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Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Chadwick J. Miller, Adriana Samper, Naomi Mandel, Daniel C. Brannon, Jim Salas and Martha Troncoza

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the number of activities within a multi-activity experience influences consumer preferences before and after consumption.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the number of activities within a multi-activity experience influences consumer preferences before and after consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested using four experiments and a secondary data set from a river cruise firm that includes first-time river cruise purchases by consumers from this firm between January 2011 and December 2015 (n = 337,457).

Findings

Consumers prefer experiences with fewer (vs more) activities before consumption – a phenomenon, this paper calls “activity apprehension” – but prefer experiences with more (vs fewer) activities after consumption. A mediation analysis indicates that this phenomenon occurs because the highly perishable nature of activities makes consumers uncertain about their ability to use all the activities within the experience (usage uncertainty).

Practical implications

Evaluations of a multi-activity experience depend on both the number of activities and on whether the consumer is at the pre- or post-consumption stage of the customer journey. As such, firms looking to sell multi-activity experiences should design and promote these experiences in a way that minimizes activity apprehension.

Originality/value

This study is the first to demonstrate that consumer perceptions of an optimal experience depend on both the number of included activities and on the stage of the customer journey (i.e. pre- or post-purchase). It further contributes to the consumer experience literature by examining an unexplored activity characteristic, perishability, in shaping experiential purchase decisions. Finally, it demonstrates a new way in which experiential purchases differ from tangible product purchases.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Pichawadee Kittipanya‐ngam, Yongjiang Shi and Mike J. Gregory

The purpose of this paper is to explore the key influential factors and their implications on food supply chain (FSC) location decisions from a Thailand‐based manufacturer's view.

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1366

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the key influential factors and their implications on food supply chain (FSC) location decisions from a Thailand‐based manufacturer's view.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 21 case studies were conducted with eight Thailand‐based food manufacturers. In each case, key influential factors were observed along with their implications on upstream and downstream FSC location decisions. Data were collected through semi‐structured interviews and documentations. Data reduction and data display in tables were used to help data analysis of the case studies.

Findings

This exploratory research found that, in the food industry, FSC geographical dispersion pattern could be determined by four factors: perishability, value density, economic‐political forces, and technological forces. Technological forces were found as an enabler for FSC geographical dispersion whereas the other three factors could be both barriers and enablers. The implications of these four influential factors drive FSC towards four key patterns of FSC geographical dispersion: local supply chain (SC), supply‐proximity SC, market‐proximity SC, and international SC. Additionally, the strategy of the firm was found to also be an influential factor in determining FSC geographical dispersion.

Research limitations/implications

Despite conducting 21 cases, the findings in this research are based on a relatively small sample, given the large size of the industry. More case evidence from a broader range of food product market and supply items, particularly ones that have significantly different patterns of FSC geographical dispersions would have been insightful. The consideration of additional influential factors such as labour movement between developing countries, currency fluctuations and labour costs, would also enrich the framework as well as improve the quality and validity of the research findings. The different strategies employed by the case companies and their implications on FSC location decisions should also be further investigated along with cases outside Thailand, to provide a more comprehensive view of FSC geographical location decisions.

Practical implications

This paper provides insights how FSC is geographically located in both supply‐side and demand‐side from a manufacturing firm's view. The findings can also provide SC managers and researchers a better understanding of their FSCs.

Originality/value

This research bridges the existing gap in the literature, explaining the geographical dispersion of SC particularly in the food industry where the characteristics are very specific, by exploring the internationalization ability of Thailand‐based FSC and generalizing the key influential factors – perishability (lead time), value density, economic‐political forces, market opportunities, and technological advancements. Four key patterns of FSC internationalization emerged from the case studies.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Sabine Moeller

Four characteristics have been regularly applied to services: intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability, perishability (IHIP). More and more exceptions occur which have…

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23839

Abstract

Purpose

Four characteristics have been regularly applied to services: intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability, perishability (IHIP). More and more exceptions occur which have resulted in substantial criticism. This paper aims to show that each characteristic is valid and useful when related to an individual aspect of services instead of being assigned to services as a single entity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on customer integration, a framework (FTU framework) and a resource typology are developed. These approaches are the theoretical foundation of the analysis.

