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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Daniel Jason Potter

Purpose – Child abuse is widely accepted as having a negative effect on children's academic achievement. It is less clear why this relationship exists. Current…

Abstract

Purpose – Child abuse is widely accepted as having a negative effect on children's academic achievement. It is less clear why this relationship exists. Current explanations of the abuse-academic achievement connection rely on psychological theories that overlook the impact the abuse has on children's developmentally relevant social circumstances.

Methodology/approach – Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (NSA), a nationally representative sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 17 years old, a social capital perspective is implemented to show how abuse impacts academic achievement.

Findings – Children victimized by physical or sexual abuse are more likely to join deviant peer groups, which in turn leads to increased levels of delinquent behavior by the individual. Both the “negative” social capital of the peer group and the deviant individual behaviors explain away much of the disparity in performance between abused and non-abused children and contribute to the overall understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of abuse.

Originality/value of chapter – These findings provide evidence of the impact abuse can have on children's well-being and outlines social mechanisms that connect abuse victimization to children's outcomes.

Details

Children and Youth Speak for Themselves
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-735-6

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Book part
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Bolun Li, Robin Sickles and Jenny Williams

Peers and friends are among the most influential social forces affecting adolescent behavior. In this chapter, the authors investigate peer effects on post high school…

Abstract

Peers and friends are among the most influential social forces affecting adolescent behavior. In this chapter, the authors investigate peer effects on post high school career decisions and on school choice. The authors define peers as students who are in the same classes and social clubs and measure peer effects as spatial dependence among them. Utilizing recent developments in spatial econometrics, the authors formalize a spatial multinomial choice model in which individuals are spatially dependent in their preferences. The authors estimate the model via pseudo maximum likelihood using data from the Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project. The authors do find that individuals are positively correlated in their career and college preferences and examine how such dependencies impact decisions directly and indirectly as peer effects are allowed to reverberate through the social network in which students reside.

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

François Des Rosiers, Jean Dubé and Marius Thériault

Both hedonics and the traditional sales comparison approach are derived from a similar paradigm with respect to how prices, hence market values, are determined. While the…

Abstract

Purpose

Both hedonics and the traditional sales comparison approach are derived from a similar paradigm with respect to how prices, hence market values, are determined. While the hedonic approach can provide reliable estimates of individual attributes' marginal contribution, it may – unlike the sales comparison approach – underestimate the prominent influence that surrounding properties exert on any given nearby housing unit and sale price. This paper seeks to develop a simple method for reconciling the two approaches within a rigorous conceptual and methodological framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Peer effect models, an analytical device developed, and mainly used, by labour economists, are adapted to the hedonic price equation so as to incorporate nearby properties' influences, thereby controlling for non‐observable neighbourhood effects. In addition to basic, intrinsic, building and land attributes, the ensuing model accounts for three types of effects, namely endogenous interactions effects (i.e. comparable sales influences, or peer effects), exogenous, or neighbourhood, effects and, finally, spatial autocorrelation effects.

Findings

Preliminary findings suggest that integrating peer effects in the hedonic equation allows bringing out the combined impacts of endogenous, exogenous and spatially correlated effects in the house price determination process, with spatial autocorrelation of model residuals being significantly reduced, even without resorting to a spatial autoregressive procedure.

Research limitations/implications

Further investigation is still needed in order to find out which submarket delineation should be used to obtain optimal model performances.

Originality/value

The paper leads to the conclusion that the comparable sales approach, as used in traditional appraisal practice, is valid, although its application is typically flawed by the too small sample size generally used by appraisers. Further investigation is still needed, however, in order to find out which submarket delineation should be used to obtain optimal model performances. This raises the paramount question as to whether the peer effect variable is adequately measured and addresses the tricky issue of kernel determination in spatial statistics and related applications, such as GWR.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 29 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Benterah C. Morton and Elizabeth Gil

The purpose of this paper is to describe the origins of a co-constructed peer-mentoring model designed by and for early-career faculty representing historically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the origins of a co-constructed peer-mentoring model designed by and for early-career faculty representing historically underrepresented groups in the field of educational leadership. The model, which includes components of the multicultural feminist model of mentoring, pays specific attention to early-career faculty development and well-being and outlines the need for and benefits of peer-mentoring programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study details the experiences of the development and implementation of a peer-mentoring program based on a review of literature that points out the need to provide mentoring opportunities for early-career educational leadership faculty, from historically underrepresented populations, and further posits peer-mentoring as an avenue to enhance faculty development and well-being.

Findings

Faculty representing historically underrepresented groups often experience challenges related to their identities, alongside the general pressures of working toward tenure. Peer-mentoring groups provide support with which to navigate these challenges. Peer-mentor groups are a supplement to other professional groups and interactions within departments and institutions.

