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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Louise Alexander, Jade Sheen, Nicole Rinehart, Margaret Hay and Lee Boyd

This critical review of historical and contemporary literature explores the role of television media in the prevalence of stigma towards persons experiencing a mental…

Abstract

Purpose

This critical review of historical and contemporary literature explores the role of television media in the prevalence of stigma towards persons experiencing a mental health challenge. In addition to this, the purpose of this paper is to examine the notion of perceived dangerousness, which is a concept where persons with mental illness are thought by others to be inherently dangerous.

Design/methodology/approach

A vigorous search of databases was undertaken for articles published between 2000 and 2016. Some seminal literature prior to 2000 was used to compare historical data with current literature. In total, 1,037 publications were reviewed against inclusion criteria.

Findings

While mental illness stigma has received much attention in the literature, television media and public perceptions of dangerousness have not. While these concepts are complex and multi-factorial, what we do understand is that approaches to address stigma have been largely unsuccessful, and that persons experiencing mental health challenges continue to be significantly disadvantaged.

Practical implications

Implications to practice for clinicians working in mental health on this issue have not been adequately explored within the literature. While media guidelines assist journalists to make informed choices when they portray mental health issues in television news, there are no such guidelines to inform drama television viewing.

Originality/value

Significantly, television’s role in perpetuation of perceptions of dangerousness has not been adequately explored as a combined co-occurring factor associated with the stigmatisation and avoidance of persons experiencing a mental health challenge. In an era when mental health challenges are on the rise, it is of great importance that we collectively seek to minimise negative impacts and improve the experiences of those with a mental health challenge through addressing stigma both individually and in television media.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

David B. Menkes and Gillian A. Bendelow

Police in England and Wales are empowered, under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983 (s136), to detain individuals thought to be a danger to themselves or to others…

Abstract

Purpose

Police in England and Wales are empowered, under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983 (s136), to detain individuals thought to be a danger to themselves or to others. Use of this authority is widespread, but varies across districts and attracts controversy because of inconsistent application and the fact that it requires police to make judgements about mental health. The purpose of this paper is to examine police attitudes to and criteria for using s136.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted focus groups with 30 officers in urban and rural areas of three different regions across England and Wales. Group interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using open and axial coding.

Findings

Use of s136 authority has major implications for police work; liaison with mental health services is seen as desirable but often ineffective due to resource constraints and the latter's lack of availability. The decision to invoke s136 depends on social context and other particulars of individual cases.

Research limitations/implications

Although the findings have limitations with respect to generalisability across the whole of the UK, there are patterns of responses which have major implications for policy recommendations.

Practical implications

Police decisions to apply s136 reflect an implicit values-based classification of and response to emotionally disturbed behaviour, in light of available institutional and social supports.

Social implications

Tasked primarily with protecting the public and keeping the peace, police “diagnoses” of risk often contrast with that of mental health professionals.

Originality/value

A highly original piece of research which has attracted further funding from BA/Leverhulme.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Bochra Nourhene Saguem, Marwa Gharmoul, Amel Braham, Selma Ben Nasr, Sang Qin and Patrick Corrigan

This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the attribution questionnaire (AQ).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the attribution questionnaire (AQ).

Design/methodology/approach

The AQ is designed to assess attitudes, affects and behavioral intentions related to a hypothetical person diagnosed with schizophrenia. The original English version was translated into Literary Arabic. A total of 310 students registered in different universities, with medical and paramedical establishments excluded completed the Arabic version of AQ. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized paths. Correlations among exogenous (e.g. responsibility) and endogenous (e.g. help) variables in the path were examined. Fit indicators were then examined for equations that were identified.

Findings

The results revealed that the Arabic version of AQ showed acceptable psychometric properties in the assessment of stigma in the Tunisian population. All factors of this Arabic version showed Cronbach’s alpha values equal to or greater than 0.72. Structural equation models for the responsibility and dangerousness models were mostly supported. The Arabic version of AQ is valid and reliable for the assessment of stigma in Tunisian and Arabic-speaking populations.

