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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Xiaoyu Yu, Xiaotong Meng, Gang Cao and Yingya Jia

Conflict between work and family is a significant issue for entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of entrepreneurial failure on both…

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict between work and family is a significant issue for entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of entrepreneurial failure on both family–work conflict (FWC) and work–family conflict (WFC) and the moderating role of perceived control of time and organizational slack based on conservation of resources (COR) theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a questionnaire to explore the relationship between entrepreneurial failure, FWC/WFC, perceived control of time and organizational slack. Data were collected from the Chinese context in 2018 and as a result received 318 valid questionnaires, obtaining a response rate of 63.6 per cent.

Findings

The study finds that entrepreneurial failure has a significant relationship with FWC but a nonsignificant relationship with WFC and that perceived control of time and organizational slack moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial failure and FWC/WFC.

Originality/value

This study aligns the field of family–work (work–family) conflict and entrepreneurial failure. It addresses a research gap in the conflict literature by introducing one form of resource loss: entrepreneurial failure as a source of conflict between work and family based on COR theory and the work–home resources model. The study also enriches the literature on the social cost of entrepreneurial failure by exploring the crossover effect of entrepreneurial failure on conflicts in the family domain. Furthermore, the study advances the understanding of managing conflict between work and family after entrepreneurial failure.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

Brigitte J.C. Claessens, Wendelien van Eerde, Christel G. Rutte and Robert A. Roe

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview for those interested in the current state‐of‐the‐art in time management research.

Design/methodology/approach

This review includes 32 empirical studies on time management conducted between 1982 and 2004.

Findings

The review demonstrates that time management behaviours relate positively to perceived control of time, job satisfaction, and health, and negatively to stress. The relationship with work and academic performance is not clear. Time management training seems to enhance time management skills, but this does not automatically transfer to better performance.

Research limitations/implications

The reviewed research displays several limitations. First, time management has been defined and operationalised in a variety of ways. Some instruments were not reliable or valid, which could account for unstable findings. Second, many of the studies were based on cross‐sectional surveys and used self‐reports only. Third, very little attention was given to job and organizational factors. There is a need for more rigorous research into the mechanisms of time management and the factors that contribute to its effectiveness. The ways in which stable time management behaviours can be established also deserves further investigation.

Practical implications

This review makes clear which effects may be expected of time management, which aspects may be most useful for which individuals, and which work characteristics would enhance or hinder positive effects. Its outcomes may help to develop more effective time management practices.

Originality/value

This review is the first to offer an overview of empirical research on time management. Both practice and scientific research may benefit from the description of previous attempts to measure and test the popular notions of time management.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Christopher C. Rosen, Chu-Hsiang Chang, Emilija Djurdjevic and Erin Eatough

This chapter provides an updated review of research examining the relationship between occupational stressors and job performance. We begin by presenting an eight-category…

Abstract

This chapter provides an updated review of research examining the relationship between occupational stressors and job performance. We begin by presenting an eight-category taxonomy of workplace stressors and we then review theories that explain the relationships between workplace stressors and job performance. The subsequent literature review is divided into two sections. In the first section, we present a summary of Jex's (1998) review of research on the job stress–job performance relationship. In the second section, we provide an updated review of the literature, which includes studies that have been published since 1998. In this review, we evaluate how well the contemporary research has dealt with weaknesses and limitations previously identified in the literature, we identify and evaluate current trends, and we offer recommendations and directions for future research.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

Ademola Amida, Sameera Algarni and Robert Stupnisky

This study explored graduate students' academic success by testing a hypothesized model based on the self-determination theory (SDT), which posits that motivation, time

Abstract

Purpose

This study explored graduate students' academic success by testing a hypothesized model based on the self-determination theory (SDT), which posits that motivation, time management and career aspiration predicts perceived success.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology was employed to garner data from a population of 324 graduate students, and then analyzed using structural equation modeling in R.

Findings

Intrinsic motivation was the strongest motivation type that predicted graduate students' perceived success. Time management was another important predictor of perceived success, while career aspiration did not impact students' perception of success. Doctoral students showed significantly higher relatedness when compared to master degree students. In addition, male students showed significantly higher career aspirations than females, while female students showed significantly higher time management than their male counterparts. The results of this study support the SDT as a framework to understand graduate students' academic success.