Findings

The FTU framework and a resource typology reveal different aspects of services and allow the assignment of the IHIP characteristics to them. Intangibility is assigned to the service offering, heterogeneity and inseparability to customer resources, and perishability to the facilities of the provider.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on a theoretical analysis. Researchers may want to empirically test the approach.

Practical implications

Assigning the IHIP characteristics more clearly to certain aspects of services reveals their origin and makes them more tractable. For example knowing that heterogeneity of services is due to customers resources makes it more predictable and manageable.

Originality/value

Although the IHIP characteristics are both widely cited and criticized, existing research has only tried to find and establish new characteristic(s). The approach of this paper is original because it takes a more trenchant look at them in order to develop a framework identifying aspects of services for which they apply.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2021

Pravin Suryawanshi and Pankaj Dutta

The emergence of risk in today's business environment is affecting every managerial decision, majorly due to globalization, disruptions, poor infrastructure, forecasting…

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88

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of risk in today's business environment is affecting every managerial decision, majorly due to globalization, disruptions, poor infrastructure, forecasting errors and different uncertainties. The impact of such disruptive events is significantly high for perishable items due to their susceptibility toward economic loss. This paper aims to design and address an operational planning problem of a perishable food supply chain (SC).

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model considers the simultaneous effect of disruption, random demand and deterioration of food items on business objectives under constrained conditions. The study describes this situation using a mixed-integer nonlinear program with a piecewise approximation algorithm. The proposed algorithm is easy to implement and competitive to handle stationary as well as nonstationary random variables in place of scenario techniques. The mathematical model includes a real-life case study from a kiwi fruit distribution industry.

Findings

The study quantifies the performance of SC in terms of SC cost and fill rate. Additionally, it investigates the effects of disruption due to suppliers, transport losses, product perishability and demand stochasticity. The model incorporates an incentive-based strategy to provide cost-cutting in the existing business plan considering the effect of deterioration. The study performs sensitivity analysis to show various “what-if” situations and derives implications for managerial insights.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the scant literature of quantitative modeling of food SC. The research work is original as it integrates a stochastic (uncertain) nature of SC simultaneously coupled with the effect of disruption, transport losses and product perishability. It incorporates proactive planning strategies to minimize the disruption impact and the concept of incremental quantity discounts on lot sizes at a destination node.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Sasikarn Chatvijit Cook and Jennifer Yurchisin

The current research explored both pre-purchase and post-purchase factors of consumer behaviour. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the…

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14440

Abstract

Purpose

The current research explored both pre-purchase and post-purchase factors of consumer behaviour. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships that may exist among consumers’ perceptions of perishability, scarcity, low price, attitudes, impulse buying, post-purchase emotions, and product returns within the context of the fast fashion environments.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 246 usable questionnaires completed by female undergraduate students, who made purchases and product returns at fast fashion retailers, were analysed in SPSS and AMOS 23.0. Structural equation modelling was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Consumers who are attracted to scarcity due to limited supply and scarcity due to time, referred to as perceived perishability, have a positive attitude towards the fast fashion retailers in which products are presented in scarce environments. Likewise, consumers have a positive attitude towards fast fashion retailers due to low priced merchandises they offer. Consequently, consumers who have a positive attitude towards the fast fashion retailers are likely to purchase products from them impulsively. Moreover, impulse buying behaviour positively influenced some negative post-purchase emotional responses, which in turn positively influenced product returns in the fast fashion environments.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the current study contribute to a greater understanding of apparel-related consumer behaviour in general. A theory formation of fast fashion consumer behaviour from acquisition to disposal can be drawn from the results of this study. Because some fast fashion retailers do sell clothing for both men and women, researchers could compare the responses of males and females to examine differences in consumer behaviour related to demographic characteristics. In the future, an examination of actual emotional responses and return behaviour would be beneficial for a more complete understanding of post-purchase consumer behaviour.

