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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1979

Penny Stanway

The continuance of the human race depends upon babies being fed in such a way as to ensure survival and this perhaps explains the interest felt by relatives, friends and…

Abstract

The continuance of the human race depends upon babies being fed in such a way as to ensure survival and this perhaps explains the interest felt by relatives, friends and neighbours, not to mention often complete strangers, when a baby is born. The mother is besieged by questions about how the baby is being fed and, not surprisingly, is highly likely to become obsessed with her baby's food.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 79 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

Penny Stanway

Once you understand the physiology of milk production (lactation) and breast feeding it is very easy to work out how to help mothers prevent or overcome any problems they might…

Abstract

Once you understand the physiology of milk production (lactation) and breast feeding it is very easy to work out how to help mothers prevent or overcome any problems they might have. Everyone knows that the hormonal changes of pregnancy and childbirth prepare and trigger the breasts to produce milk, but did you know that a woman can induce a milk supply even if she hasn't breast fed for many months or even years? Indeed, even a woman who has never been pregnant can stimulate her breasts to produce milk, though not enough to breast feed a baby fully. Pregnancy hormones set the stage for breast feeding by causing proliferation of the milk glands and ducts in the breasts. Each milk gland is surrounded by a fine network of blood vessels and it is through this blood supply that the hormones reach the milk‐producing cells. Blood also provides the materials from which milk is actually made by the cells. Prolactin is the main milk‐producing hormone and appears from the eighth week of pregnancy onwards, reaching its peak with the birth of the baby. It is prevented from producing milk in any volume during pregnancy by the high levels of oestrogen made by the placenta. After the baby is born and with the loss of the placenta, the oestrogen ‘brakes’ are removed and prolactin starts milk production in earnest. This usually occurs between the second and fourth days. The milk can come in earlier in women feeding their babies frequently and in those having their second or subsequent babies. The more stimulation of the breasts, the more milk is produced, probably by a simple nervous reflex pathway to and from the pituitary gland in the brain, which makes the hormones prolactin and oxytocin, responsible for milk production and letting down the milk, respectively.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 79 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1967

ARNOLD BENNETT was a man of two worlds. In the terms of Max Beerbohm's cartoon “Old Self” was plump, wealthy, self‐assured, a landmark of the London scene, a familiar of press…

Abstract

ARNOLD BENNETT was a man of two worlds. In the terms of Max Beerbohm's cartoon “Old Self” was plump, wealthy, self‐assured, a landmark of the London scene, a familiar of press magnates, the owner of a yacht; “Young Self” was thin, ambitious, far‐sighted, industrious, secretly terribly anxious to justify himself to himself and decidedly provincial.

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New Library World, vol. 68 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1965

THE enlarged scale and more varied content of this year's Business Efficiency Exhibition recalls the importance of the office in modern business. So, too, do those vast, austere…

Abstract

THE enlarged scale and more varied content of this year's Business Efficiency Exhibition recalls the importance of the office in modern business. So, too, do those vast, austere rectangular boxes whose modular construction makes them so depressingly alike. Those in London and other major cities can be matched exactly in Frankfurt or Brussels, Milan or Montreal. This is a natural consequence of the tendency for the number of manual workers to decline and of clerical ones to increase.

Details

Work Study, vol. 14 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1983

CONFERENCES are like committee meetings: everyone says his piece, sits clown satisfied at his own oratory and convinced that right (by which he means what he has advocated) will…

Abstract

CONFERENCES are like committee meetings: everyone says his piece, sits clown satisfied at his own oratory and convinced that right (by which he means what he has advocated) will prevail, and then as a general rule at least, all go home and the ripples fade and nothing is done.

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Work Study, vol. 32 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…

6051

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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