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Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Philippa Velija

In this chapter I provide a sociological discussion of the gender pay gap legalisation by drawing on data in the sport sector across public and private commercial sports…

Abstract

In this chapter I provide a sociological discussion of the gender pay gap legalisation by drawing on data in the sport sector across public and private commercial sports organisations. The gender pay gap is a significant reporting tool as it refers to the difference in the average hourly wage of all men compared to all women across an organisation (gov.uk, 2020). It is part of legislation introduced in the UK in 2017 which requires all employers with 250 or more employees to calculate and publish annually their gender pay gap data (gov.uk, 2020). The patterns emerging from the data indicate that the highest disparity in gender pay remains in those organisations where professional sport is commercialised around male performance (average gender pay gap is 59.1% in 2018–2019). In this chapter I draw on figurational concepts of power that enable the analysis of gender relations processually and draw on the role of shame and embarrassment to discuss the ways in which gender pay gap reporting may be used as a power resource to challenge ongoing inequalities in sport governance.

Details

Gender Equity in UK Sport Leadership and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-207-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2003

Susan Harkness and Jane Waldfogel

In this paper, we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialized countries to investigate the family gap in pay – the differential in hourly…

Abstract

In this paper, we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialized countries to investigate the family gap in pay – the differential in hourly wages between women with children and women without children. We present results from seven countries: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Sweden. We find that there is a good deal of variation across our sample countries in the effects of children on women’s employment and in the effects of children on women’s hourly wages even after controlling for differences between women with and without children in characteristics such as age and education. We also find that the variation in the family gap in pay across countries is not primarily due to differential selection into employment or to differences in wage structure across countries. We suggest that future research should examine the impact of family policies such as maternity leave and child care on the family gap in pay.

Details

Worker Well-Being and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-213-9

Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Nicholas Apergis and Nicola Lynch

Using survey datasets, the purpose of this work explores the impact of economic freedom on the gender pay gap in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

Using survey datasets, the purpose of this work explores the impact of economic freedom on the gender pay gap in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis combines Economic Freedom of the World data with the Understanding Society (USoc) Microdata series.

Findings

The results document that economic freedom positively affects the gender pay gap. When the components of the index are considered, the findings indicate different effects of various types of policy, i.e. less government spending, stronger trade liberalization conditions and levels of corruption lead to higher gaps; stronger legal and property rights and a sounder money system have no impact on the gap. Moreover, a stronger impact in the manufacturing industry, part-time workers and those who work in the non-London regions is observed.

Practical implications

The findings imply that reductions to government spending programmes can potentially aggravate the gap in hourly wages paid between males and females and should, therefore, be implemented. It may be also possible to provide females the training or education necessary to effectively compete in the workforce, before eliminating any spending programme they rely on.

Originality/value

The first study explores the link between economic freedom and gender pay gap through a unique survey dataset with UK households.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Lin Xiu and Morley Gunderson

– The purpose of the paper is to analyse how the male-female pay gap in China varies across the pay distribution and to provide evidence on the factors that influence that gap.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyse how the male-female pay gap in China varies across the pay distribution and to provide evidence on the factors that influence that gap.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the Recentered Influence Function modification of quantile regressions to estimate how the male-female pay gap varies across the pay distribution. The authors also decompose the pay gaps at different quantiles of the pay distribution into differences in endowments of wage determining characteristics and differences in the returns for the same characteristics. The analysis is based on data from the Life Histories and Social Change in Contemporary China survey.

Findings

The authors find evidence of a sticky floor (large pay gaps at the bottom of the pay distribution) and some limited and weaker evidence of a glass ceiling (large pay gaps at the top of the distribution). This pattern prevails based on the overall pay gap as well as on the adjusted or net gap that reflects differences in the pay that males and females receive when they have the same pay determining characteristics. The pattern largely reflects the coefficients or unexplained differences across the pay distribution. Factors influencing the pay gap and how they vary across the pay distribution are discussed. The variation highlights considerable heterogeneity in the Chinese labour market with respect to how pay is determined and different characteristics are rewarded, implying that the conventional Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions that focus only on the mean of the distribution can mask important differences across the full pay distribution.

