The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers and journal reviewers with guidance regarding the appropriate level of analysis when developing and testing theory on export performance determinants. The authors’ focus is on the implications this has for the measurement of export performance.
The paper takes the form of an essay.
Researchers should measure export performance at the level at which the theory is developed. Most export performance theory developed is inherently export function level theory, requiring export function level measurement of performance. Less commonly, researchers may develop theory at the intra‐firm level, which requires performance data from multiple export ventures within firms for theory testing purposes. Researchers rarely have cause to collect data from a single export venture from firms, since data at this level are unlikely to generalize to the firm as a whole, and may lead to a biased picture of the determinants of overall export performance.
Researchers sometimes find that their passage to publication is blocked by reviewers who insist that measurement of export performance should occur at an incorrect level. Typically, the reviewer demands export performance assessment at the export venture level when the theory being tested is inherently an export function level theory. In this paper, the authors hope to correct poorly informed opinion regarding the use of venture level export performance measures, and encourage the use of measures of export performance that match the theory being tested.
Exercises are key components of assessment centers (ACs). However, little is known about the nature and determinants of AC exercise performance. The traditional exercise…
Exercises are key components of assessment centers (ACs). However, little is known about the nature and determinants of AC exercise performance. The traditional exercise paradigm primarily emphasizes the need to simulate task, social, and organizational demands in AC exercises. This chapter draws on trait activation theory in proposing a new AC exercise paradigm. First, we develop a theoretical framework that addresses the complexity of situational characteristics of AC exercises as determinants of AC performance. Second, we argue for planting multiple stimuli within exercises as a structured means of eliciting candidate behavior. Third, we show how the new paradigm also has key insights for the rating part of ACs, namely, in selecting dimensions, designing behavioral checklists, screening assessors, and training assessors. Finally, the impact of this new AC exercise paradigm is anticipated on important AC outcomes such as reliability, internal/external construct-related validity, criterion-related validity, assessee perceptions, and feedback effectiveness.
Work organizations and the employees within these organizations face considerable environmental pressures requiring adaptive change. Several forces have contributed to…
Work organizations and the employees within these organizations face considerable environmental pressures requiring adaptive change. Several forces have contributed to this need for great adaptation. These are described in many excellent sources (e.g., Cascio, 2003; Ilgen & Pulakos, 1999); here we briefly review their implications for individual adaptability.
The descriptions of performance budgeting, based on theory and practice, allow for the application of Dante’s allegory in The Divine Comedy. This allegory places…
The descriptions of performance budgeting, based on theory and practice, allow for the application of Dante’s allegory in The Divine Comedy. This allegory places performance budgeting into the spiritual domains of heaven, hell, and purgatory. These domains are used to frame the theoretical foundations of performance budgeting and to discuss a match with operational reality. Performance budgeting practices often fall between heaven, the optimal use of public revenues, and hell, the worst use of public revenues. It can be argued that most performance budgeting efforts tend to congregate in purgatory. Realizing purgatory allows for the recognition of principles that form the basis for performance budgeting to be classified as institutional myth. As institutional myth, the practice of performance budgeting is blocked from theoretical idealism.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader‐member exchange (LMX) and human resource development (HRD) to gain a better understanding of the…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leader‐member exchange (LMX) and human resource development (HRD) to gain a better understanding of the LMX‐performance relationship through connecting LMX and HRD theory.
Dubin's framework is used for the purpose of linking LMX with HRD. Except that the last three steps (empirical indicators of key terms, hypotheses, testing) involved conducting empirical research, the authors employ steps 1 through 5 to build an HRD‐based LMX model, i.e. the first step specifies that the units of the theory be identified; the second step involves establishing the laws of interaction applicable to the units of the theory. The third and fourth steps define boundaries for an HRD‐based LMX model and suggest propositions for future empirical research. In addition, to lessen the likelihood of some redundancy the system states are included with the laws of interaction.
LMX and HRD (as represented by identified outcomes) theories are linked by at least three key factors: trust, empowerment, and performance. A theoretical model linking LMX and HRD also describes the contributions of trust, empowerment, and performance to LMX theory of leadership with the help of two specific HRD interventions – trust building and empowerment facilitation.
The confirmation of the theoretical model through empirical research is still required.
In the aspect of relational performance, this paper proposes a basis for designing and implementing strategic HRD activities and recommends the conceptual model as an intervention technique for organizational change.
This paper illuminates the base of LMX leadership theory and seeks to develop new practical insights of the theory. In so doing, it aims to contribute to reducing the tension between leadership theorists and leadership development practitioners, described as validity versus usefulness.
In this chapter we develop sustainability implications of the Savall, Zardet, Bonett, and colleagues’ approach, known worldwide as socioeconomic approach to management (SEAM). SEAM can be used as a way of doing management and organizational inquiry into the ecological sustainability of practices with planetary boundaries. We conclude that a socially responsible approach to management needs to consider the hidden costs to an enterprise if it is not being sustainable to planetary resource limits.
This article reviews the extensive history of dynamic performance research, with the goal of providing a clear picture of where the field has been, where it is now, and…
This article reviews the extensive history of dynamic performance research, with the goal of providing a clear picture of where the field has been, where it is now, and where it needs to go. Past research has established that job performance does indeed change, but the implications of this dynamism and the predictability of performance trends remain unresolved. Theories are available to help explain dynamic performance, and although far from providing an unambiguous understanding of the phenomenon, they offer direction for future theoretical development. Dynamic performance research does suffer from a number of methodological difficulties, but new techniques have emerged that present even more opportunities to advance knowledge in this area. From this review, I propose research questions to bridge the theoretical and methodological gaps of this area. Answering these questions can advance both research involving job performance prediction and our understanding of the effects of human resource interventions.
Discusses current methodological problems with principalperformance appraisal and evaluation methods which have receivedconsiderable attention in the literature. Suggests…
Discusses current methodological problems with principal performance appraisal and evaluation methods which have received considerable attention in the literature. Suggests that administrative performance appraisals can be conducted using a measurement technique called generalizability theory (”G” theory). Introduces “G” theory as a method for improving the dependability of principal performance appraisals.
A theory of self and the identities it comprises may explain differences in academic and other cognitive performance because successful performances are associated with…
A theory of self and the identities it comprises may explain differences in academic and other cognitive performance because successful performances are associated with strong internal motivation. Identity control theory and affect control theory assume that individuals act to confirm identities, even when those actions have negative consequences. Cognitive performance, then, could be impaired if high performance is inconsistent with a salient identity. A developing theory explaining the relationship between identity maintenance and cognitive performance assumes that the effects of identity maintenance combine with other motivations to achieve. Anticipation of a performance relevant to an identity is assumed to put pressure on the identity, motivating performances consistent with it. Under some conditions identities may change to reflect different performance standards.