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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Mette Vedel and Per Servais

The paper explores the links between network structures and internationalization, conceptualized as a process of value innovation. The exploration sets off from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper explores the links between network structures and internationalization, conceptualized as a process of value innovation. The exploration sets off from the concept of an entry node, i.e. whether network entrance is facilitated by a direct dyadic or an indirect triadic relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is mainly conceptual, but also presents an empirical cross-border actor constellation which highlights the implications of the study.

Findings

Bi-directionality implies that value innovation is contingent on the fit between the actors involved in the entry node, not on the fulfilment of the needs of a focal actor. Further, the attractiveness of an entry node depends on network structures, the network positions of the actors in the entry node, the desired outcomes of entry (immersion or reach), and the actual behavior of the actors. The dynamics of transitivity can influence triadic entry nodes. However, transitivity operates differently in business networks than in social networks constituted by inter-personal ties. Therefore, closure of open triadic entry nodes is neither an automatic outcome of strong ties, nor a normatively better outcome.

Research limitations/implications

The theorizing offered by this paper must be further explored in different empirical contexts to assess its practical adequacy. Still, the presented empirical case indicates that the expected attractiveness of entry nodes is closely linked to (in)transitivity.

Originality/value

The paper supports the relevance of expanding from a dyadic to a network perspective in order to capture the dynamics of value innovation in an international setting.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Erik S. Rasmussan, Tage Koed Madsen and Felicitas Evangelista

Attempts to consider how a founder has reduced equivocality in relation to support networks and reducing risks, especially in an international environment. Presents the…

3651

Abstract

Attempts to consider how a founder has reduced equivocality in relation to support networks and reducing risks, especially in an international environment. Presents the case studies of five Danish and Australian born global companies. Considers different global models and their limitations. Presents the findings of recent surveys in this area. Concludes that internationalization has not been the primary objective in the founding process and gives direction for further research.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Erik Rasmussen, Jan Møller Jensen and Per Servais

The primary focus of this paper is to examine the international (import and export) activities of the firm and the impact on the firms' criteria for choice of location and…

2360

Abstract

Purpose

The primary focus of this paper is to examine the international (import and export) activities of the firm and the impact on the firms' criteria for choice of location and the propensity for relocation.

Design/methodology/approach

A web survey was carried out among small and medium‐sized Danish firms. Data used in the present study are based on responses from 622 firms. The analysis is conducted in two sub‐sections. The first section focuses on how export/import intensity is related to the location motives of the firm and the propensity to relocate the firm to another national location or abroad. Pearson's correlation with corresponding test of significance is used to explore the possible relationships between the international engagement and the firm's criteria for choice of location. In the second section the responding firms are classified into one of four categories, as suggested in a local/global typology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted in order to assess whether there exist any significant differences between the four types of firms with regard to the location motives and relocation propensity for the firms.

Findings

The study shows that the international engagement of the firm influences the need for better location with regard to infrastructure (especially airport and highways) and to a lesser degree other types of infrastructure (railways and harbours). Interestingly, firms put less emphasis on the direct economic factors (infrastructure) compared with access to customers/suppliers, local network and, above all, access to research institutions. The study shows that international firms put significantly more emphasis on the relationship with research institutions than more local firms. The study also indicates that a higher international engagement increases the firm's intention to relocate abroad, which could be one of the unwanted sides of firms' internationalisation.

Originality/value

Guided by insights from location and relocation theory and international entrepreneurship theory, the connection between firms' export and import engagement and the reasons for location and propensity for relocation are explored. The paper also suggests an internationalisation typology of firms that can be used in future research on the internationalisation of the firm.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Gary Knight, Tage Koed Madsen and Per Servais

Companies that internationalise at or near their founding, “born globals,” are emerging in great numbers world‐wide. Characterised by a specific Gestalt of…

8233

Abstract

Companies that internationalise at or near their founding, “born globals,” are emerging in great numbers world‐wide. Characterised by a specific Gestalt of marketing‐related competencies, they are playing an increasing role in international trade. Born globals are investigated using data from case and survey‐based studies in Denmark and the USA. First introduces and describes the born‐global phenomenon. Then, hypotheses are developed and tested via a structural model that represents key factors in the international success of this important breed of firm. Results suggest that born‐global international performance is enhanced in the wake of managerial emphasis on foreign customer focus and marketing competence. Product quality and differentiation strategy also play important roles, particularly in the US firms. These and additional findings are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Tage Koed Madsen, Erik Rasmussen and Per Servais

This paper examines the characteristics of the so called Born Globals and compares them with other types of exporting companies. Born Globals are defined as firms that…

Abstract

This paper examines the characteristics of the so called Born Globals and compares them with other types of exporting companies. Born Globals are defined as firms that were established after 1976 and have reached a share of foreign sales of at least 25% after having started export activities within three years after their birth. A total of 272 Danish exporting, manufacturing companies are analyzed out of which 47 can be categorized as Born Globals according to these criteria. The contribution of the paper is empirical and descriptive; the literature has not yet shown a large scale study with similar comparisons. As shown below, Born Globals have a distinctive profile: they have a high share of foreign sales (almost 70%) and resemble the most internationally oriented exporters with respect to internal capabilities and competitive platform (specialized production) as well as their geographical scope. However, because of their small size and limited resources they often operate at arm's length in foreign markets, sometimes even more so than very inexperienced exporters.

