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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Pedro S. Martins

Personnel economics tends be based on single-firm case studies. Here, we examine several internal labor market dimensions of nearly 5,000 firms, over a period of 20 years…

Abstract

Personnel economics tends be based on single-firm case studies. Here, we examine several internal labor market dimensions of nearly 5,000 firms, over a period of 20 years, using detailed matched employer–employee data from Portugal. In the spirit of Baker, Gibbs, and Holmstrom (1994a, 1994b), we consider worker turnover, the role of job levels and human capital as wage determinants, wage dispersion within job levels, the importance of tenure in promotions and exits, and the scope for careers. We find a large degree of diversity in most of these personnel dimensions across firms. Moreover, some dimensions are shown to be robust predictors of firm performance, even after controlling for time-invariant firm heterogeneity and other variables. These dimensions include low worker churning, the importance of careers, low wage dispersion at low and intermediate job levels, and a tight relationship between human capital variables and wages.

Details

Workplace Productivity and Management Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-675-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Fernanda Mata, Pedro S.R. Martins, Julia B. Lopes-Silva, Marcela Mansur-Alves, Alexander Saeri, Emily Grundy, Peter Slattery and Liam Smith

This study aimed to examine (1) whether confidence in political and health authorities predicted intention to adopt recommended health-protective behaviours and (2…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to examine (1) whether confidence in political and health authorities predicted intention to adopt recommended health-protective behaviours and (2) whether age, gender and education level moderated the relationship between confidence in political and health authorities and health protective-behaviours (download the COVIDSafe app, wear a face mask and stay at home).

Design/methodology/approach

This study assessed 1,206 Australians using an online survey. Participants answered questions regarding their confidence in political and health authorities and intention to adopt health-protective measures.

Findings

Confidence in health and political authorities predicted intention to stay home and intention to download the COVIDSafe app, but not to wear a face mask in public spaces. Age moderated the relationship between confidence in authorities and intention to stay home (i.e. among respondents with less than 54 years old, confidence in authorities was associated with higher intention to stay home). Further, age and education level moderated the relationship between confidence in authorities and intention to download the COVIDSafe app (i.e. among older respondents and those with a university degree or higher, confidence in authorities was more strongly associated with higher intention to download the COVIDSafe app). The interaction between confidence and education predicted adoption of mask-wearing (i.e. among participants with a university degree or higher, more confidence in authorities was associated with higher intention to wear a mask in public spaces).

Originality/value

Our findings can inform the development of targeted communications to increase health-protective behaviours at early stages of future pandemics.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Pedro S. Martins

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of a causal nature about the relationship between wages and churning (“excessive” worker turnover).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of a causal nature about the relationship between wages and churning (“excessive” worker turnover).

Design/methodology/approach

Matched employer‐employee panel data from Portugal, covering the period 1986‐2000 are used in the study. Econometric methods are also used, including random effects tobit models, fixed effects and instrumental variables.

Findings

Unlike in previous research (which typically does not consider causal relationships), the paper presents evidence that wages do not necessarily decrease the amount of churning. If employers are forced to increase pay, they may respond by hiring different workers. Detailed evidence about the nature of job and worker flows and churning levels across industries is presented.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine the paths of workers whose wages are affected by collective bargaining.

Practical implications

The paper provides additional evidence that effort may not be particularly sensitive to wages in some industries/occupations. The should be a better understanding of role of wages in personnel policies.

Originality/value

This paper is probably the first that seeks to examine the causal relationship between wages and churning. The results will be of interest to labour economists and human resource management experts.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Pedro S. Martins

Studies wage dispersion across firms and time in a specific industry that exhibits competitive features – the Portuguese clothing industry in the 1991‐1994 period. By…

565

Abstract

Studies wage dispersion across firms and time in a specific industry that exhibits competitive features – the Portuguese clothing industry in the 1991‐1994 period. By drawing on a large matched employer‐employee panel, obtains the following results: the workers' firm affiliation plays an important role in wage determination; there is a sizeable and persistent dispersion of firm‐fixed effects, which is also similar for workers of different tenure levels and occupations; workers in high‐turnover firms are generally paid less. It is believed that these findings are not consistent with a simple competitive labour market model.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Abstract

Details

Workplace Productivity and Management Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-675-0

