The emergence of the global economy between the late 1970s and the late 1980s, with its concomitant intensification of competitive pressures, has been accompanied by a…
The emergence of the global economy between the late 1970s and the late 1980s, with its concomitant intensification of competitive pressures, has been accompanied by a search for appropriate objectives, policies and mechanisms for developing private enterprise in the UK. The current UK Government has attempted to accommodate the varied local needs of the private business sector, and the need for support by public authority, by creating the Training and Enterprise Council (TEC) network. This offers a devolved management structure for the delivery of enterprise support and training services and a means of creating public‐private partnerships in the stimulation of local economic growth. An overall view is given of this initiative, based on an appreciation of the critical interactions between central government, the TECs, private sector organizations and representative forums for local business. Drawing on current theories of governance to suit the new conditions of the 1990s, a contribution is made to discussions of the evolution of public policy and its effect on the development of a healthy and vigorous private enterprise sector.
Using content analysis, the authors examine the purposes of teacher evaluation in relation to the content items on which teachers are assessed and engage in a comparative analysis of teacher evaluation practices in the U.S.A. from three points in time. The overall findings suggest a disparity between the philosophy of teacher evaluation as a mechanism for improving teaching and the practice of teacher evaluation as a tool for administrative decision making, a disparity heavily weighted in favour of the latter. The authors provide evidence that this disparity is historically rooted and likely to endure.
An odd‐sounding expression recently introduced into the language, derived from the passage of events, Privatization, introduced as a rescue operation for sections of public and nationalised industry to hand them over to private enterprise to avoid their destruction and smothering by the unholy wedlock of trade unionism and weak, inefficient management. It frequently met with the opposition of unions and sections of staff. Efforts have been made to sabotage the take‐over and operation of the services by private firms, occasionally making them impossible to operate. This elementary operation was expected to achieve even greater success in the sections taken over and reduced the room for destructive manoeuvring by ajitator, much of which was caused independent of the unions. In the public services some of the antics between rival factions bordered on the ludicrous.
This paper tests for longrun relationships among the national equity markets of the G'7 countries using the Engle‐Granger two‐step procedure. Results indicate that…
This paper tests for longrun relationships among the national equity markets of the G'7 countries using the Engle‐Granger two‐step procedure. Results indicate that cointegration is the norm among these seven equity markets in the post‐Bretton Woods period. Further, market adjustments to system equilibria are accelerating as one moves toward the present implying that markets are becoming more integrated.
The world revolves around sound. Children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) lack access to sound, thus need careful monitoring and planning to ensure they have access to…
The world revolves around sound. Children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) lack access to sound, thus need careful monitoring and planning to ensure they have access to adequate language models and supports to develop a strong language foundation. It is this foundation that is needed to ensure D/HH children are able to achieve developmental and academic milestones. Research is emerging to suggest specific intervention strategies that can be used to support D/HH children from birth throughout their educational career. In this chapter, we highlight several strategies that can be used to support communication, language, academic, and social/emotional growth. We freely admit that this is in no way a comprehensive and exhaustive list, but rather only scratches the surface. The field of deaf education and related research and technology is constantly changing. To ensure adequate educational access, it is highly recommended that a professional specialized in hearing loss be a part of the educational team any time a child is identified as having any degree or type of hearing loss.
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on new accountability relationships between Newcastle City Council (NCC) and its citizens and stakeholders in the wake of the…
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on new accountability relationships between Newcastle City Council (NCC) and its citizens and stakeholders in the wake of the British government’s austerity politics and its budget cuts for local authorities. It seeks to show some of the ways in which various kinds of budgeting, for example, for alternative sources of funding, the use of volunteers for service provision, resource sharing, and asset transfers, as well as a diverse set of accounts of the social implications of resource diversions and service cuts, have been implicated in those changes.
The authors conducted a qualitative field study of some of the uses of budgets in the shaping of accountability relationships through interviews with council officers, conversations with activists and citizens, analysis of council and other documents, and observation of public meetings and demonstrations. The approach focused on the relationship between the city’s political grassroots and the NCC leadership and administration.
The authors find that NCC’s senior politicians and officers co-opted the city’s political grassroots and managed to reconstitute local political accountability to citizenry and stakeholders as a choice between the cessation of different types of local government services, by combining appeals to the legal framework of English local authorities, the unfairness of national politics, and the fairness of local government service provision. Local government blamed the funding cuts and the resulting resource shortages on the central government. It sought to push responsibility for cuts to the local citizenry whilst reserving for itself the role of mediator and adjudicator who makes the final decisions about the portfolio of causes that will be funded.
This is the first study to offer detailed insight into the effects of the British government’s austerity budget cuts of local authority grants on the politics of accountability in a local authority.
The UK Government started Employment Training (ET), a programme for unemployed people, in September 1988. It quickly became established as a major programme; in February 1992 there were 146,000 ET trainees in Britain. Thousands of employers are involved in ET by offering placement opportunities to trainees. Looks at the way British employers participate in ET and considers some ideas for improving the effectiveness of and pay‐off for carrying out training under the programme. Refers to a special survey of 301 London employers in the spring of 1992. This was carried out for the Central London Training and Enterprise Council (CENTEC). Provides evidence that employers participate in ET because of the possibility of recruiting ET trainees to the permanent workforce.