Details

Globalization, the Multinational Firm, and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-056-2

Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2001

Per Servais and Jan Moller Jensen

Throughout the last decades a growing concern for international marketing has been reflected in the leading journals. The preponderance of the articles has, however, been…

Abstract

Throughout the last decades a growing concern for international marketing has been reflected in the leading journals. The preponderance of the articles has, however, been oriented towards firms' sales and export (outward) activities. Since the late 1980s a growing concern for manufacturing firms' international sourcing (inward) activities has arisen, stressing the importance of this phenomenon on firms' success. However, research in firms' internationalization of purchasing activities is still limited. This article focuses upon international purchasing. Through a literature review of mainly U.S. empirical surveys, research topics requiring further exploration are identified. Hence this article addresses four major issues, using results from a large Danish survey: (1) To what extent are Danish firms involved in international purchasing? (2) What are the reasons for choosing or not choosing a foreign supplier? (3) What is the decision process regarding the choice of supplier?, and (4) What problems are experienced in the relationship? Results from firms with foreign suppliers and firms with domestic suppliers are compared. It is revealed that international purchasing is not confined to large firms, but also small manufacturing firms are very much involved in this internationalization of their sourcing activities. It is also stressed that the main reasons for choosing a foreign supplier, apart from availability, was to obtain products of a better quality at a lower price. The firms also find international purchasing important to their competitiveness. However, in order to better understand international purchasing as an internationalization process further research is needed, especially cross-national studies clarify the process.

Details

Reassesing the Internationalization of the Firm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-110-1

Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2006

Per Servais, Tage Koed Madsen and Erik S. Rasmussen

E-business is an important business tool, and the increasing presence on the internet reflects this fact. For small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs) interested in…

Abstract

E-business is an important business tool, and the increasing presence on the internet reflects this fact. For small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs) interested in internationalizing, their internet offers some advantages, because, with e-business, borders between countries are becoming less relevant, and more direct interaction between business entities is made possible. In this article, we unravel the use of internet usage of different types of firms. First, we present a categorization of different local and international firms, and, second, we focus on the internet usage by born global firms compared to the other types of firms. We conclude that born global firms use the internet to convey their market presence, but only to a limited extent do they sell their products via the internet. Instead, they use the internet to support the already existing relationships by describing their products on web pages, offering services related to their products via the internet, facilitating product development via the internet, and building and maintaining relations to foreign customers. We also stress the importance of further research on how born global firms adapt to the internet in practice.

Details

International Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-369-3

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Olli Kuivalainen, Sanna Sundqvist, Sami Saarenketo and Rod McNaughton

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and…

9694

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the conceptual frameworks and concepts with which the research on internationalization patterns of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) should be conducted.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive overview of concepts and a conceptual framework to study internationalization patterns of SMEs is offered.

Findings

The complexities of existing definitions and methodologies for researching internationalization patterns are highlighted, and a synthesis of the issues is provided. An integrative model of internationalization pathways, and their antecedents and outcomes is presented.

Research limitations/implications

It is recommended that future research focuses especially on the time dimension of internationalization patterns. Future research can contribute to the literature by adopting a longitudinal approach with larger samples and more detailed cases to capture the dynamics of internationalization.

Practical implications

Practitioners might map their positions, and look for challenges and opportunities with regard to their chosen internationalization pattern. They can also benchmark other firms’ pathways and fine‐tune their own approach to internationalization.

Originality/value

The paper integrates a large body of research in an important research area in international marketing. It also provides guidance on how to conduct future research in the area, and introduces the content of this special issue of the International Marketing Review.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2010

Svante Andersson and Per Servais

The purpose of this paper is to review international industrial purchasing and marketing literature with a focus on portfolio models, to develop portfolio models for…

2742

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review international industrial purchasing and marketing literature with a focus on portfolio models, to develop portfolio models for buyers' and sellers' international strategies, and to combine the models so that both the buyer and seller perspectives are dealt with simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature on international industrial purchasing and marketing is discussed. Dimensions that are important for the buyers' and sellers' strategies are identified. Portfolio models for buyers and sellers are developed and the two perspectives are matched together.

Findings

The paper contributes a specification of features that are important for industrial buyers' and sellers' international purchasing and marketing strategies. These dimensions are used to develop a model of supplier relationship management and a marketing management model for supplier strategies. The consequences for the firm's international activities are discussed. A model combining industrial buyers' and sellers' international supply and marketing management strategies is developed.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides a deeper understanding of international exchange processes by combining literature on international industrial purchasing and international marketing. Situations are identified where different areas of theory are applicable. The paper also contributes to the discussion on what should be the conceptual domain of international business. Here, it is argued that international exchange is the product of joint decisions made by two or more actors based in different countries. Earlier academic literature reveals a striking imbalance: while one side of the coin – the exporter side – has been extensively studied, the importer side has largely been neglected. In this paper, it is tried to present a balanced view of both sides.

Practical implications

This paper introduces portfolio management models that can be used for both industrial purchasing and marketing management. The paper stresses the importance of finding a fit between the marketing and purchasing strategies within a relationship. If both parties have positioned the relationship in a similar way, there are much greater possibilities for the relationship to create value for both parties.

Originality/value

The paper combines international industrial purchasing and international marketing perspectives as few studies have done before.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Margaret Fletcher and Sharon Loane

1057

Abstract

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

1 – 10 of 361