Social implications

At the bottom of the pay distribution most of the lower pay of females reflects their lower returns to job tenure, experience and a greater negative effect of family responsibilities on females’ wages, and to a lesser extent their lower level of education, less likelihood of being CPP members and their concentration in lower paying occupations. At the top of the pay distribution most of their lower pay reflects their lower returns on education, job tenure and work experience, and to a lesser extent their lower levels of experience and lower likelihood of being in managerial and leadership positions.

Originality/value

The paper systematically examines the male-female pay gap and its determinants throughout the pay distribution in China, highlighting that the conventional Blinder-Oaxaca decompositions that focus only on the mean of the distribution can mask important differences across the full pay distribution and not capture the considerable heterogeneity in that labour market.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

H. Leon Chan, Brett Kawada, Taekjin Shin and Jeff Wang

This study aims to examine whether the pay gap between the chief executive officer (CEO) and non-executive employees affects the firm’s research and development (R&D…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether the pay gap between the chief executive officer (CEO) and non-executive employees affects the firm’s research and development (R&D) efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The dependent variable is the firm’s R&D efficiency, defined as a percentage increase in revenue from a 1-per cent increase in R&D spending. The main independent variable is the CEO-employee pay gap, defined as the ratio of annual total compensation for the CEO to the average of non-executive employees of the firm. The authors estimate fixed-effects models to examine the association between R&D efficiency and the pay gap between CEO and non-executive employees.

Findings

Results indicate a negative and significant association between R&D efficiency and CEO-employee pay gap, which suggests that a wider pay gap reduces employee motivation and effort, consistent with pay equity theory. We also find that the CEO-employee pay gap negatively moderates the relationship between employee pay growth and R&D efficiency

Research limitations/implications

Recently enacted pay gap disclosure requirements mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act will make the disparity between CEO and non-executive compensation more salient. This study provides evidence of a firm outcome associated with that disparity.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to investigate the impact of the pay gap on R&D efficiency, a firm outcome not previously explored in the literature. This study also investigates CEO-employee pay gap’s role as a factor that moderates the effects of employee pay growth and institutional ownership on R&D efficiency

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

D. Jamali, Y. Sidani and A. Kobeissi

While the gender pay gap has received considerable attention, the evidence from developing countries remains scant. The purpose of this paper is to examine the salience of…

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Abstract

Purpose

While the gender pay gap has received considerable attention, the evidence from developing countries remains scant. The purpose of this paper is to examine the salience of a gender pay gap in a developing country context, through an empirical study of differentials in wages/salaries across gender in the banking, nursing and higher education sectors in Lebanon.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was designed and distributed to a sample of 168 employees drawn from a total of three major banks, five well‐known medical centers and two institutions of higher education. The survey questionnaires were supplemented by interviews with three women managers from each sector studied.

Findings

The findings suggest that the gender pay gap is only salient in the higher education sector, although male and female employees in all three sectors perceive that there is no gender pay gap and discrimination is considered to be a salient issue only in the educational sector. Although not entirely expected, the findings regarding those wage gap perceptions are explained in relation to the adoption of a grading compensation scheme which can go a long way according to the present research in alleviating feelings of inequity as well as prevailing cultural expectations regarding gender earnings differentials in a relatively conservative society.

Originality/value

The value added of this research is to present fresh insights into the gender pay gap from a peculiar Middle Eastern context and to highlight the importance of a fair and equitable compensation scheme in alleviating perceptions of inequity and discrimination at work. The paper also directs attention to the influence of cultural expectations, which invariably mold greater or lesser sensitivity to gender pay gaps.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Aleksandra Gaweł and Katarzyna Mroczek-Dąbrowska

Although several theoretical concepts imply different determinants of female entrepreneurship, the literature lacks a consensus on their significance. The aim of this…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although several theoretical concepts imply different determinants of female entrepreneurship, the literature lacks a consensus on their significance. The aim of this paper is to verify how industry specificity influences the gender pay gap and its relation to female entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors distinguish industries based on the gender equality level, measured jointly by two factors: pay gap level and female participation rate. The study has been conducted among 22 European countries with relatively similar institutional backgrounds. The authors carry out the analysis based on the panel regression models, which enable the authors to verify two predefined research questions.

