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Article

Uwe Peter Kanning and Nina Bergmann

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the best predictors of customer satisfaction by analysing and comparing the variables of two classical paradigms: the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the best predictors of customer satisfaction by analysing and comparing the variables of two classical paradigms: the confirmation/disconfirmation model; and Locke's model of general satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review and the development of a conceptual framework in which various problems in the two models are identified, the paper presents a field study that investigates the extent to which the satisfaction of customers of a bank can be explained by these models and by two modified models (regression design).

Findings

The study finds: that the inclusion of “importance” in Locke's model does not provide a better prediction of satisfaction than the variables of “performance” and “expectation” in the confirmation/disconfirmation model; that the absolute level of the expectationperformance difference is a better predictor of customer satisfaction than the simple relative difference; and that “performance” is a much more reliable predictor of satisfaction than “expectation” and/or “importance”.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the specific setting of bank customers; it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalised to other fields.

Originality/value

The study provides an original critique and comparison of the classical models and identifies their limitations. The study also demonstrates that the absolute level of the expectationperformance difference is a better prediction of customer satisfaction than the simple relative difference. The study shows that “performance” is the most powerful predictor of satisfaction and that it is therefore not necessary, in practice, to conduct a differentiated survey of other predictors.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article

Berrin Arzu Eren

This study aims to investigates customer satisfaction from the use of bank chatbots and the effect of perceived trust in chatbots and banks' reputation on customer satisfaction.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigates customer satisfaction from the use of bank chatbots and the effect of perceived trust in chatbots and banks' reputation on customer satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey is conducted in Turkey involving 240 customers who experienced banking transactions using a chatbot. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is used to investigate the relationships between the variables. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and SmartPLS programs.

Findings

Perceived performance, perceived trust and corporate reputation significantly affect customer satisfaction with chatbot use. Customer expectations and confirmation of customer expectations have no direct impact on customer satisfaction, but customer expectations positively affect perceived performance. Customer expectations exert an indirect influence on customer satisfaction through perceived performance. Perceived performance has a positive impact on the confirmation of customer expectations, but customer expectations do not significantly impact the confirmation of customer expectations.

Research limitations/implications

This study relies on a limited number of participants. Moreover, its sample is not representative of the target population due to the convenience sampling technique. Even if the results may not be generalized to the entire population of Turkey, they reflect the reality of emerging markets with relatively high technology sensitivity and a young population.

Practical implications

The results provide new insights regarding banking service delivery channels, which may be of interest to professionals, academics, banks' top management, product development teams, design teams and customer satisfaction units.

Social implications

This study is believed to help the community make their lives easier by providing them with knowledge and awareness about chatbots.

Originality/value

This study extends expectations confirmation theory's predictions to chatbot use in banking.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article

Cynthia Courtois, Maude Plante and Pier-Luc Lajoie

This study aims to better understand how academics-in-the-making construe doctoral performance and the impacts of this construal on their positioning in relation to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to better understand how academics-in-the-making construe doctoral performance and the impacts of this construal on their positioning in relation to doctoral performance expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on 25 semi-structured interviews with PhD students from Canadian, Dutch, Scottish and Australian business schools.

Findings

Based on Decoteau’s (2016) concept of reflexive habitus, this study highlights how doctoral students’ construal is influenced by their previous experiences and by expectations from other adjacent fields in which they simultaneously gravitate. This leads them to adopt a position oscillating between resistance and compliance in relation to their understanding of doctoral performance expectations promoted in the academic field.

Research limitations/implications

The concept of reflexivity, as understood by Decoteau (2016), is found to be pivotal when an individual integrates into a new field.

Practical implications

This study encourages business schools to review expectations regarding doctoral performance. These expectations should be clear, but they should also leave room for PhD students to preserve their academic aspirations.

Originality/value

It is beneficial to empirically clarify the influence of performance expectations in academia on the reflexivity of PhD students, as the majority of studies exploring this topic mainly leverage auto-ethnographic data.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article

Mieke Audenaert, Adelien Decramer, Thomas Lange and Alex Vanderstraeten

Drawing on climate theory and social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how the strength of the expectation climate, defined as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on climate theory and social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how the strength of the expectation climate, defined as the degree of agreement among job incumbents on what is expected from them, affects their job performance. To explain this relationship, the authors utilize mediating trust-in-the organization effects as an explanatory avenue.

Design/methodology/approach

In a time-lagged data sample of 568 public service employees, whose job performance is rated by their 242 line managers, the authors apply multilevel modeling. The authors employed stratified random sampling techniques across 75 job categories in a large, public sector organization in Belgium.