Originality/value

Implementing the research findings may increase graduate students' academic success. This study suggests direct ways of increasing graduate students' achievement through intrinsic motivation, time management and autonomy, as well as reducing amotivation (lack of motivation) to indirectly enhance academic success.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jason A. Grissom, Susanna Loeb and Hajime Mitani

Time demands faced by school principals make principals’ work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help…

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27938

Abstract

Purpose

Time demands faced by school principals make principals’ work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors administered a time management inventory to nearly 300 principals in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, the fourth-largest school district in the USA. The authors analyzed scores on the inventory descriptively and used them to predict time-use data collected via in-person observations, a survey-based measure of job stress, and measures of perceived job effectiveness obtained from assistant principals and teachers in the school.

Findings

Principals with better time management skills allocate more time in classrooms and to managing instruction in their schools but spend less time on interpersonal relationship-building. Perhaps as a result of this tradeoff, the authors find that associations between principal time management skills and subjective assessments of principal performance are mixed. The authors find strong evidence, however, that time management skills are associated with lower principal job stress.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that building principals’ time management capacities may be a worthwhile strategy for increasing time on high-priority tasks and reducing stress.

Originality/value

This study is the first to empirically examine time management among school principals and link time management to key principal outcomes using large-scale data.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Christopher D.B. Burt, Alexandra Weststrate, Caroline Brown and Felicity Champion

The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrative model of time management, and in particular develop a scale to measure organizational variables which would…

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5784

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrative model of time management, and in particular develop a scale to measure organizational variables which would facilitate and support time management practices. The research also examined whether the time management environment is related to turnover intentions and stress.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies are reported. Study 1 sampled 262 employees from 20 organizations and these data were used for the initial factor analysis of the time management environment (TiME) scale. Study 2 sampled 205 employees from an aircraft maintenance organization, and these data were used to further refine the factor structure of the TiME scale, to conduct a CFA, examine the relationship between the TiME scale factors and turnover intentions, and to examine the test‐retest reliability of the TiME scale. Study 3 sampled 156 employees across eight organizations, and these data were used to examine the relationship between the TiME scale factors and stress.

Findings

The TiME scale has five factors, and each has acceptable internal consistency and test‐retest reliability. TiME scale factor scores were negatively correlated with both turnover intentions and stress.

Research limitations/implications

The research did not examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the TiME scale.

Practical implications

The TiME scale provides for the assessment of whether an organization's environment is facilitating and supporting its employees' attempts to engage in time management, and can also be used as a measure of transfer climate for time management training interventions.

Originality/value

The TiME scale addresses a gap in the time management literature. It has considerable applied value, and along with our integrative model should allow for the development of a more complex understanding of the time management process.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang and Samantha K. Baard

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological…

Abstract

Given the increasing global focus of many aspects of our society, researchers have taken significant steps in understanding the impact of culture on various psychological states. This review focuses on the stressor–strain relationships within the context of cross-cultural and cross-national studies. Using research findings from the United States as a baseline, we identify common and unique themes concerning the stressor–strain relationships between different countries, and clarify the differences between cross-national and cross-cultural studies. Furthermore, we consider cross-cultural and cross-national occupational stress research from an individual differences perspective. We encourage future studies to adopt this perspective and carefully consider the implications of cultural values on occupational stress research at the individual, group, and country levels.

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Céline M. Blanchard, Maxime A. Tremblay, Lisa Mask and Mélanie G.M. Perras

The purpose of this paper is to test the relative contribution of work environment factors as well as individual difference variables on the degree of work interfering…

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1098

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the relative contribution of work environment factors as well as individual difference variables on the degree of work interfering with family (WIF) and other mental health outcomes, namely, emotional exhaustion, life satisfaction, and family interfering with work (FIW).

Design/methodology/approach

Self‐report measures of the constructs of interest will be completed by a random sample of 539 health care professionals (Study 1: n=314; Study 2: n=128). In Study 1, it is hypothesized that work environment factors namely, work stressors and a supportive work environment characterized by perceived support from the supervisor, the organization, and co‐workers' supportive behaviors will be positively and negatively associated with WIF, respectively.

