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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2018

Lalit Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of gender and regional cultures on entrepreneurial intentions and perceived barriers to entrepreneurship in two…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of gender and regional cultures on entrepreneurial intentions and perceived barriers to entrepreneurship in two diverse regions of a state. Authors in the past have consistently expressed the need for studies on entrepreneurial intentions that would encompass both the gender and cultural dimensions, as there is a potential interactive effect between sex and culture, which remains largely unstudied despite its potential to provide an explanation for the contradictory findings that have emerged when either sex or culture was studied separately.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative study. The primary data were derived from the students of professional courses. The sampling method used was proportionate stratified sampling. The scales used were tested with regard to validity and reliability. The chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and Mann–Whitney U test were used to draw relationships between the variables.

Findings

The findings indicated significant gender differences in perceptions of barriers and entrepreneurial intentions among youth. The findings also showed that the barrier perceptions and the entrepreneurial intentions between genders vary with change in culture at the regional level.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the very limited research available on perceived barriers and entrepreneurial intentions that focuses on the effect of gender from a cross-cultural perspective. This paper further contributes by testing the results in two culturally diverse regions of a single state of India, which has helped us understand the impact of regional cultures while controlling for the effects of the entrepreneurship support systems provided by the governments in different nations.

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Francisco Crespo Casado and Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

The purpose of this study is to investigate children’s school lunchboxes and explore the influence of carer’s perceived benefits and barriers towards healthy eating on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate children’s school lunchboxes and explore the influence of carer’s perceived benefits and barriers towards healthy eating on the food contents packed for lunch.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on exchange theory, the study explores the relationship between carer’s perceived benefits and barriers towards healthy eating and the lunchbox contents a carer packs for their child. An online survey was completed by 876 parents and carers. Statistical analysis techniques, including one-way ANOVA and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to analyse the data.

Findings

The analysis revealed that perceived benefits and barriers towards packing healthy foods had a significant impact on the reported contents packed for lunch. Results indicate the segment with the highest perceived benefits and the lowest perceived barriers towards packing healthy lunches reported packing healthier foods than the remaining three segments.

Practical implications

Social marketers should develop interventions to promote the benefits of healthy eating, while overcoming the perceived (and real) barriers that prevent healthy lunches from being packed. Study limitations and future research directions are outlined.

Originality/value

Drawing on exchange theory, the current study demonstrated how simultaneous measurement of benefits and barriers that are later divided into high and low groups impacts lunchbox packing behaviours (Nelson et al., 2010). This study contributes to the literature providing further empirical evidence that use of commercial marketing theories in social marketing is warranted and that theoretically derived segmentation approaches are available for social marketing practitioners.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Ka‐Young Oh, Alistair R. Anderson and Doug Cruickshank

E‐trade (or electronic trading) appears to offer increased efficiency in business processes, but only a limited number of small firms in Korea have adopted the new…

Abstract

Purpose

E‐trade (or electronic trading) appears to offer increased efficiency in business processes, but only a limited number of small firms in Korea have adopted the new processes. The purpose of this paper is to try to establish the obstacles and the perceived barriers to the continuing use of e‐trade technologies by small Korean firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature was employed to develop a theoretical model that includes perceived risk and the environment. The model was operationalised in a questionnaire completed by 164 respondents. LISREL validated the instrument and the model. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The authors found that information risk and business risk negatively affect adoption and use. The authors also tested the relationship between the environment of the organisation and adoption of e‐trade. The results show that the maturity of information technology and the innovation characteristics of the firm have positive influences on the adoption of e‐trade.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses data from existing users, so the findings extend the existing literature about decisions to adopt and use new processes. The data are, however, limited to the Korean context.

Practical implications

The study demonstrates the negative influence of perceptions about risk associated with innovative processes. Thus, this awareness and understanding of how barriers are perceived should help to increase the diffusion of e‐trade systems. The authors' findings indicate what has to be done for developing and extending the use of e‐trade.

Originality/value

The study is novel and contributes to the understanding of the adoption and use of new processes.

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Filiep Vanhonacker, Zuzanna Pieniak and Wim Verbeke

This study aims to investigate consumers' perceptions and barriers in relation to fresh, frozen, preserved and ready‐meal fish products in a geographically diverse…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate consumers' perceptions and barriers in relation to fresh, frozen, preserved and ready‐meal fish products in a geographically diverse selection of European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐sectional data were collected through a consumer survey (n=3,213), conducted in June 2008 in the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Sweden and the UK. Items measured were self‐reported consumption frequencies, consumer perceptions of different fish product categories, and perceived barriers for increased fish consumption levels. Country specificities are discussed.

Findings

The overriding healthy perception consumers have about fish was confirmed, and contributed very strongly to the general perception consumers have about fish. Fresh fish was perceived the most healthy fish product, followed by frozen, preserved and ready‐meal fish products. Perception scores were highest correlated with self‐reported fish consumption in the Mediterranean countries. With the exception of Romania, perceived barriers only poorly explained self‐reported consumption frequencies of the different fish product categories. This finding is related to the possible influence of habit and tradition with regard to eating fish, to the absence of measures related to motivations or drivers to consume fish, or to the possibility that some of the perceived barriers reinforce each other. In the Mediterranean countries, fish consumption frequency is on a very high level, independently of perceived barriers and motivational aspects, and part of the traditional Mediterranean diet.