Practical implications

Fast fashion retailers could use this information to carefully design shopping environments that induce impulse buying behaviour because it may result in product returns. Fast fashion retailers need to understand the causes of the return behaviour, whether consumer related or product related, to better meet the needs of their target market. Return policies must be considered.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine the impact of negative emotions following consumers’ impulse buying on product returns in the fast fashion retail environments.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2020

Rakesh Patidar and Sunil Agrawal

The purpose of this paper is to study and develop supply chain structure of traditional Indian agri-fresh food supply chain (AFSC). This paper proposes a mathematical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study and develop supply chain structure of traditional Indian agri-fresh food supply chain (AFSC). This paper proposes a mathematical model to design a traditional Indian AFSC to minimize total distribution cost and post-harvest losses in the chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper formulates two mathematical models to structure and represent the flow of products in the existing chain. First, a three-echelon, multi-period, multi-product, mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is formulated to minimize the total distribution cost incurred in the chain. Further, the developed formulation is extended by considering the perishability of products in the second model.

Findings

A real case study problem of Mandsaur district (India) is solved in LINGO 17.0 package to check the validity of the formulated models. The perishable (second) model of AFSC reports better results in terms of costs and post-harvest losses minimization. The results revealed that 92% of the total distribution cost incurred in the transportation of products from farmers to the hubs.

Research limitations/implications

This paper includes implications for redesigning an existing supply chain network by incorporating an appropriate transportation strategy from farmers to hubs to minimize transportation inefficiency and enhance the profitability of farmers.

Practical implications

The formulated AFSC model would help managers and policymakers to identify optimal locations for hubs where required infrastructure would be developed.

Originality/value

According to the author's best knowledge, this paper is the first to design traditional Indian AFSC by considering the perishability of products.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Luluk Lusiantoro, Nicola Yates, Carlos Mena and Liz Varga

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between information sharing and performance of perishable product supply chains (PPSC)…

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1501

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between information sharing and performance of perishable product supply chains (PPSC). Building on transaction cost economics (TCE), organisational information processing theory (OIPT), and contingency theory (CT), this study proposes a theoretical framework to guide future research into information sharing in perishable product supply chains (IS-PPSC).

Design/methodology/approach

Using the systematic literature review methodology, 48 peer-reviewed articles are carefully selected, mapped, and assessed. Template analysis is performed to unravel the relationship mechanisms between information sharing and PPSC performance.

Findings

The authors find that the relationship between information sharing and PPSC performance is currently unclear, and there is inconsistency in the positioning of information sharing among constructs and variables in the IS-PPSC literature. This implies a requirement to refine the relationship between information sharing and PPSC performance. The review also revealed that the role of perishable product characteristics has largely been ignored in existing research.

Originality/value

This study applies relevant multiple theoretical perspectives to overcome the ambiguity of the IS-PPSC literature and contributes nine propositions to guide future research. Accordingly, this study contributes to the refined roles of relationship uncertainty, environmental uncertainty, information sharing capabilities, and perishable product characteristics in shaping the relationship between information sharing and PPSC performance.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Devon DelVecchio, Timothy B. Heath and Max Chauvin

Multi-unit discounts (MUDs, e.g. “3 for $4”) typically increase sales relative to other discounting frames. This study demonstrates the value of MUDs by showing that…

Abstract

Purpose

Multi-unit discounts (MUDs, e.g. “3 for $4”) typically increase sales relative to other discounting frames. This study demonstrates the value of MUDs by showing that positive multi-unit price/quantity signals are potent enough to match and even exceed the sales produced by larger discounts on single items. However, there is reason to believe that MUDs can produce neutral effects in some cases (e.g. among consumers interested in only single-unit purchases) and even negative effects in others. In addition, the study considers whether MUDs can, in some cases, reduce purchase quantities by signaling smaller-than-otherwise-planned purchase amounts and/or lower-quality products.