Findings

The analysis provides support for the argument that expectation climate strength via mediating trust-in-the organization effects impacts positively on the relationship between employee expectations and performance. Specifically, the significant association of the expectation climate strength with trust suggests that the perceived consensus about the expectations among different job incumbents demonstrates an organization’s trustworthiness and reliability to pursue intentions that are deemed favorable for employees. The authors conjecture that expectation climate strength breeds trust which strengthens employees’ job performance.

Practical implications

HRM professionals in general, and line managers in particular, should heed the advice and carefully manage their tools and practices in an effort to signal compatible expectancies to different job incumbents in the same or similar roles.

Originality/value

The results shed new light on the mechanisms through which the strength of collective expectations impacts employee outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Jochen Wirtz and Anna S. Mattila

Research in economics, finance and decision science has shown that consumers are familiar with unit‐to‐unit variability, and in the context of services it has been…

Abstract

Research in economics, finance and decision science has shown that consumers are familiar with unit‐to‐unit variability, and in the context of services it has been demonstrated that consumers often anticipate and perceive performance heterogeneity. However, satisfaction models to date have failed to explicitly treat expectations as distributions. In this study, expectations were modeled along two dimensions – mean and variance of expected performance – which were manipulated together with actual performance in a true experimental design. The findings indicate that the expected variance in performance had an impact on perceived disconfirmation. Specifically, at low levels of incongruity (i.e. small absolute performance deviations from the expected mean), a high expected variance in performance reduced the level of perceived disconfirmation. Conversely, at high levels of incongruity (large absolute performance deviations from expectations), the expected variance in performance exerted minimal influence over perceived disconfirmation. These findings are reconciled and discussed using the zones of indifference and tolerance, and assimilation processes.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article

Joseph Phiri

The purpose of this paper is to explore stakeholder expectations of performance within public healthcare services from a less-developed economic context – Zambia in this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore stakeholder expectations of performance within public healthcare services from a less-developed economic context – Zambia in this case. The study emerges from extant literature indicating potential variations in stakeholder conceptions and expectations of performance within public services.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on institutional and structuration theories to investigate cross-sectional stakeholder expectations of performance together with power relations embedded within public healthcare performance expectations. Empirical data are drawn from semi-structured interviews with 33 stakeholders including legislators, policymakers, regulators of health services, healthcare professionals and health facility managers.

Findings

The findings not only reiterate the constructed and multi-dimensional nature of performance but also highlight the hierarchical configuration of stakeholder expectations linking macro-level health outcomes with micro facility-level service delivery processes.

Practical implications

The study points towards the need of harmonising the national performance measurement (PM) framework to ensure that macro-level goals are suitably cascaded and translated into micro-level service delivery processes through bottom-up structuration linkages.

Originality/value

In addition to filling the gap of explicating public healthcare PM practices in a less-developed economic context, the paper integrates insights from institutional and structuration theories to depict stakeholder expectations of performance through a multi-level and hierarchical framework.

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Article

Lawrence O. Hamer

The paper seeks to provide a theoretical and empirical investigation of the relationship between consumer expectations and consumer perceptions of service quality.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to provide a theoretical and empirical investigation of the relationship between consumer expectations and consumer perceptions of service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory of cognitive reference points, adaptation‐level theory, and assimilation‐contrast theory are used to formulate hypotheses concerning the relationships between perceived service quality, consumer expectations, and perceptions. These hypotheses were empirically investigated through an experiment that manipulated expectations and perceptions while measuring perceived service quality.

Findings

The principal finding is that consumer expectations are positive predictors of perceived service quality (i.e. higher expectations lead to higher perceptions of quality). Another finding is that the relationship between expectations and perceived service quality is much stronger than prior literature suggests.

Practical implications

The practical implication of this study is that practitioners should seek to actively manage their customers' expectations to increase those expectations.