Originality/value

The strength of this study pertains to its international scope and geographical spread. Further, consumer perceptions and perceived barriers in relation to fresh, frozen, preserved and ready‐meal fish products have rarely been studied in parallel. Findings are relevant to support efforts on national and international level to stimulate or modify fish consumption, and to explore opportunities to trade fish products.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Valerie K. York, Laura A. Brannon, Carol W. Shanklin, Kevin R. Roberts, Betsy B. Barrett and Amber D. Howells

This paper aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of four‐hour ServSafe® food safety training, a theory‐based intervention targeting food service employees' perceived

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of four‐hour ServSafe® food safety training, a theory‐based intervention targeting food service employees' perceived barriers to implementing food safety practices, and a combination of the two treatments. Dependent measures include behavioral compliance with and perceptions of control over performing hand washing, use of thermometers, and handling of work surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Four groups are compared: employees receiving only ServSafe® training, intervention alone, training and intervention, and no treatment. Employees complete a questionnaire assessing perceived barriers to practicing the targeted behaviors. Then, employees are observed in the production area for behavioral compliance.

Findings

Training or intervention alone is better than no treatment, but the training/intervention combination is most effective at improving employees' compliance with and perceptions of control over performing the behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Research is limited to restaurant employees in three states within the USA, in only 31 of the 1,298 restaurants originally contacted. Future research should identify barriers of other types of food service employees and evaluate the effectiveness of these and other intervention strategies.

Practical implications

ServSafe® training can be enhanced with a simple intervention targeting food service employees' perceived barriers to food safety. Providing knowledge and addressing barriers are both important steps to improving food safety in restaurants.

Originality/value

No previous research has used the theory of planned behavior to develop an intervention targeting food service employees' perceived barriers to implementing food safety practices. Research also has not attempted to improve the effectiveness of ServSafe® food safety training by adding an intervention.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Rachel Doern

This paper aims to expand on existing conceptualisations of barriers to small business growth by addressing the question of how, or in what ways, do perceived barriers

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expand on existing conceptualisations of barriers to small business growth by addressing the question of how, or in what ways, do perceived barriers influence the growth intentions and behaviours of owner‐managers?

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting an interpretive methodological approach, in‐depth semi‐structured interviews were held with 27 owner‐managers working in St Petersburg, Russia. Participants were asked about their intentions for their businesses, how they intended to grow and what, if anything, prevented or interfered with these intentions. Template analysis was used to develop owner‐managers' perceptions and experiences of barriers to growth, and to facilitate theory building.

Findings

Six ways in which perceived barriers influence the growth intentions and behaviours of small business owner‐managers were identified. Barriers: stop owner‐managers from intending to grow; undermine intentions; add to the ambivalence around growth intentions; provide incentives to grow; postpone intention realization; and slow down the process of realizing intentions to grow.

Research limitations/implications

Because data were collected at one point in time, it was not possible to capture the dynamic nature of barriers or the intentions/behaviours they influenced. Future research could be strengthened through the use of longitudinal designs and process‐based methods (e.g. diary studies).

Practical implications

Educators and policy makers should help owner‐managers understand the ways in which barriers can affect business growth and be overcome.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine how barriers influence growth intentions and behaviours, and to facilitate theory development on the topic.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Anders Vennström and Per Erik Eriksson

The purpose of this paper is to identify client‐perceived barriers to a change towards increased client influence on the end result of the construction process…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify client‐perceived barriers to a change towards increased client influence on the end result of the construction process. Additionally, the variables of size of clients' markets and the extent of external project management are investigated in order to see how they influence the perceptions concerning important barriers to change.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected through a survey responded to by 87 Swedish construction clients.

Findings

Identified barriers are divided into three types: attitudinal, industrial and institutional. Attitudinal barriers (adversarial attitudes, lack of ethics and morality, focus on projects instead of processes and a short‐term focus) and industrial barriers (traditional organization of the construction process, conservative industry culture, industry structure and traditional production processes) are perceived to be important, whereas institutional barriers (standard contracts, laws and traditional procurement procedures) are not perceived to be critical. Each different type of barrier is tested against the use of internal or external project management and the sphere of activity of the client. Attitudinal barriers are perceived as being more critical by clients using external project management. “Nearness” in terms of the sphere of activity (e.g. how large is the client's market?) also has an effect on how clients perceive the barriers. Locally, active clients do not consider attitudinal barriers to be as influential on the end result of the construction process as nationally active clients.

Research limitations/implications

Since the empirical results are based on data collected only from Swedish clients, international generalizations should be made with caution.

Practical implications

Clients wishing to act as change agents need to be aware that their use of internal versus external project management affects their chances to influence the other construction actors and implement change and innovation. Large national and international client organizations, which due to their size have significant opportunities to influence the industry, rely heavily on external project management, which may hamper their change agent role. Hence, such clients should make careful and purposeful selections of project management companies. Another more influential alternative is to strengthen their organisation and rely less on external project management.