Design/methodology/approach

The effectiveness of MUDs is tested in both the field and lab. Study 1 models purchase quantities stemming from 2,374 purchases of discounted items at a mass retailer. Purchased products ranged in type from pantry items to apparel and electronics, and ranged in price from 44¢ to $99.99. There were 1,530 single-unit discounts, 596 two-unit discounts and 248 discounts, involving three or more units. Study 2 consists of a laboratory experiment that overcomes the shortcomings of Study 1 by accounting for non-purchasers, controlling for product classes and testing whether smaller MUDs can lead to lower purchase quantities for larger-purchase-quantity products.

Findings

The results of both the field study and the laboratory experiment indicate that MUDs’ monetary cue (savings) and purchase-quantity cue (volume) increase purchase quantities. Generally, purchase quantities increased monotonically with the number of units offered in the discount. In fact, the quantity cue is so effective that it can increase sales enough as to substitute for larger discounts. However, in some instances, MUDs can decrease intended purchase quantities. The negative effect of MUDs is the most pronounced for larger unit deals, offering deeper discounts on perishable goods.

Originality/value

This research is the first to demonstrate that the power of the signals provided by MUDs may be so positive as to lead them to be more effective than discounts of substantially larger value but also so negative as to render them less effective than single-units discounts. This negative outcome poses a threat beyond those typically associated with discounts, in that rather than consumers simply discounting a discount, in which case the discount remains positive even if their impact at the margin wanes, the MUD frame may actually reduce sales.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Cameron A. MacKenzie and Aruna Apte

The purpose of this paper is to quantify elements that make fresh produce supply chains (FPSCs) vulnerable to disruptions and to quantify the benefits of different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify elements that make fresh produce supply chains (FPSCs) vulnerable to disruptions and to quantify the benefits of different disruption-management strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a mathematical model of a disruption in a FPSC and analyzes the relationships among variables.

Findings

The model determines the optimal safety stock as a function of the perishability of the produce, the length of time it takes to find the contamination, the level of demand during the disruption, and the amount of produce that can be rerouted. Applying the model to the 2006 E. coli spinach contamination reveals that the drop in customer demand for fresh spinach plays the largest role in Dole losing sales.

Research limitations/implications

The model includes several parameters that may be difficult to estimate. Future models can incorporate uncertainty that is inherent in supply chain disruptions.

Practical implications

The model in this paper can help a supply chain (SC) manager explore the trade-offs of different disruption-management strategies. For example, a SC manager can determine the value of holding additional safety stock vs trying to improve traceability in the SC.

Originality/value

This paper quantifies and models insights delivered in the qualitative analyses of FPSC disruptions. The theoretical contributions include an analysis of the interaction among safety stock, levels of demand, communication, and traceability parameters in order to help SC managers evaluate different strategies to mitigate the effects of contaminated produce.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Annouk Lievens, Rudy K. Moenaert and Rosette S Jegers

Reports the findings of an exploratory case study research on the contribution of internal and external communication to the commercial success of financial service…

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5290

Abstract

Reports the findings of an exploratory case study research on the contribution of internal and external communication to the commercial success of financial service innovations. An extensive case study research involving four innovation projects was conducted within a leading Belgian bank. The desk research and the 32 in‐depth interviews with senior managers and project leaders served as a platform for theory development. A propositional framework was developed that offers a contingency perspective regarding the role of communication during the different stages of the service innovation process. While many of the existing studies in the field have exclusively focused on external communication, the effectiveness of internal communication is a critical success factor. Furthermore, path dependency effects were created in the project life‐cycle of the financial service innovation projects. Finally, the findings suggest that the effectiveness of internal and external communication depends on the level of intangibility, heterogeneity, simultaneity and perishability of the new service offering.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

Keywords

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