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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Paul R. Drake, Dong Myung Lee and Matloub Hussain

The aim of this paper is to present a purchasing portfolio model for determining purchasing strategy at the component level of a product to support business strategy…

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6372

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present a purchasing portfolio model for determining purchasing strategy at the component level of a product to support business strategy, addressing weaknesses in the often cited Kraljic‐type models. The work draws on Fisher's model to match supply strategy to product nature. However, Fisher's model was criticised very recently by Lo and Power in this journal because it is unclear how the “leagile” option should fit into it. This paper addresses this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The new portfolio model is based on the literature, particularly Fisher's seminal work. It is then applied to two case studies; an electric boiler manufacturer and an elevator manufacturer, both in South Korea. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to position purchased components in the model.

Findings

Different purchasing strategies should be assigned to different components according to their impact on the competitive priorities. As the electric boiler is a functional product, while the elevator is an innovative product, the case studies show how this can vary across the two product‐types identified by Fisher.

Research limitations/implications

The new model has been tested on only two case studies, which limits the ability to generalise the findings. Future work will use the lean and agile purchasing portfolio model in research and knowledge exchange activities with other industrial partners to further develop and test its efficacy.

Originality/value

The new model captures the finding of Fisher and others that products should be classified as functional or innovation to determine their suitability for lean or agile supply respectively. However, this classification is extended here to the component level and with the addition of the leagile and non‐strategic supply options, and it depends on the impact a component has on the four competitive priorities; cost, quality, time and flexibility.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Paul R. Drake and Bethan M. Davies

This paper is the sequel to the authors' earlier paper in this journal and aims to present the “future research” outlined in that paper.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is the sequel to the authors' earlier paper in this journal and aims to present the “future research” outlined in that paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The approaches being employed by Welsh local authorities in commissioning home care from the independent sector are surveyed to see how a mixed economy of care is being implemented. The observed differences are analysed to see what can be learnt for the benefit of public sector managers concerned with the development of commissioning practices. Semi‐structured interviews have been performed with home care managers and commissioning officers in 13 (60 per cent) of the local, unitary authorities in Wales. Managers at independent home care providers have been interviewed also. The study has been ongoing since September 2004. For comparison, Barnet in England has been included because, unlike any Welsh authority, it has implemented 100 per cent outsourcing of home care. Croydon has been included as it has a good practice brokerage that has helped it to expand its provision from the independent sector.

Findings

Great diversity is seen in the approaches adopted by the Welsh local authorities when commissioning home care from the independent sector. They differ in the proportion of home care that is commissioned from the independent sector, what is commissioned, the number of independent providers and the contractual arrangements. These features are used to develop a taxonomy of home care strategies that reveals high levels of diversity. It is seen that in Wales there has been less political drive and compulsion to outsource home care than in England, but the natural desire to reduce costs in the face of a growing need for home care is now driving outsourcing in Wales.

Practical implications

This paper provides guidance to public sector managers in local authorities seeking best practice in the commissioning of home care from the independent sector.

Originality/value

The existing literature contains little research into good practice in the commissioning of home care by local authorities from the independent sector. This paper is a timely contribution to addressing this shortfall.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Matloub Hussain, Paul R. Drake and Dong Myung Lee

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effect of design parameters on the bullwhip effect and dynamic responses produced by a multi‐echelon supply chain with…

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1985

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effect of design parameters on the bullwhip effect and dynamic responses produced by a multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

Taguchi design of experiments and system dynamics simulation are used to quantify the impact of a supply chain's design parameters, including degree of information sharing, on its dynamic performance, and the interactions that occur as the parameter values are varied.

Findings

Quantified relationships between supply chain design parameters and dynamic performance, including the bullwhip effect, are presented. Two parameters in particular, time to adjust inventory error and production lead time, are shown to have a particularly strong impact on the order variance compared to other parameters. However, there are several other significant findings.

Research limitations/implications

Batching and capacity constraints are common causes of the bullwhip effect, but they are not included here. Future work should quantify the impact of these.

Practical implications

This paper presents a systematic way for quantifying and understanding the impact of supply chain design parameters on the bullwhip effect and dynamic responses, and their interactions. The experimental results provide practical understanding for supply chain managers.

Originality/value

Previous studies have identified causes of the bullwhip effect but little attention has been given to quantifying their impact and interactions. This paper makes a contribution towards filling this gap, using system dynamics simulation and Taguchi design of experiments.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Matloub Hussain, Muhammad Irfan Javaid and Paul R. Drake

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship among environmental pollution, economic growth and energy consumption per capita in the case of Pakistan. The per…

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1624

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship among environmental pollution, economic growth and energy consumption per capita in the case of Pakistan. The per capital carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is used as the environmental indicator, the commercial energy use per capita as the energy consumption indicator, and the per capita gross domestic product (GDP) as the economic indicator.