Findings

The results of panel regression models indicate that industry specificity plays a significant role in the relation between the pay gap and female entrepreneurship. Generally, it can be concluded that gender pay gap as a measure of gender inequality is dependent on the industry specificity. The dependence is especially visible in the breakdown of male- and female-dominated industries.

Originality/value

The findings are consistent with the assumption that the gender pay gap is a discriminatory factor for women willing to become entrepreneurs in certain industries. The findings of the study may constitute a vital tool in planning to overcome it.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 43 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Clotilde Coron

The literature on HR metrics does not address the political issues that surround the definition and interpretation of these metrics. However, the need for agreement about…

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Abstract

Purpose

The literature on HR metrics does not address the political issues that surround the definition and interpretation of these metrics. However, the need for agreement about HR metrics between different stakeholders is underlined by the framework of the sociology of quantification. This research aims to complement the literature on HR metrics by studying the process of defining and interpreting appropriate HR metrics, focusing on the example of the gender pay gap.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study with interviews and participant observation is conducted on a French company.

Findings

The results show that HR metrics are essential to prove the existence of inequalities. However, there are disagreements between management, unions and gender equality referents concerning appropriate HR metrics and their use.

Originality/value

Contrary to the literature on the subject, which remains predominantly positivist and normative, this article sheds light on the political issues surrounding the definition and use of HR metrics and shows the importance of involving a range of actors (managers, unions and employees) in the entire process.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Lin Xiu

This study aims to examine the gender pay gap in organizational leadership positions in China. The author seeks to analyse how much of the gap is explained by differences…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the gender pay gap in organizational leadership positions in China. The author seeks to analyse how much of the gap is explained by differences in individual characteristics and how much is explained by firm characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study estimates pay functions based on a unique data set from a survey of private firms and top managers in Liuzhou, Guangxi, China.

Findings

Female managers receive much lower pay than male managers in China. A larger portion of the gender earnings gap can be attributed to firm‐level characteristics than individual characteristics. Female managers tend to have fewer firm‐level characteristics that are associated with higher pay, and when they do, they tend to receive a smaller pay premium for those characteristics. This is especially the case for the firm size variable where female managers are less likely to be employed in higher paying large firms, and when they are, they receive a smaller firm‐size premium.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses a sample of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. As such, the gender pay gap in larger firms or firms in large cities (e.g. Beijing or Shanghai) may not be represented by the findings of this study.

Practical implications

This study offers insights on how women executives are paid after they cross the “glass ceiling” and enter the managerial ranks in China. Female executives should be aware of the effects of firm characteristics on gender differences in compensation.

Originality/value

This study adds to the limited empirical literature on the gender pay gap among top executives using a matched establishment‐manager data set in China.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Violetta Khoreva

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the domain of the gender pay gap research by exploring individuals' perceptions of it. Examining the factors that have an impact on…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to broaden the domain of the gender pay gap research by exploring individuals' perceptions of it. Examining the factors that have an impact on the way individuals perceive the gender pay gap helps answering the question of why it persists and how to overcome it.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a conceptual model of the factors proposed to influence individuals' perceptions of the gender pay gap by adopting social comparison, equity, occupational socialization, relative deprivation, expectancy and social dominance theories as well gender socialization perspective.

Findings

According to the conceptual framework, such individual factors as pay expectations, gender role orientation, perceived pay fairness, gender, age, marital status and education facilitate the perceived gender pay gap. Furthermore, gender composition of employment sector and occupational status predict individuals' perceptions of the gender pay gap. Finally, welfare state regime and the degree of public awareness constitute the perceived gender pay gap.

Practical implications

Besides, the obvious suggestion of eliminating the gender pay gap, the paper suggests that more efforts should be made by media and governments to discuss the concept of the gender pay gap and make women aware of their rights and opportunities.

Originality/value

The main of this paper is that it draws together different theoretical perspectives into the model of the perceived gender pay gap.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 68000