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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2014

Mike W. Peng

This paper points out new directions for the deepening and broadening of the institution-based view, by drawing on three streams of research with which I have been…

Abstract

This paper points out new directions for the deepening and broadening of the institution-based view, by drawing on three streams of research with which I have been involved recently: (1) outward foreign direct investment from emerging economies, (2) bankruptcy laws and entrepreneurship development, and (3) institution-based research focusing on Africa. Such deepening has been accomplished by enhancing our institution-based understanding of foreign direct investment with a focus on emerging multinationals, while broadening has been done both substantively by probing into the impact of bankruptcy laws on entrepreneurship development around the world and geographically by calling for enhanced research attention on Africa via an institution-based lens.

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Multidisciplinary Insights from New AIB Fellows
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-038-4

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Book part
Publication date: 31 August 2016

Josep M. Argilés-Bosch, Josep Garcia-Blandon and Mónica Martinez-Blasco

This paper undertakes an empirical analysis of the impact of absorbed and unabsorbed slack, employing three different measures for each slack type, on firm profitability…

Abstract

This paper undertakes an empirical analysis of the impact of absorbed and unabsorbed slack, employing three different measures for each slack type, on firm profitability. We find that unabsorbed slack has a more favorable influence on future firm profitability than absorbed slack. While all the absorbed slack indicators have a significant negative influence on future profitability, the three unabsorbed slack indicators present positive, negative, and non-significant influences, respectively. The fewer constraints of unabsorbed slack on the redeployment to exploit new opportunities point to its comparative advantage over absorbed slack. We find evidence for the differential impact of absorbed versus unabsorbed slack on profitability in firms with lower levels of slack, which suggests firms prefer to withdraw resources from current business and redeploy them to develop new and more favorable business opportunities.

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Resource Redeployment and Corporate Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-508-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Irem Demirkan and David L. Deeds

How do ego-networks evolve? How does such evolution affect firms’ innovation output? This chapter uses a longitudinal sample of firms in the biotechnology industry to…

Abstract

How do ego-networks evolve? How does such evolution affect firms’ innovation output? This chapter uses a longitudinal sample of firms in the biotechnology industry to address these questions. We use social network theory to develop a model of the structure and dynamics of firms’ interorganizational research collaboration ego-networks. Using novel longitudinal methods, this chapter demonstrates how research collaboration ego-networks in the biotechnology industry change over time and how this evolution affects focal firms’ subsequent innovative output. The model is tested on a sample of 482 biotechnology firms over a span of 17 years (1990–2006). The results indicate the significant impacts of ego-network size, ego-network growth, and the inclusion of new members in the ego-network on the innovation output of biotechnology firms. Our results also suggest that enlarging ego-networks by adding new and diverse members presents significant management challenges.

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Understanding the Relationship Between Networks and Technology, Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-489-3

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Helen Wei Hu and Ilan Alon

Stewardship theory is an emergent approach for explaining leadership behavior, challenging the assumptions of agency theory and its dominance in corporate governance…

Abstract

Purpose

Stewardship theory is an emergent approach for explaining leadership behavior, challenging the assumptions of agency theory and its dominance in corporate governance literature. This study revisits the agency and stewardship theories by seeking to answer whether chief executive officers (CEOs) in China are committed stewards or opportunistic agents.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 5,165 observations of 1,036 listed companies in China over the period 2005–2010, the results suggest that the corporate governance mechanisms developed from the agency theory in the West are not necessarily applicable in the Chinese context.

Findings

This study supports the stewardship theory in its findings that empowering CEOs through the practice of CEO duality and longer CEO tenure have a positive effect on firm value in China. Additionally, the positive relationships between CEO duality, CEO tenure and firm value are strengthened by the number of executive directors on the board, and weakened by the number of independent directors on the board.

Practical implications

One size does not fit all. Leadership behaviors in China do not follow the agency assumptions inherent in Western practices, rather they favor the conditions of positive leadership expressed by the stewardship theory. Assuming that the motivations of managers in emerging markets such as China are similar to those in the West may lead to a poor fit between governance policies and the institutional context.

Originality/value

As one of the few studies to connect the theoretical debate between the agency and stewardship theories, this study presents new evidence to support the stewardship theory, thereby strengthening its theoretical importance and relevance in corporate governance literature.