Practical implications

The Arabic version of AQ may be used to promote research on stigma toward people with mental illness in larger and more representative Tunisian and Arabic-speaking populations, which will help to further address the complex and multifaceted phenomenon of stigma toward people with mental illness.

Originality/value

This is the first validated stigma measure in the Tunisian socio-cultural context.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Kristen Marcussen and Christian Ritter

This chapter examines the effects of mental health services and stigma on changes in self-concept and well-being for individuals with SPMI.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines the effects of mental health services and stigma on changes in self-concept and well-being for individuals with SPMI.

Methodology/approach

Data for this chapter come from structured interviews and service data for 140 individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses. We use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between perceived and internalized stigma, as well as the relationships among stigma, self-concept (self-esteem and mastery), and well-being (quality of life and functioning).

Findings

We find that case management is negatively related to quality of life and psychiatric services are positively related to functioning. Crisis services and assessment are associated with mastery in opposite directions. Internalized stigma is positively associated with self-esteem and mastery, and negatively associated with functioning. We do not find a relationship between services and stigma.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation to this chapter is the sample size, which prohibits us from examining a full range of services and outcomes. Nonetheless, our findings provide information about how services and stigma impact well-being, and may be used as a starting point for considering strategies for improving services and reducing stigma. Future work should consider pairing outcomes with services to determine their effectiveness.

Originality/value

This chapter builds on previous research that examines the relative effects of services and stigma among individuals in community health care by extending measures of both services and stigma, and by examining the relationship between them, in order to better determine their implications for self-concept and well-being.

Details

50 Years After Deinstitutionalization: Mental Illness in Contemporary Communities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-403-4

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Nikolaos Georgantzis and Efi Vasileiou

This article tests whether workers are indifferent between risky and safe jobs provided that, in labor market equilibrium, wages should serve as a utility equalizing…

Abstract

This article tests whether workers are indifferent between risky and safe jobs provided that, in labor market equilibrium, wages should serve as a utility equalizing device. Workers’ preferences are elicited through a partial measure of overall job satisfaction: satisfaction with job-related risk. Given that selectivity turns out to be important, we use selectivity corrected models. Results show that wage differentials do not exclusively compensate workers for being in dangerous jobs. However, as job characteristics are substitutable in workers’ utility, they could feel satisfied, even if they were not fully compensated financially for working in dangerous jobs.

Details

New Analyses of Worker Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-056-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Brendan Lloyd, Alexandra Blazely and Lisa Phillips

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is reasonably common, particularly among young people with prevalence rates of up to 25 per cent reported. Many factors contribute towards…

Abstract

Purpose

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is reasonably common, particularly among young people with prevalence rates of up to 25 per cent reported. Many factors contribute towards NSSI, including depression, anxiety and history of abuse and NSSI is a risk factor for suicide. Many people who engage in NSSI do not seek help, potentially due to concern about sigmatising attitudes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of gender and disclosure on stigmatising attitudes towards individuals who engage in NSSI.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 384 first-year university students (77.4 per cent female; mean age 19.50 years (SD=3.53)) who completed measures of stigmatising attitudes in response to vignettes featuring individuals who engaged in self-harming behaviour. Vignettes varied in the gender of the individual as well as whether the NSSI was disclosed or not.

Findings

The results support the attribution model of public discrimination in relation to NSSI stigma. Perceptions of higher personal responsibility for NSSI behaviour and higher levels of danger and manipulation were positively associated with stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours. Male research participants reported significantly higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours than females.

Social implications

The level of stigmatising attitudes towards individuals who engage in NSSI is significant and may impact on help-seeking behaviour.

Originality/value

Between 10 and 25 per cent of adolescents engage in some form of NSSI, but only a minority seek help to address this behaviour. This study suggests that attitudes by peers may influence help-seeking. Further research is required outside of tertiary education settings.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2000

Marc Gaudry and Karine Vernier

Abstract

Details

Structural Road Accident Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043061-4

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Lori Elis

This research examines the direct and interactive effects of defendant race and sex on judicial decisions to utilize mitigating departures in cases involving felony drug…

Abstract

Purpose

This research examines the direct and interactive effects of defendant race and sex on judicial decisions to utilize mitigating departures in cases involving felony drug convictions in Virginia.

