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The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the cleanliness of a work environment has influence on the productivity of employees working in office environments of…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the cleanliness of a work environment has influence on the productivity of employees working in office environments of non-profit organizations in The Netherlands.
In the study, an online survey (including questions about the perceived cleanliness) and two objective cleanliness assessment methods (particle counts and surface cleanliness) are used. The data are collected using an online questionnaire to determine the workers’ perception (of productivity and cleanliness) and to measure the cleanliness (visual assessment of the surface cleanliness and measured [dust] particle counts in the ambient air) at five different non-profit organizations in The Netherlands.
It is found that a higher objective cleanliness correlates significantly with a higher perceived productivity of employees working in office environments of non-profit organizations in The Netherlands. A higher measured cleanliness also correlates significantly with a higher work satisfaction level of employees working in office environments. Finally, a significant correlation is found between the satisfaction of employees with their work as a whole and the perceived productivity of the employees; a higher satisfaction leads to a higher perceived productivity.
The cleanliness is measured in five non-profit organizations, so it is not possible to draw any strong generalization. Future studies are needed to confirm or contradict the findings in this research.
The results highlight the aspects of the cleanliness in the office environment that influence the perceived productivity. This concerns the measured cleanliness. Employees evaluate their own productivity lower at a higher level of particle counts in the ambient air in the office environment and when more dirt and stain are found on the surface (lower surface cleanliness). In response to these findings, it is recommended to carry out regular cleaning activities in the office environment where the employees perform their work. Overall, to maintain or achieve maximum personal productivity, a clean office environment is important.
This research is the first to identify the relationship between perceived productivity and measured cleanliness of the office environment.
International business programs became realities in the 1950s, but only at two universities: Columbia and Indiana. In the 1960s, more universities added IB programs and departments; the 1970s saw even more added as universities realized that IB programs would enhance their reputations, improve student knowledge and expertise, and enhance companies’ future success. In 1974, the AACSB added internationalization as a requirement for business schools, forcing even more to enhance the international dimensions of their courses, programs, and faculty. Now virtually all B-schools have become global to some extent, although major differences remain in the quantity and quality of their internationalization.
The development of the Single European Market and the resulting publicity has persuaded many smaller firms to look to continental Europe as their first choice for market…
The development of the Single European Market and the resulting publicity has persuaded many smaller firms to look to continental Europe as their first choice for market expansion opportunities. These include many UK small firms in the service sector where the economic benefits of a reduction in trade barriers are not so apparent. The approaches used by small service companies and professional practices in dealing with Europe are examined to identify the lessons learnt and to draw comparisons with Central Government advice. Semi‐structured interviews were held with managers from a randomly drawn sample of small firms in the UK with experience of exporting their services to Europe. The firms had experienced varying degrees of success with their forays into Europe. The study suggests that some small service sector firms may have greater potential in non‐EEC and/or English‐speaking nations than in Europe and that for many the experience of Europe has been expensive and erroneous. Small service firms should look to match their strengths to the market, which may be in Eastern Europe, South Africa or the Middle East, rather than tackle an EEC country where their competitive advantages are limited and market conditions may be hostile.
This chapter complements the one that appeared as “History of the AIB Fellows: 1975–2008” in Volume 14 of this series (International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on…
This chapter complements the one that appeared as “History of the AIB Fellows: 1975–2008” in Volume 14 of this series (International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on the First 50 Years and Beyond, Jean J. Boddewyn, Editor). It traces what happened under the deanship of Alan Rugman (2011–2014) who took many initiatives reported here while his death in July 2014 generated trenchant, funny, and loving comments from more than half of the AIB Fellows. The lives and contributions of many other major international business scholars who passed away from 2008 to 2014 are also evoked here: Endel Kolde, Lee Nehrt, Howard Perlmutter, Stefan Robock, John Ryans, Vern Terpstra, and Daniel Van Den Bulcke.
Most years, several AIB members are elected as AIB Fellows on account of their excellent international business scholarship, and/or past service as AIB President or Executive Secretary. The Fellows are in charge of electing Eminent Scholars as well as the International Executive and International Educator (formerly, Dean) of the Year, who often provide the focus for Plenary Sessions at AIB Conferences. Their history since 1975 covers over half of the span of the AIB and reflects many issues that dominated that period in terms of research themes, progresses and problems, the internationalization of business education and the role of international business in society and around the globe. Like other organizations, the Fellows Group had their ups and downs, successes and failures – and some fun too!
Introduction Perhaps the most significant economic transformation within the last three decades has been the internationalization of business. From the modest levels of…
Introduction Perhaps the most significant economic transformation within the last three decades has been the internationalization of business. From the modest levels of the 1950s, the volume of world trade has exploded to over $2 trillion, and the sales of foreign affiliates of US firms have reached $500 billion by 1983 (Terpstra 1983). Yet, even in the light of accelerated efforts to further stimulate US exporters (e.g., the Export Trading Company Act of 1982), a recent Dunn and Bradstreet survey showed that less than 1% of the US firms had engaged in exporting in 1982 (Trade Marks, 1983). Similarly, the International Trade Administration of the US Department of Commerce has lamented that only 5% of all US manufacturers will have engaged in export marketing in 1984.
The intention is to introduce the conceptual framework proposed by Brown, Odom, and Conroy (2001) for the implementation of social interaction intervention. This tiered…
The intention is to introduce the conceptual framework proposed by Brown, Odom, and Conroy (2001) for the implementation of social interaction intervention. This tiered system organizes intervention strategies for early childhood professionals to make informed decision on how to promote social interactions of young children who are at risk for social competence difficulties in inclusive early childhood programs.
Focuses on the issue of product standardization versus adaptation, with special reference to the practices of Japanese multinational companies (MNCs) operating in the…
Focuses on the issue of product standardization versus adaptation, with special reference to the practices of Japanese multinational companies (MNCs) operating in the Middle East. Reveals that the degree of adaptation of Japanese goods is generally moderate, with labelling, packaging and internal features attracting most alterations. Product adaptations were more profound among firms producing consumer goods, as well as those having a long presence in the Arab market. Also suggests that the impact of factors affecting the standardization/ adaptation decision differed according to the specific product aspect, with demographic and political‐legal forces being the most influential overall. With respect to future product strategy, participant firms stated that they would proceed more or less as at present, the only exception being some additional adaptations as regards external characteristics of the product.
This study looks at drivers of internationalisation and the important location decision factors contributed to the selection of a beneficial country for international…
This study looks at drivers of internationalisation and the important location decision factors contributed to the selection of a beneficial country for international expansion. One in‐depth and information‐rich case study of the Arabian premium international professional service firms was purposively undertaken. The results show that both firm and location‐specific factors, firm’s competitive advantage, company’s management attitudes and profit growth were the main drivers of internationalisation. Further, the study reveals that the pre‐development of country qualitative and quantitative location factors was elemental to attain profitable foreign country choice. Accordingly, these findings have significant theoretical and practical implications to the internationalisation and foreign market entry of professional service firms.
The dyadic relationship between U.S. parent advertising agencies and their foreign affiliates were examined, using information gathered from 344 respondents in 52…
The dyadic relationship between U.S. parent advertising agencies and their foreign affiliates were examined, using information gathered from 344 respondents in 52 countries. Parent agencies tended to position themselves to control their overseas affiliates by either totally or majority owning their operations but did not significantly influence, and thus control, their marketing activities. Several environmental factors, particularly claims advertisers can make and hiring restrictions, likely played important roles that affected the extent parent agencies influenced their affiliates.