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Emerging Market Firms in the Global Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-066-7

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Leiyu Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Shuting Ji, Peng Su, Chunjing Tao and Run Ji

Upper-limb joint kinematics are highly complex and the kinematics of rehabilitation exoskeletons fail to reproduce them, resulting in hyperstaticity and human–machine…

Abstract

Purpose

Upper-limb joint kinematics are highly complex and the kinematics of rehabilitation exoskeletons fail to reproduce them, resulting in hyperstaticity and human–machine incompatibility. The purpose of this paper is to design and develop a compatible exoskeleton robot (Co-Exos II) to address these problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The configuration synthesis of Co-Exos II is completed using advanced mechanism theory. A compatible configuration is selected and four passive joints are introduced into the connecting interfaces based on optimal configuration principles. A Co-Exos II prototype with nine degrees of freedom (DOFs) is developed and still owns a compact structure and volume. A new approach is presented to compensate the vertical glenohumeral (GH) movements. Co-Exos II and the upper arm are simplified as a guide-bar mechanism at the elevating plane. The theoretical displacements of passive joints are calculated by the kinematic model of the shoulder loop. The compatible experiments are completed to measure the kinematics of passive joints.

Findings

The compatible configuration of the passive joints can effectively reduce the gravity influences of the exoskeleton device and the upper extremities. The passive joints exhibit excellent compensation effect for the GH joint movements by comparing the theoretical and measured results. Passive joints can compensate for most GH movements, especially vertical movements.

Originality/value

Co-Exos II possesses good human–machine compatibility and wearable comfort for the affected upper limbs. The proposed compensation method is convenient to therapists and stroke patients during the rehabilitation trainings.

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Yen-Hong Ng, Sue-Pei Lai, Zhi-Peng Su, Jing-Yi Yap, Hui-Qi Teoh and Han Lee

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence accounting students’ preference toward career paths. Career path refers to the choices of jobs and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence accounting students’ preference toward career paths. Career path refers to the choices of jobs and occupational positions an individual may choose to hold. Accounting students may choose to advance their career into one of the following areas: financial accounting, management accounting, taxation, auditing, finance, etc. According to past literature, choices of career path are influenced by intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, third parties, and career exposure.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered survey was used to collect data from students in a reputable private university in Malaysia. This university recruits a huge number of accounting students annually for its accounting program. A total of 306 questionnaires were collected for data analysis using statistical analysis system.

Findings

The findings of the study suggest that undergraduate accounting students are more influenced by intrinsic motivation and career exposure in selecting their career paths, whereas third parties and extrinsic motivation are less likely to influence undergraduate accounting students’ career choices.

Research limitations/implications

The results, however, could not be generalized to all accounting students in Malaysia since the study was collected from only one private university in Malaysia and non-probability sampling technique was applied. The theoretical contribution of this study is the inclusion of new variables in the model.

Practical implications

Professional accounting bodies may benefit from the findings of this study as it may provide a basis in designing member recruitment strategies.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how shortage of certain career path for accounting students could be resolved.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Changwei Pang, Hao Shen and Yuan Li

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational slack, environmental characteristics, and new venture performance in China. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational slack, environmental characteristics, and new venture performance in China. The paper focuses on how different types of organizational slack, such as absorbed slack and unabsorbed slack, impact Chinese new venture performance. And it also examines the moderating effects of environmental characteristics, such as munificence and dynamism, on the slack‐performance linkage in Chinese transitional context.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review on organizational slack and institutional environment characteristics provides the model and hypothesis. Using a sample of 91 Chinese new ventures, the authors conduct the examination on the theoretical model and hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that the relationship between absorbed slack and new venture performance is negative and unabsorbed slack has an inverse U‐shaped effect on new venture performance. Furthermore, the institutional environments, such as munificence and dynamism in transitional economies have different moderating effects on the relationship between organizational slack and new venture performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on the new ventures of China, which is context specific. It is necessary to replicate this research in other transitional economies because of some specific differences between China and other transitional economies.

Practical implications

The results of the study suggest that new ventures should strengthen the management of resources and decrease absorbed slack in order to reduce the managerial cost, and then raise the level of resource utilization. In addition, how the new ventures make better utilization of organizational slack to deal with institutional environment uncertainty would be a core task in future business operations.

Originality/value

The paper is original in its investigation of the effect of organizational slack on new venture performance in contingent transitional environments. The paper explains the relationship between different types of organizational slack and new venture performance from a contingent perspective, thus extending the extant research.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Mike W. Peng, Canan C. Mutlu, Steve Sauerwald, Kevin Y. Au and Denis Y.L. Wang

This paper aims to explore the interlock-performance relationship among mainland Chinese firms listed in Hong Kong by taking advantage of a relationship-intensive context…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the interlock-performance relationship among mainland Chinese firms listed in Hong Kong by taking advantage of a relationship-intensive context whereby such a link is likely to be especially important. Although strategic networks such as interlocking directorates have been found to affect a number of strategic behaviors, the link connecting board interlocks and corporate performance has remained ambiguous. Considerable light has been shed on the strategic networks of firms whose shares are listed abroad, which have been under-studied despite their rising importance in the global economy.

Design/methodology/approach

Data come from a particularly interesting historical period – the early 1990s prior to Hong Kong’s 1997 handover to China. Both quantitative and qualitative research have been used.