Methodology/approach

Logistic regression models are used to examine judicial decisions to depart downward in Schedule I & II, and Other (Schedule III, VI, and V), drug cases. The direct and interactive effects of race and sex on departure decisions are modeled separately for Schedule I & II and Other drug offenses.

Findings

Defendant race and sex exert both direct and interactive effects on decisions to sentence offenders below the guidelines for both drug categories. Cases involving Black and male defendants, relative to white and female defendants, are significantly less likely to result in mitigating departures for Schedule I & II, and Other drug, violations. The interaction models indicate that cases involving Black male defendants are less likely to result in mitigating departures than other cases, while cases involving white females have higher odds of receiving mitigating departures than other cases.

Originality/value

This chapter adds to the current literature on sentencing disparity by examining unwarranted sentencing disparity in Virginia, where scant research has been conducted. Furthermore, this research models decisions separately by drug category and examines both the direct and interactive effects of race and sex.

Details

Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Dwayne Devonish

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of private and public sector managers in Barbados regarding the concepts of mental health and illness at work. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of private and public sector managers in Barbados regarding the concepts of mental health and illness at work. It also explored their interactions and experiences with persons with mental illness at work and various forms of support and resources needed to improve the overall management of these persons within the organisational setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study used an exploratory research design based on two focus groups of private and public sector managers.

Findings

The findings revealed that both private and public sector managers understood the distinction between the concepts of mental health and mental illness. However, managers believed that high levels of stigma and discrimination exist in both private and public sector workplaces due to a lack of understanding of mental illness, cultural norms, and socialisation in Barbados regarding mental illness and negative stereotypes. However, workplace education and promotion, associated workplace policies, and employee assistance programmes (EAPs) were identified as key strategies for effectively addressing issues of mental health stigma and the management of persons with mental illness at work.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the qualitative approach used and small sample selected based on non-probability sampling, generalising the findings to larger populations is heavily cautioned.

Practical implications

Organisations in both private and public sectors should emphasise workplace mental health interventions such as mental health education and awareness, the development and implementation of supportive and flexible policies, and EAPs. These strategies are likely to help destigmatisation efforts and enhance managers’ understanding of mental health and the management of persons with mental illness.

Originality/value

This study provided a rich and in-depth understanding of mental health and illness from the perspective of private and public sector managers in a small developing country in the Caribbean. The Caribbean region possesses a dearth of empirical research concerning issues of mental health and illness at work.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Laura Elizabeth Challinor and Simon Duff

The purpose of this paper is to examine sexual offending hierarchies constructed by the general public and forensic staff based on personal attitudes and perceived

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine sexual offending hierarchies constructed by the general public and forensic staff based on personal attitudes and perceived severity of offence. In addition, six sexual offence perpetrators are differentiated using the Five Factor Model of personality.

Design/methodology/approach

Vignettes represented six sexual offence perpetrators. Participants built a hierarchy based on perceived severity of offence, before attributing personality characteristics to each offender using a Likert-type scale.

Findings

Contact offenders were perceived as more dangerous than non-contact offenders. Rapists were perceived as the most dangerous, and voyeurs the least dangerous. Offenders were attributed significantly different personality traits. Generally, men who sexually offend are perceived to be low in agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness and high in impulsivity, manipulativeness and neuroticism.

Practical implications

The research highlights the importance of individual risk assessment in determining best practice treatment for men who have sexually offended (MSO). The Five Factor Model has been proven to be a useful tool to explore the impact staff attitudes have on risk assessment and treatment. Low-risk and high-risk MSO would benefit from divergent treatment. Consideration should be given to personality characteristics in addition to level of risk.

Originality/value

The research determines a hierarchy of men who sexually offend, and goes beyond the “label” of sexual offenders to explore how personality impacts on formation of attitudes.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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