Practical implications

The model has implications of being able to prepare institutional leaders to work toward institutionalizing mentoring programs that take into consideration invisible labor while promoting professional growth and personal wellness, thereby increasing the satisfaction and retention of faculty.

Originality/value

This peer-mentoring model can be used as a tool to leverage collective support, rather than emphasize individual success. As a support vehicle, it can foster a cultural change within the field of educational leadership that supports collaboration over competition.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Sibel Somyürek, Peter Brusilovsky, Ayça Çebi, Kamil Akhüseyinoğlu and Tolga Güyer

Interest is currently growing in open social learner modeling (OSLM), which means making peer models and a learner's own model visible to encourage users in e-learning…

Abstract

Purpose

Interest is currently growing in open social learner modeling (OSLM), which means making peer models and a learner's own model visible to encourage users in e-learning. The purpose of this study is to examine students' views about the OSLM in an e-learning system.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study was conducted with 40 undergraduate students enrolled in advanced programming and database management system courses. A Likert-type questionnaire and open-ended questions were used to obtain the students' views. System usage data were also analyzed to ensure the richness and diversity of the overall data set.

Findings

The quantitative data of the students' views were analyzed with descriptive statistics; the results are presented as graphics. The qualitative data of the students' views were examined by content analysis to derive themes. These themes are organized into four subtopics: the students' positive views, their negative views, their improvement suggestions and their preferences about using similar OSLM visualizations in other e-learning systems. The students' subjective views are discussed in the context of their recorded interactions with the system.

Research limitations/implications

Competition due to seeing peer models was considered by participants both as positive and negative features of the learning system. So, this study revealed that, the ways to combine peer learner models to e-learning systems that promote positive competition without resulting social pressure, still need to be explored.

Practical implications

By combining open learner models with open peer models, OSLM enhances the learning process in three different ways: it supports self-regulation, encourages competition and empowers self-evaluation. To take advantage of these positive contributions, practitioners should consider enhancing e-learning systems with both own learner and peer model features.

Originality/value

Despite increasing interest in OSLM studies, several limitations and problems must be addressed such as sparsity of data and lack of study of different contexts and cultures. To date, no published study in this area exists in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by examining OSLM features in an e-learning system from the perspectives of Turkish students by using both their system interaction data and their subjective views.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Steven Jacobs

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, this paper documents an analysis of mentorship models within the profession of nursing from the 1940s onward. From this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, this paper documents an analysis of mentorship models within the profession of nursing from the 1940s onward. From this analysis, the author was able to categorize the evolution of mentorship models within nursing. Second, this paper identifies four specific contemporary challenges within nursing which relate directly to mentorship. Last, this paper attempts to place a nursing student peer mentorship model in context to best understand how it can benefit the profession of nursing and help address the four identified contemporary challenges within nursing.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical, philosophical, and research roots that have shaped and informed mentorship models in nursing are examined. The strengths and limitations of nursing mentorship models are analyzed in relation to contemporary challenges in nursing education and practice with a focus on undergraduate peer mentorship. This was achieved through a comprehensive literature review that examined mentorship in nursing from approximately 1940 to the present.

Findings

Since Nightingale’s time, five specific mentoring models have been created and adapted within the nursing profession. The five mentorship models identified within this paper are most prevalent within current and previous nursing mentorship literature and demonstrate how models within nursing have evolved from those positing a relatively paternalistic relationship to those favoring more collaborative and reciprocal relations between mentor and mentee. Further, it is argued in this paper that a nursing student peer mentorship model can assist in addressing four challenges which currently face the profession of nursing. These four challenges (which are prevalent in nursing literature) are mentoring as a professional responsibility, projected nursing shortages, communication in nursing, and the development of critical thinking skills.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this paper includes the fact that, despite the many challenges facing the profession of nursing today, this paper focuses on only four identified challenges. As it is impossible for one paper to address all of the contemporary challenges which face nursing today, as articulated below, this paper addresses four identified challenges because they relate to mentorship, nursing education, and nursing practice.

Practical implications

Providing opportunities for nursing students to participate in a peer mentoring relationship assists future nurses and the profession as a whole by generating tangible benefits. These benefits include an exposure to theories and models of mentorship and skills to help them fulfill their future professional responsibility of mentoring, development of relationships and skills that can increase both nurse and student retention, and improved communication and critical thinking skills. Last, this study can help nursing schools to identify and work with theories and models of mentorship that will improve their ability to stimulate critical thinking among their students.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing an analysis of the theoretical, philosophical, and research roots that have shaped and informed mentorship models in nursing from the 1940s onward. This analysis suggests that student peer mentorship may be the most effective model to address these four challenges in nursing: mentoring as a professional responsibility, projected nursing shortages, communication in nursing, and the development of critical thinking skills. This paper has the potential to make a timely contribution to the global debate regarding mentoring across the healthcare professions.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2014

Ashleigh I. Hodge, Keith L. Warren and Jessica V. Linley

– The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine personal and social network characteristics that predict staff ratings of therapeutic community (TC) resident role model status.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 49 incarcerated female residents tracked interactions with peers, including verbal affirmations and corrections, during a 12-hour period. Two weeks later, staff members were surveyed about their view of participants as role models. Poisson regression was used to analyze resident interactions and demographics as predictors of role model status.

