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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Graeme L. Harrison

Reports the results of a study into differences in the levels ofjob satisfaction, job tension and stress, and interpersonal relationswith superiors and peers, between…

Abstract

Reports the results of a study into differences in the levels of job satisfaction, job tension and stress, and interpersonal relations with superiors and peers, between managers in Singapore and Australia. The study draws on Hofstede′s concept and classification of national culture to predict that job satisfaction will be lower, job tension higher, and interpersonal relations poorer for managers in the high power distance, collectivist cultures of East Asian nations than for managers in the low power distance, individualist cultures of Anglo‐American nations. A study of 115 middle‐level managers in Singapore and 96 in Australia corroborates these differences. Discusses how different approaches to managing budgetary planning and control processes may improve these personal and interpersonal work‐related conditions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 10 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Stephen W. Smith, Gregory G. Taylor, Tia Barnes and Ann P. Daunic

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who display aggression necessitate effective interventions for reducing highly disruptive behavior, while keeping…

Abstract

Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who display aggression necessitate effective interventions for reducing highly disruptive behavior, while keeping learning environments safe and secure for all students and staff. In this chapter, we describe the merits of cognitive-behavioral interventions (CBIs) in school settings to reduce student aggression and other destructive and maladaptive behavior and to promote student success and lifelong learning. To that end, we first explore three theoretical frameworks for aggression: the general aggression model, social learning theory, and social information processing, each of which examines the role of environment, cognition, and behavior as foundational to the occurrence of aggression. Synthesizing these theories assists in the development and implementation of CBIs in classroom settings. We then describe the CBI approach to teaching students cognitive and behavioral strategies to reduce problematic behaviors and increase the use of more pro-social alternatives, and ultimately generalize learned skills to a variety of social situations. A brief history of CBIs is explored, followed by a discussion of several meta-analyses establishing CBI's effectiveness in decreasing aggression across a variety of venues and populations. We then focus on social problem solving as an example of a cognitive-behavioral approach and describe the Tools for Getting Along curriculum as an example of a school-based CBI. At the end of the chapter, we explain some limitations of CBIs in schools and delineate future research needs.

Details

Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Semra Karakas and Mustafa F. Özbilgin

In this chapter, we examine the notion of ethnic diversity with a view to explore Europe-wide differences in defining and managing ethnic diversity and equality. When…

Abstract

In this chapter, we examine the notion of ethnic diversity with a view to explore Europe-wide differences in defining and managing ethnic diversity and equality. When compared to gender diversity, ethnic diversity does not enjoy similar level of success in Europe. Our analyses show that this is due to the fact that ethnicity and ethnic categories are national. In fact, there are different levels of discussion on ethnicity, where the debate is limited due to historical, cultural and legal differences.

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Race Discrimination and Management of Ethnic Diversity and Migration at Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-594-8

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Jessie Kemmick Pintor, Carolyn Garcia and Ursula Reynoso

Purpose – To synthesize the literature on coping among adolescents of color in the U.S., we examine normative and circumstantial stressors, describe coping strategies, and…

Abstract

Purpose – To synthesize the literature on coping among adolescents of color in the U.S., we examine normative and circumstantial stressors, describe coping strategies, and summarize the literature on coping for the promotion of well-being among adolescents of color, including descriptive and intervention studies.

Methods/approach – We conducted an extensive review of the literature in four scientific databases (medline, CINAHL, ERIC, and PyschInfo) between July 2010 and June 2011 (key words: (minority) adolescent(s) (of color), cope/coping, stress (ors), and adaptation/psychological). Studies included in our review were peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and June 2011 that presented original data on the coping strategies and outcomes of adolescents of color (e.g., studies including a majority from underrepresented racial/ethnic communities) between the ages of 12 and 18.

Findings – We identified a total of 91 articles for inclusion, including 83 descriptive and 8 intervention studies. We use a matrix approach to compare descriptive studies by their purpose, study design, sample, targeted stressors, and outcomes. We then discuss the eight interventions we identified, highlighting the targeted population, intervention protocol/adaptation, feasibility/acceptability, and study outcomes.

Implications – The breadth and depth of research on coping among adolescents of color has improved significantly over the past decade, yet our review reveals several areas where further exploration is needed, including research on intra-group differences, validation of coping measures in diverse groups, measurement of the effectiveness of coping strategies over time, and most importantly, the translation of available knowledge on effective coping into culturally relevant, multifaceted interventions for adolescents and their families.

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Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Zachary Giano, Michael J. Merten and Brooke Tuttle

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between persistently sleeping away from the home as a predictor of adolescent delinquency in a largely Latino…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between persistently sleeping away from the home as a predictor of adolescent delinquency in a largely Latino sample of 91 adolescents.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs multiple linear regressions to examine the relationship between sleeping away from the home (IV) and antisocial behavior and substance use (DVs) with dangerous neighborhood characteristics as a moderator.

Findings

Results show that sleeping away from the home on a persistent basis is a significant predictor of antisocial behavior and substance use. Neighborhood characteristics moderated the effect of sleeping away on substance use only. One possible explanation includes opportunities for increased time with deviant peers that is created by persistently sleeping away from home. Additionally, sleeping away from the home may allow adolescents from strict households to opportunistically engage in delinquent behavior in households with less strict rules.

