there will be a future increase in problems in all the patterns, and that it is not yet fully established to what extent these patterns are applicable in all types of societies.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Fatma Kürüm Varolgüneş

In this study, the effects of permanent housing (PH) practices carried out after an earthquake in Turkey were investigated with a case study. Determining the factors that…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the effects of permanent housing (PH) practices carried out after an earthquake in Turkey were investigated with a case study. Determining the factors that increase occupants’ satisfaction at the local level and transferring them to the projects to be conducted were aimed.

Design/methodology/approach

The data obtained with questionnaires, statistical analyses, drawings and area examinations belonging to the PH areas built after the 2003 Bingöl earthquake were based on a complementary qualitative research study. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used in the analysis of the data. In the CFA, various fits or conformity indices were used to determine to what extent the suggested models showed compliance with the data. SPSS and AMOS were preferred as analysis software.

Findings

When the findings were examined, it was observed that there are significant deficiencies in the activities regarding planning and carrying out the PH production process after the 2003 Bingöl earthquake. An analysis to determine success factors revealed that the most important factor affecting satisfaction is “housing environment.” In addition, the factors “housing design,” “economic recovery,” “cooperation,” “built quality” and “social effect” were determined as important elements for successful results.

Research limitations/implications

The most important way to reduce the destructive effects of disasters is to develop correct solutions. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct research in an earthquake-affected region, to examine the performance of the produced environments, to present the existing problems and to determine the satisfaction of the users in the new housing and their environment.

Originality/value

This study raises awareness of the importance of creating living spaces that respond to the needs of victims in order to reduce social, physiological and psychological risks in PH applications after the earthquake.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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