Findings

The number of corrections given to peers was positively related to staff ratings of role model status (B=0.234, SE=0.088, p=0.008). The number of affirmations given was negatively related to staff ratings (B=−0.112, SE=0.051, p=0.028). Resident phase was positively related to staff ratings (B=0.256, SE=0.102, p=0.012). These values did not significantly change when controlling for affirmations and corrections received from peers, non-programmatic interactions between residents, or resident demographics.

Research limitations/implications

These results imply that TC staff judge role model status by resident actions in the community rather than demographics or peer reactions. External validity is limited by the single site, case study design, and the fact that only female TC residents were sampled.

Originality/value

This study is the first to track resident peer interactions over the course of a day and to link those interactions to role model status.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

William Miller and Lorna MacGilchrist

Describes a pilot peer education project based at Fife Health Promotion Department, which began in April 1993. The project had funding for three years and was supported by…

Abstract

Describes a pilot peer education project based at Fife Health Promotion Department, which began in April 1993. The project had funding for three years and was supported by Fife Health Care, Fife Health Board and the Health Education Board for Scotland. Describes how the project team devised a model to clarify the aims and objectives of the project, given that there is no affiliated body to provide guidelines, and that there is a lack of documentation concerning thorough evaluation and the plethora of meanings associated with peer‐led work. The model will make it easier to document the processes involved for the purposes of evaluation. Outlines the rationale behind the model and describes how the model provides a core framework for other peer work.

Details

Health Education, vol. 96 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2020

Makarand Mody, Jochen Wirtz, Kevin Kam Fung So, Helen HaeEun Chun and Stephanie Q. Liu

This article examines the new phenomenon of the convergence of platform and pipeline business models. It examines the potential synergies and challenges for platforms to…

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines the new phenomenon of the convergence of platform and pipeline business models. It examines the potential synergies and challenges for platforms to add pipeline components and vice versa for pipeline businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a conceptual approach that synthesizes and integrates the literature from service, hospitality, and strategy, and supplements them with two illustrative mini-case studies.

Findings

While the extant literature typically focuses on the dichotomy between incumbent pipeline businesses that create value by controlling a linear series of activities and network effects-driven platforms, we differentiate between two types of platform business models (i.e. platforms with asset control and platforms with peer-provided assets). Further, we identify three common pathways of convergence; that is, pipelines moving towards (1) platforms with asset control and (2) those with peer-provided assets, and (3) platforms with peer-provided assets adopting defining business characteristics of pipelines. Furthermore, we contrast key characteristics of the three business models and examine potential synergies and challenges for business model convergence. Our findings suggest that convergence from pipelines to platforms with asset control seems to be a natural extension that offers many potential synergies and relatively minor challenges. In contrast, convergence from pipelines to platforms with peer-provided assets is likely to encounter more serious challenges and few synergies. Finally, the synergies and challenges of convergence from platforms with peer-provided assets to pipelines seem to be in between the other two in terms of synergies and challenges.

Practical implications

This article helps managers think through key considerations regarding potential synergies to develop and challenges to mitigate for embarking on convergence strategies between pipeline and platform business models.

Originality/value

This article is the first in the service, business model and strategy literature to identify, define, and conceptualize business model convergence between platforms with asset control, those with peer-provided assets and pipeline businesses. It is also the first to examine potential synergies and challenges these different paths of business model convergence may entail.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Daryl Mahon

Peer support has gained increasing attention within the mental health literature, including the trauma informed approaches research where peer support is a key principle…

Abstract

Purpose

Peer support has gained increasing attention within the mental health literature, including the trauma informed approaches research where peer support is a key principle. The purpose of this paper is to outline a servant leadership model of trauma peer support.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted literature search that incorporated systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomised control trials in the areas of servant leadership, peer support and trauma informed approaches were sourced.

Findings

Servant leadership can be used to provide a theoretical model of trauma peer support. All three constructs share the idea of empowerment as a core principle. An ideographic model of servant leadership trauma peer support is put forward based on eight characteristics from the extant literature.

Research limitations/implications

As with all conceptual papers, a lack of empirical data means the findings need to be investigated using primary data. Future research may wish to use this theoretical model to test effectiveness in equivalence studies.

Practical implications

A theoretical model of trauma informed peer support based on servant leadership theory, with a clear guide to its utilisation.

Originality/value

This is a novel approach, a new addition to the literature.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

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