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The purpose of this paper is to test the protection motivation theory (PMT) in the context of fear appeal interventions to reduce the threat of phishing attacks. In…
The purpose of this paper is to test the protection motivation theory (PMT) in the context of fear appeal interventions to reduce the threat of phishing attacks. In addition, it was tested to what extent the model relations are equivalent across fear appeal conditions and across time.
A pre-test post-test design was used. In the pre-test, 1,201 internet users filled out an online survey and were presented with one of three fear appeal conditions: strong fear appeal, weak fear appeal and control condition. Arguments regarding vulnerability of phishing attacks and response efficacy of vigilant online information-sharing behaviour were manipulated in the fear appeals. In the post-test, data were collected from 786 internet users and analysed with partial least squares path modelling.
The study found that PMT model relations hold in the domain of phishing. Self-efficacy and fear were the most important predictors of protection motivation. In general, the model results were equivalent across conditions and across time.
It is important to consider online information-sharing behaviour because it facilitates the occurrence and success of phishing attacks. The results give practitioners more insight into important factors to address in the design of preventative measures to reduce the success of phishing attacks. Future research is needed to test how fear appeals work in real-world settings and over longer periods.
This paper is a substantial adaptation of a previous conference paper (Jansen and Van Schaik, 2017a, b).
The purpose of this paper is to compare three social cognitive models in their ability to explain intentions of precautionary online behaviour. The models are: protection…
The purpose of this paper is to compare three social cognitive models in their ability to explain intentions of precautionary online behaviour. The models are: protection motivation theory (PMT), the reasoned action approach (RAA) and an integrated model comprising variables of these models.
Data were collected from 1,200 Dutch users of online banking by means of an online survey and analysed using partial least squares path modelling method.
The two models equally explain about much of the variance in precautionary online behaviour; in the integrated model, the significant predictors of the two models remained significant. Precautionary online behaviour is largely driven by response efficacy, attitude towards behaviour and self-efficacy.
One limitation is that the predictor variables – “self-efficacy” and “attitude” – are represented by one item only in the path-analysis because of high cross-loadings of the other items with the dependent variable.
The results give practitioners a potentially wider range of options to design preventative measures.
The three models are successfully applied to online banking. This paper concludes that both PMT and RAA make a unique contribution in explaining variance for precautionary online behaviour. This paper is a re-publication of a previous conference paper (Jansen and van Schaik, 2016).
The aim of the research was to design and evaluate a prototype electronic performance support system (EPSS) for libraries.
The aim of the research was to design and evaluate a prototype electronic performance support system (EPSS) for libraries.
Based on the theory of performance support and usability problems identified in the use of academic libraries, a performance support system for using the Dewey Decimal Coding system was designed, implemented and evaluated. The system embedded two components: a tutorial to develop knowledge and two games to develop skills. An experimental evaluation was conducted with three groups of students to assess the effects of the two components.
The study found that students found the system useful. There was a large difference in confidence in own knowledge (in favour of the groups who studied the tutorial component), approaching statistical significance. Although no major usability problems were identified, some specific problems surfaced that should be addressed in future work. Results from staff (who also used the system) confirmed the findings from students and also highlighted the scaffolding function of the EPSS.
This research has shown the viability of performance support for academic libraries. However, it identified issues for future research, including the inclusion of sound and speech, dynamic adaptability of content to make the system more suited to specific libraries and academic disciplines, and integration with existing library systems and virtual learning environments.
The study has extended the concept of performance support to the domain of academic libraries. Given its wide applicability, the system should be valuable to academics and students worldwide.
Previous research has highlighted the importance of system response time (SRT) for Web usability. In the present study, this parameter was studied using a choice reaction…
Previous research has highlighted the importance of system response time (SRT) for Web usability. In the present study, this parameter was studied using a choice reaction task to assess the effect on both performance and subjective measures. Results showed that SRT variability had no effect on usability when using text displays and, although Web experience increased speed of task performance, this did not affect perceptions of SRT. Presents implications for Web server design and future research into SRT.
Books form an important part of human culture. They can be used to document, entertain, inform and instruct. Conventional approaches to book production have involved either manual or mechanical binding of sheets of paper in order to form an organised, structured, composite entity. New publication media now offer many alternative approaches to the creation of books and the ways in which they can be disseminated and used. This paper therefore discusses the growing importance of electronic publication. It then uses a case study to illustrate the influence that online books and other forms of electronic document might have on conventional publishing processes.
This paper is based on the punctuated equilibrium model of organizational change. We argue that there are multiple ways in which organizational change takes place. More in…
This paper is based on the punctuated equilibrium model of organizational change. We argue that there are multiple ways in which organizational change takes place. More in particular, by looking at the interaction between the two types of organizational change (radical and incremental), we identify two shapes of organizational change. We illustrate this by means of a case study of a large, Dutch beer‐brewing company. The study focuses on a major change in the distribution system of beer and a period of structural inertia, caused by long CEO tenure. The problems associated with the subsequent CEO succession and the different levels of management that interact in these change processes are also discussed. This leads to the identification of a number of drivers and determinants of shapes of organizational change.
Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…
Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.
Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.
TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.
The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.
Literacy instruction for children with a disability is not highlighted as a priority in South Africa. This can be attributed to numerous reasons, amongst others: the focus…
Literacy instruction for children with a disability is not highlighted as a priority in South Africa. This can be attributed to numerous reasons, amongst others: the focus on care of children with disability to the detriment of learning; the high number of children with disabilities who are currently out of school; the gradual change and movement towards inclusion despite policies being in place, poorly qualified teachers with limited knowledge regarding best teaching practices and limited experience of teachers in teaching functional literacy. However, the National Department of Education is attempting to address these factors by, for example introducing a compulsory year of schooling before Grade 1 commences (Grade R), developing work books for all learners in the foundation phase and making them available across the country as well as introducing a new national curriculum – Curriculum Assessment Policy Statement CAPS – with a stronger emphasis on literacy.
In this chapter I will briefly provide a contextual background to the South African context; then provide a short discussion of the challenges faced in this context and finally focus on the best practices that have some evidence in this context.