Findings

Findings document positive links between task‐related stressors and WIF and negative links between perceived support from the organization and WIF. In addition, both task‐related stressors and WIF are positive predictors of emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, the relative impact of two individual difference variables (i.e. time management and global self‐determination) on WIF and other mental health outcomes are examined, above and beyond the impact of the work environment factors. Task‐related stressors remainean important predictor of WIF and global self‐determination accounts for additional variance in this outcome variable.

Research limitations/implications

Theoretical and practical implications that may guide future theory and research in this domain are discussed.

Originality/value

Findings from both studies provide insight as to potential sources, namely work environment factors and individual difference variables, which may accentuate or mitigate the degree of WIF.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Serdar Yener, Aykut Arslan and Sebahattin Kilinç

The ongoing dispute as to whether using technology extensively at work may cause harm continues to gain momentum. Thus, the need for more research on the harmful effect of

Abstract

Purpose

The ongoing dispute as to whether using technology extensively at work may cause harm continues to gain momentum. Thus, the need for more research on the harmful effect of using technology at work and on the indirect effects on work performance is needed. The call for additional moderators in technostress research is still ongoing. The research contributes to the abovementioned gaps in the literature by analyzing a model with two moderators.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample population was chosen randomly from the lists provided by civil-servant unions and the chamber of commerce subsidiaries in the northwest region of Turkey. The employees received letters that explained the purpose of the study; the questionnaires sent to them. Out of 500 forms, 328 were returned. PLS-SEM technique was selected for hypothesis testing.

Findings

The results revealed support for all the hypotheses, and proposed moderators can be used to mitigate the harms of technostress and burnout. The findings have implications for both theory and practice.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this research is its sample characteristics. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the data set, it is difficult to claim causality. Therefore, readers should use caution when extending generalizations to a broader population. As for the theoretical implications, the interest in the challenges posed by various technologies in the workplace on human psychology and health over the long term is quite new. And there is still room for other mediating and moderating mechanism for the interplay between technostress and related outcomes.

Practical implications

One of the practical implications is that technology at work might have the potential to create stress, sometimes greater than its benefits. The effects that might be created by other sources of stress when combined with stress related to technology in the workplace should also be taken seriously. There are tools to reduce the harm caused by technostress that practitioners could make use of such as time-management interventions.

Originality/value

The dispute whether using technology extensively at work may cause harm rather than advantage continues to confuse people, and with time it is gaining momentum. Thus, there is necessity for more research on the harms of technology, and especially on the indirect effects on work performance. Second, the vast technostress literature seems to neglect to discern task performance from contextual one as the dependent variable. Lastly, the call for additional moderators in technostress research is still prevailing. The research contributes to the abovementioned gaps in the literature by analyzing a model with two moderators.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Derek R. Avery, Scott Tonidandel, Sabrina D. Volpone and Aditi Raghuram

Though a number of demographics (e.g. sex, age) have been associated with work overload, scholars have yet to consider the potential impact of immigrant status. This is…

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3516

Abstract

Purpose

Though a number of demographics (e.g. sex, age) have been associated with work overload, scholars have yet to consider the potential impact of immigrant status. This is important because immigrants constitute a significant proportion of the workforce, and evidence suggests many employers believe they are easier to exploit. This paper aims to examine work hours, interpersonal justice, and immigrant status as predictors of work overload.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested using a large, national random telephone survey of employees in the United States (n=2,757).

Findings

As expected, employees who worked more hours tended to perceive more work overload. Importantly, however, this effect interacted with interpersonal justice differently for immigrant and native‐born employees. Justice attenuated the effect of work hours for the former but seemed to exacerbate it somewhat for the latter. Of note, the interactive effect was more than five times larger for immigrants than for natives.

Practical implications

The study shows that supervisors might require their employees to work longer hours without necessarily being perceived as abusive (i.e. overloading them). Doing so, however, requires treating employees justly in the form of respect, courtesy, and dignity. Though this form of just treatment is important for all employees, its effects are especially pronounced for immigrants.

Originality/value

The relationship between the number of hours worked and perceptions of work overload is examined for immigrant and non‐immigrant workers in the USA.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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