Originality/value

This paper presents a unique investigation of the connections between the use of internal/external project management and perceived barriers to change.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Pasi Pohjolainen, Markus Vinnari and Pekka Jokinen

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the barriers perceived by consumers to lowering their meat consumption levels and adopting a plant-based diet, which means a diet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the barriers perceived by consumers to lowering their meat consumption levels and adopting a plant-based diet, which means a diet that includes mainly non-meat foods, yet it can contain both vegetarian and meat meals.

Design/methodology/approach

The prevalence of different barriers for following a plant-based diet is addressed, as well as consumer profiles considering socio-demographics, values and meat consumption frequencies. The data were collected in 2010 by a survey questionnaire, sent to 4,000 randomly selected Finns (response rate=47.3, n=1,890).

Findings

Different types of barriers are perceived to hinder the adoption of a plant-based diet, including meat enjoyment, eating routines, health conceptions and difficulties in preparing vegetarian foods. These barriers are strongly correlated, indicating that consumers may not make qualitative difference between different barriers. Furthermore, there are distinct socio-demographic, value and especially meat consumption frequency elements that strengthen the barrier perception, these being male gender, young age, rural residence, household type of families with children, low education, absence of a vegetarian family member or friend, valuation of traditions and wealth and high meat consumption frequency.

Social implications

High meat consumption is related to many environmental and public health problems. The results call for multifaceted policy implications that should concentrate on different barriers and certain socio-demographic, value and meat eating groups. Importantly, focus should be not only on the group with the strongest barrier perception but also on those particularly willing to make changes in their meat consumption patterns. One practical implication could be to increase the availability of vegetarian foods in public cafeterias or school canteens, as a decrease in meat consumption frequency is strongly correlated with the alleviation of the barrier perception.

Originality/value

Information about differences in socio-demographics, values and meat consumption frequencies between consumers provide opportunities for focussing policy actions to aid the adoption of a plant-based diet.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Jaelan Sumo Sulat, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Rossi Sanusi, Elsi Dwi Hapsari and Budiono Santoso

The health belief model (HBM) is the behavioral change theory most widely used in health behavior studies. Several studies have identified the limitations of this model…

Abstract

Purpose

The health belief model (HBM) is the behavioral change theory most widely used in health behavior studies. Several studies have identified the limitations of this model, one of which concerns the validity in predicting behavioral changes. The purpose of this paper, scoping review, is to map the validity of HBM variables in predicting behavioral changes based on available synthesized evidences.

Design/methodology/approach

A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. PubMed, Health Evidence, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar were searched using a combination of keywords: health belief model, review, systematic review and meta-analysis between February 15 and March 18, 2016.

Findings

Of the 1,457 articles, 4 met the inclusion criteria. All results showed that HBM variables were consistently related to behaviors and the strength of the correlation were varied. Perceived barriers and perceived benefits were the strongest predictor, while perceived severity was the weakest. The association between HBM variables and behaviors was moderated by some aspects of behavioral outcomes, the study design and the time interval between measurement of the HBM variables and behavior.

Originality/value

Although the four main variables of HBM have been shown to be related to behavior, the overall outcomes are varied and have not demonstrated conclusive evidence during the last ten years. The results of this scoping review imply the need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results of recent studies. In addition, more longitudinal studies are needed to ensure the validity of HBM variables by considering any possible moderators.

Details

Health Education, vol. 118 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2007

Murat Hakan Altıntaş, Tuncer Tokol and Talha Harcar

Purpose – As a key crucial point, this study aims to examine the relationship between export barriers and the perceived export performance of Turkish SME's.

Abstract

Purpose – As a key crucial point, this study aims to examine the relationship between export barriers and the perceived export performance of Turkish SME's. Design/methodology/approach – Major export barriers perceived by SMEs in Turkey are identified and, subsequently, the relationship between export barriers and export performance are examined. A web‐based questionnaire method was conducted among 2,000 SMEs that listed export associations with 7.25 percent response rate. The empirical analysis was conducted in two phases. The first step was to perform an exploratory factor analysis to 20 export barriers. The second step was to run a structural equation model to determine which barrier groups have a greater effect on perceived export performance. Findings – The findings suggest that procedural barriers and competition in foreign markets have the most effective impact on export performance. Both structures have negative effects as expected. In other words, as the procedural and competition barriers decrease, export performance also increases. Research limitations/implications – First of all, not all export barriers that might affect export performance were examined. Another limitation is that, the data obtained related to a very specific period. Export performance was measured by only subjective method with Likert scale. In the context of future research, export barriers of the Turkish exporters in relation to individual countries of origin should be investigated. Practical implications – The analysis of exporting problems on the basis of firm differences between domestic and foreign markets, procedural barriers, internal inefficiency barriers, competition and governmental barriers can provide both corporate and public policy makers with valuable guidelines for the formulation of suitable export marketing strategies and national export assistance programs respectively Originality/value – This study generally confirms the literature, but comes to some original further conclusions, based on export barriers of Turkish exporters.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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