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2013

John H. Bickford III

With an ever-expanding focus on reading and mathematics, many elementary schools have chosen to reduce time previously reserved for social studies. Elementary teachers who…

Abstract

With an ever-expanding focus on reading and mathematics, many elementary schools have chosen to reduce time previously reserved for social studies. Elementary teachers who understand both the relevance of social studies content and the effectiveness of interdisciplinary teaching regularly incorporate applicable history-based children’s tradebooks in their curricula. Locating developmentally appropriate books is simple. Teaching history using children’s literature can be effective. It can be counterproductive, however, if the selected book is replete with historical misrepresentations. Teaching historical thinking in elementary school is problematic no matter what the teaching tool, and there are few methodological roadmaps for elementary teachers. Here, I first suggest ways for teachers to nurture elementary students’ historical thinking using anecdotes from everyday activities and literature with themes germane to history and multiculturalism. Then, I suggest ways for elementary educators to locate and develop engaging, age-appropriate, and historically accurate curricular supplements. Using literature on Christopher Columbus as a reference point to facilitate young students’ historical thinking, I propose an interdisciplinary approach, discipline-specific historical literacy strategies, and history-themed authentic assessments.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2010

José G. Vargas-Hernández

Grass roots movements in relationships of cooperation and conflict between firms, communities, and government have an important role to stop a living city from…

Abstract

Grass roots movements in relationships of cooperation and conflict between firms, communities, and government have an important role to stop a living city from disappearing. This chapter describes and analyzes the implications of the collective action used by grass roots movements in the defense of an old mining town, Cerro de San Pedro, of being disappeared due to the pollution of fresh watersheds by the operations of a mining company and the effects on the living city of San Luis Potosì, in the center of Mèxico.

Details

NGOs and Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-296-9

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

José G. Vargas‐Hernández

The aim of this paper is to analyze relationships of cooperation and conflict between a mining company and the involved communities, focusing on the presence of the mining…

1093

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to analyze relationships of cooperation and conflict between a mining company and the involved communities, focusing on the presence of the mining company (MSX) in Cerro de San Pedro, Mexico.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper focuses on the co‐operation and conflict between firms, communities, new social movements and the role of government.

Findings

The presence of the mining company has caused a severe social conflict among the inhabitants of San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis, alerting all who are concerned with historic heritage, cultural and environmental issues. At the center of the controversy is the cheap and efficient technology. Federal and state laws were violated. It is quite evident that there was a lack of sensitivity of foreign mining companies toward the consequences of their activities upon the communities and environment. This case also shows the lack of negotiation between firms, communities, new social movements and governments. Information about externalities and future costs of company activities is crucial but more crucial is formulation and implementation of more sensitive policies to avoid damage to the environment, biodiversity and health of the population. Governmental institutions must be aware that their decisions may affect the quality of life of present and future generations for the sake of a small increment in economic growth and large increase in private benefits of a small group of investors. More informed citizens tend to be more active protestors, such as the case of the students in San Luis. Contact between informed individuals of diverse groups and organizations helps to exchange experiences and create public opinion in favor of mobilization. Community participation and involvement in decision‐making of community development planning is quite limited by the lack of critical information. This fact is critical when the local government cannot provide the right information because there are other interests affecting the process.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the lack of sensitivity of foreign mining companies towards local communities.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Maura J. Mills and Leanne M. Tortez

We review the state of the literature concerning work–family conflict in the military, focusing on service members’ parenting roles and overall family and child…

Abstract

We review the state of the literature concerning work–family conflict in the military, focusing on service members’ parenting roles and overall family and child well-being. This includes recognition that for many women service members, parenting considerations often arise long before a child is born, thereby further complicating work–family conflict considerations in regard to gender-specific conflict factors such as pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, and breastfeeding. Subsequently, we consider more gender-invariant conflict factors, such as the nature of the work itself as causing conflict for the service member as parent (e.g., nontraditional hours, long separations, and child care challenges) as well as for the child (e.g., irregular contact with parent, fear for parent’s safety, and frequent relocations), and the ramifications of such conflict on service member and child well-being. Finally, we review formalized support resources that are in place to mitigate negative effects of such conflict, and make recommendations to facilitate progress in research and practice moving forward.

Details

Occupational Stress and Well-Being in Military Contexts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-184-7

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 21 June 2021

A profile of Pedro Castillo.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB262229

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

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