Findings

Empirically, it was found that good performance in an earlier period helps draw outside directors in a later period, and that network centrality and certain types of interlocks help improve performance, albeit with varying degrees. Overall, our results answer the question whether strategic networks such as interlocks matter for corporate performance with a qualified “yes”.

Originality/value

Taking advantage of a relationship-intensive context, this article explores the interlock-performance relationship among mainland Chinese firms listed in Hong Kong. Focus is specifically on the two years, 1993 and 1995, due to their specific historical importance because these two years represent the beginning of Chinese firms’ listing in Hong Kong.

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Journal of Management History, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Haifeng Yan, Qihu Wang, Yi Ke and Juan Wang

It is widely accepted that business excellence comes from firm-specific factors. However, it is still unclear how institutional relatedness – the degree of embeddedness…

Abstract

Purpose

It is widely accepted that business excellence comes from firm-specific factors. However, it is still unclear how institutional relatedness – the degree of embeddedness with the dominant institutions that confer resources and legitimacy, influences the business excellence of the firm. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of three kinds of institutional relatedness, i.e. home government ties, initial public offerings (IPOs) and alliances with foreign firms, on the business excellence of Chinese firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a sample of firms enlisted on the “Most Respected Companies” rank in China during the period 2002–2015 and their paired firms who are absent from the list, by means of ordinary least square regression estimator, to explore the relationship between institutional relatedness and business excellence.

Findings

The empirical results suggest that IPOs and alliances with foreign firms significantly strengthen firms’ business excellence. Furthermore, home government ties have positive effects on outbound IPOs and alliances with foreign firms but hinder business excellence.

Originality/value

This study extends the business excellence literature by characterizing institutional rather than firm-specific factors from an institution-based view. It also enriches research on outcomes of institutional relatedness through investigating empirically its impact on business excellence. The findings provide new insights into the dual role of home government ties in achieving business excellence.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Henry F.L. Chung and Mia Hsiao-Wen Ho

This study aims to examine the effects of international competitive strategies, i.e. cost leadership and differentiation, on export (market share and strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of international competitive strategies, i.e. cost leadership and differentiation, on export (market share and strategic) performance. This study further explores the roles of exploitative and exploratory organizational learning in the relationships between international competitive strategies and export performances. To fill research gaps, this study intends to provide guidance on how varied exploitative/exploratory organizational learning and cost leadership/differentiation strategy combinations would affect export performance. The outcomes of this study provide a new match and mis-match conceptualization to extant international competitive strategy and organizational learning literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This study selected New Zealand (NZ) exporting as the research setting because exporting plays such a vital role in NZ’s economy and NZ exporting firms have long been highly competitive in international markets (e.g. meat and dairy exporters), with the primary data collected through surveys conducted in 2010 and 2013. This study adopted a three-year lagged performance approach.

Findings

Cost leadership strategy has a positive effect on market share performance. This effect is enhanced by exploitative learning but dampened by exploratory learning. Cost leadership also has a positive effect on strategic performance, which is not affected by exploitative and exploratory learning. Differentiation strategy bears no relation to market share and strategic performance, even allowing for exploitative and exploratory learning. Collectively, the contingent role of organizational learning in the international competitive strategies and export performance framework is far more comprehensive than was expected.

Research limitations/implications

This study reveals that a match between cost leadership strategy and exploitative learning may result in a superior market share. The configuration of differentiation strategy and exploitative learning and the integration of cost leadership strategy and exploratory learning are suggested as mis-matches, as these combinations would not lead to any significant and positive market share and strategic performance. Unexpectedly, the co-alliance of differentiation strategy and explorative learning is not suggested as a match, as it does not result in a superior market share and strategic performance. This latter outcome suggests that the differentiation strategy-export performance link may be stimulated by other moderating factors (e.g. business managerial ties).

Practical implications

While choosing an appropriate international competitive strategy, managers may use cost leadership over differentiation strategy to achieve successful export performance in both the market share and strategic perspectives. Export managers focusing on cost leadership strategy may further implement exploitative learning instead of explorative learning, when market share is vital. Meanwhile, they may note that explorative learning may not have a moderating effect on enhancing strategic performance through cost leadership. These points signify that exploitation of existing knowledge may be more effective than exploration of new knowledge for market share expansion when cost leadership strategy is devoted to exporting activities. Differentiation strategy, however, does not influence market share and strategic performance in exporting, even with an alignment of exploitative/exploratory learning. Managers are urged to pay attention to the mis-match of differentiation strategy and organizational learning when market share and strategic performance are the priorities in export performance evaluation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the organizational learning literature by providing a new match and mis-match conceptualization relating to international competitive strategy and export performance. The new framework provides directions on when firms should use organizational learning to enhance their competitive strategies (a match scenario) and when they should not use it (a mis-match scenario). This study broadens the existing research that has mainly focused on alignment combinations such as organizational learning-internationalization strategy and organizational learning-social network.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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