Originality/value

Although sleeping away is a common behavior often encouraged by parents as a part of social learning, there is evidence to suggest that it could be potentially detrimental, particularly amplified when the adolescent lives in more dangerous neighborhoods. To date, this is the first study to examine the effects of persistently sleeping away from the home on adolescent delinquency.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Glenn D. Walters

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between gang affiliation and criminal thinking.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between gang affiliation and criminal thinking.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 1,354 youth (1,170 males, 184 females) from the Pathways to Desistance Study served as participants in this study, and a causal mediation path analysis was performed on proactive and reactive criminal thinking, gang affiliation and subsequent offending.

Findings

Using three waves of data, it was determined that the pathway running from reactive criminal thinking to gang affiliation to proactive criminal thinking was significant, whereas the pathway running from proactive criminal thinking to gang affiliation to reactive criminal thinking was not. A four-wave model, in which violent and income offending were appended to the three-wave model, disclosed similar results.

Practical implications

Two separate targets for intervention with youth at risk for gang involvement: proactive and reactive criminal thinking. The impulsive, irresponsible, reckless and disinhibited nature of reactive criminal thinking may best be managed with a secondary prevention approach and cognitive-behavioral skills training; the planned, cold, calculating and amoral nature of proactive criminal thinking may best be managed with a tertiary prevention approach and moral retraining. Trauma therapy may be of assistance to youth who have been victimized over the course of their gang experience.

Originality/value

These findings reveal evidence of a gang selection effect that is independent of the well-documented peer selection effect, in which reactive criminal thinking led to gang affiliation in youthful offenders, particularly non-White offenders, and a gang influence effect, independent of the frequently observed peer selection effect, in which gang affiliation contributed to a rise in proactive criminal thinking.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2016

Victor P. Seidel, Kelley A. Packalen and Siobhan O’Mahony

Scholars have studied how entrepreneurs acquire resources but have not examined how resources may be bundled with constraints, which can threaten entrepreneurial autonomy…

Abstract

Scholars have studied how entrepreneurs acquire resources but have not examined how resources may be bundled with constraints, which can threaten entrepreneurial autonomy. Organizational sponsors, such as incubators and accelerators, provide entrepreneurs with resources, but how do entrepreneurs sustain autonomy while seeking resources and support? We studied five entrepreneurial firms in a business incubator over a six-month period. While benefitting from incubator resources, entrepreneurs also experienced unexpected constraints, including mentor role conflict, gatekeeper control, and affiliation dissonance. By showing how entrepreneurs unbundled the incubator’s resources from constraints, we explain how entrepreneurs manage the tension between acquiring resources and preserving autonomy.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Amanda Bateman

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of non-verbal, embodied actions within the dispute process. In doing so, this chapter offers insight into children's co-construction of disputes and has practical implications for early childhood teachers.

Methodology – Ethnomethodology (EM), conversation analysis (CA) and membership categorization analysis (MCA) are applied to the current study of children's disputes in order to offer insight into the sequences of social organization processes evident in children's disagreements.

Findings – This chapter presents a detailed analysis of the everyday disputes which four-year-old children engage in during their morning playtime at a primary school in Wales, UK. It reveals the children's use of physical gestures to support their verbal actions in order to maximize intersubjectivity between the participants. This joint understanding was necessary during the social organization process.

Practical implications – Managing children's physical disputes within an educational context is recognized as a very difficult aspect of a teacher's routine as the timing and level of intervention are so subjective (Bateman, 2011a). This chapter offers insight into the organization of physical disputes between young children, and so enables teachers to make an informed decision in their practice.

Details

Disputes in Everyday Life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-877-9

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

John E. Anderson

Analyze how peer effects and social influences affect attitudes and responses to corruption in tax systems, identifying factors that improve tax morale.

Abstract

Purpose

Analyze how peer effects and social influences affect attitudes and responses to corruption in tax systems, identifying factors that improve tax morale.

Design/methodology/approach

Life in Transition Survey (LITS III, 2016) data are analyzed using ordered probit models of corrupt tax officials, Heckman-style selection models of the extent of corruption, probit models of reasons given for not reporting corruption and ordered probit models of the frequency of informal payments to tax officials.

Findings

Peer effects and social influences significantly affect perceptions of and responses to corruption. Tax morale is supported in communities where people trust one another, where there is greater respect for the law and where people can achieve greater life satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Results are specific to transition countries represented in the data.

Practical implications

Findings can help improve tax morale and stabilize fiscal systems in transition countries.

Social implications

Enhanced tax morale can be facilitated by building inclusive, respectful and transparent institutions.

Originality/value

This study uses the latest LITS III data with a focus on peer effects and social influences, with improved empirical strategies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Peter Nuttall and Julie Tinson

This paper aims to contribute to the special issue theme by exploring the perceptions of anti‐consumption and resistant practices of adolescents by their peer group in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to the special issue theme by exploring the perceptions of anti‐consumption and resistant practices of adolescents by their peer group in the context of high school prom attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a mixed methods approach involving 12 in‐depth interviews with those who had attended a high school prom in the last three years and open questions on a survey to adolescents.

Findings

Four main perceptions of non‐attendance were identified: non‐choice, risk aversion, passive disengagement and intentional disengagement. Perceptions of anti‐consumption and resistance will have social implications for the non‐attendee/s but the extent to which non‐attendance is viewed negatively will also be moderated by existing social status of the non‐attendee/s.

Originality/value

Possible causes for avoiding consumption have been previously considered, however, as yet unexplored are how those who do not consume are perceived by their peers and how this manifests itself in relation to group affiliation, attendees' perception of “self” and social norms.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 45 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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