Originality/value

This paper is valuable to practitioners who are seeking to use expectations to achieve higher perceptions of quality among their customers. It is also valuable to researchers who are seeking to understand the relationship between expectations and quality perceptions.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Jochen Wirtz and John E.G. Bateson

Research on perceived risk and multiattribute models with uncertain attributes has shown that consumers are familiar with unit‐to‐unit variability of products and…

Abstract

Research on perceived risk and multiattribute models with uncertain attributes has shown that consumers are familiar with unit‐to‐unit variability of products and services, and can expect some kind of performance level distribution. This has led to the modelling of expectations along two dimensions – expected mean performance and some measure of its variance. This perspective is in accordance with theories on decision making in economics, finance and decision science. Satisfaction models, however, implicitly assume that expectations are unidimensional, and so far, no research has examined the impact of expected performance heterogeneity on the satisfaction processes. This is surprising, particularly in services marketing, as a high degree of performance heterogeneity is a frequently cited feature of service encounters. In this study, different levels of expected performance heterogeneity were manipulated using a unique laboratory simulator. The results clearly show that expected performance heterogeneity can have impact on the satisfaction process. In particular, at small levels of actual disconfirmation the presence of uncertainty in expectations improves the level of disconfirmation, shifting it towards “better than expected”, and improving overall satisfaction. At higher levels of disconfirmation, uncertainty in expectations did not show any effect on disconfirmation levels.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article

Alpana Agarwal

An effective performance management must track level of employee engagement, ensure employee feedback on all aspects and ensure that the people act on that information…

Abstract

Purpose

An effective performance management must track level of employee engagement, ensure employee feedback on all aspects and ensure that the people act on that information. Also, it must ensure accessibility of essential conditions to perform. Considering the challenges associated with existing performance management system, present study attempts to discover factual expectations from the employees. The paper also establishes required conditions for fulfilling such expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

Present study attempts to discover factual expectations from the employees using the Balance Scorecard approach (BSC). Furthermore, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD), relation between employers' expectation and requirements necessary to fulfill such expectations has also been determined.

Findings

The suggested model has been developed as House Of Performance Management (HOPM) outlining potential leveraging points for enhancing the performance, based on which immediate actionable measures for effective and efficient performance management can also been advocated. The HOQ suggested in this paper can be source of reference while developing performance management system for an organization. Besides, it can help the Human Resource team to discover strategic opportunities and set targets.

Originality/value

Effective goal setting, pooled with a method to track progress and identify obstacles, contribute to attainment of bottom to top line results. However, designing and implementing such performance management system has been associated with many challenges like lack of top management support, perception of the process as time-consuming, failure to communicate clear and specific goals and expectations, lack of consistency, etc. (Managing employee performance, 2019). Hence most organizations have been increasingly looking for effective ways of assessing employee performance that can promote stakeholders' satisfaction, employee engagement and continuous improvement.

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Article

Tripat Gill, Hae Joo Kim and Chatura Ranaweera

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the expectations and evaluations of services provided by members of an ethnic minority using the lens of ethnic stereotypes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the expectations and evaluations of services provided by members of an ethnic minority using the lens of ethnic stereotypes. The authors also examine how ethnic service providers (ESPs) are evaluated by customers from the majority group vs the same ethnic group as the provider.

Design/methodology/approach

In Study 1, the authors measure the stereotypes about skills, abilities, and typical professions associated with different ethnic groups (i.e. Chinese, South Asians and white). The authors then measure the effect of these stereotypes on the performance expectations from ESPs in different professional services. In Study 2, the authors manipulate the service domain (stereotypical vs counter-stereotypical) and the level of service performance (good: above average performance vs mediocre: below average) of a Chinese ESP, and subsequently measure the evaluation of the ESP by the same ethnic group (Chinese) vs majority group (white) participants.

Findings

Performance expectations from ESPs closely match the stereotypes associated with the ethnic group. But the performance of an ESP (especially mediocre-level service) is evaluated differently by the same ethnic group vs majority group customers, depending upon the domain of service. A Chinese ESP providing mediocre service in a stereotypical domain (martial arts instructor) is evaluated more critically by same ethnic group (Chinese) participants as compared to white participants. In contrast, a Chinese ESP providing mediocre service in a counter-stereotypical domain (fitness instructor) is evaluated more favourably by same ethnic group (Chinese) participants as compared to white participants. There is no such difference when performance is good.

Research limitations/implications

It is a common practice to employ ESPs to serve same ethnic group customers. While this strategy can be effective in a counter-stereotypical domain even if the ESP provides mediocre service, the findings suggest that this strategy can backfire when the performance is mediocre in a stereotypical service domain.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate the need for emphasizing outcome (vis-à-vis interaction) quality where ESPs are employed to serve same ethnic group customers in a stereotypical service setting. However, when an ESP is offering a counter-stereotypical service, the emphasis needs to be more on the interpersonal processes (vis-à-vis outcome). Firms can gain by taking this into account in their hiring and training practices.

Originality/value

Prior research has primarily used cultural distance to examine inter-cultural service encounters. The authors show that ethnic stereotypes pertaining to the skills and abilities of an ESP can affect evaluations beyond the role of cultural distance alone.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

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