Design/methodology/approach

The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), using time series data from 1971 to 2006, by applying different econometric tools like ADF Unit Root Johansen Co‐integration VECM and Granger causality tests.

Findings

The Granger causality test shows that there is a long term relationship between these three indicators, with bidirectional causality between per capita CO2 emission and per capita energy consumption. A monotonically increasing curve between GDP and CO2 emission has been found for the sample period, rejecting the EKC relationship, implying that as per capita GDP increases a linear increase will be observed in per capita CO2 emission.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should replace the economic growth variable, i.e. GDP by industrial growth variable because industrial sector is major contributor of pollution by emitting CO2.

Practical implications

The empirical findings will help the policy makers of Pakistan in understanding the severity of the CO2 emissions issue and in developing new standards and monitoring networks for reducing CO2 emissions.

Originality/value

Energy consumption is the major cause of environmental pollution in Pakistan but no substantial work has been done in this regard with reference to Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Paul R. Drake and Bethan M. Davies

This paper aims to help public sector managers that are formulating strategies for outsourcing home care from the independent sector.

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1995

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to help public sector managers that are formulating strategies for outsourcing home care from the independent sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A review was performed of relevant literature on the outsourcing of home care and its political drivers in the UK. This indicates that the future of home care services, taking into consideration outsourcing and how Best Value will be achieved, has not been researched widely. Therefore, an exploratory approach to research was adopted here using in‐depth analysis of a small number of particularly informative local authorities and private providers selected by purposive/judgemental (extreme and critical case) sampling. Personal contact was deemed necessary in order to perform an intensive investigation to pursue in‐depth information.

Findings

The British Government's Best Value regime is driving local authorities towards increasing levels of outsourcing in the provision of home care. A local authority may choose to outsource all of its home care or maintain some in‐house provision based on capacity or capabilities that are complementary to those provided by the independent sector. The 100 per cent outsourcing strategy places enabling demands on the local authority, whereas the alternative strategy requires decisions to be made on what should be outsourced. Across the authorities surveyed, six strategies for creating a mixed economy of care have been identified, with the mix being based on complementary capacity and/or capabilities. With Best Value driving authorities to consider lower‐cost options, the outcome may be a reduction in the amount of complementary capacity provided in‐house, in favour of strategies involving complementary capabilities that deliver the Best Value possible. Re‐enablement is emerging as a common, complementary or core capability that is remaining in‐house. Outsourcing also requires decisions to be made on the number of independent providers to be used and the type of contracts to be employed. This paper considers the decisions that have been made in the local authorities surveyed and critiques the alternative home care outsourcing strategies so derived.

Research limitations/implications

To date, the research has focused on Wales in general plus a few local authorities in England. The next stage will be to survey England in more detail along with other countries that are implementing substantial outsourcing of home care, such as Canada.

Practical implications

This paper provides timely guidance to public sector and health care managers seeking Best Value in home care through outsourcing.

Originality/value

Little has been found in the literature on strategies for outsourcing home care, yet such strategies are needed urgently in the UK to achieve Best Value. The World Health Organization stresses that strategies should be drawn up for providing support to patients and carers at community level in order to avoid costly institutional care.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Bethan M. Davies and Paul R. Drake

This paper seeks to address the question, “How can private home care providers compete and drive their businesses forward to deliver best value to the community?” Public…

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1382

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to address the question, “How can private home care providers compete and drive their businesses forward to deliver best value to the community?” Public sector managers in local authorities need this question answered so that they can provide their part of the solution, facilitating best value.

Design/methodology/approach

A review was performed of relevant literature on the commissioning (outsourcing) of home care and of best value. This indicates that the future of home care services, taking into consideration commissioning and how best value will be achieved, has not been researched widely. Therefore, an exploratory approach to research was adopted here using in‐depth analysis of a small number of particularly informative local authorities and private providers selected by purposive/judgemental (extreme and critical case) sampling. Personal contact was deemed necessary in order to perform an intensive investigation to pursue in‐depth information.

Findings

To improve value one can cut costs and/or increase quality. It is argued here that there is little immediate opportunity for private home care providers to cut costs and with fixed pricing substantial improvements in quality cannot be funded by increased prices or cost cutting elsewhere. To address this impasse, two solutions have been identified; increased economies of scale through consolidation in the marketplace and radical improvements in efficiency through the exploitation of information and communication technology (ICT). Both of these strategies have major ramifications for the “enabling local authority” taking actions to see best value delivered to its community.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents the findings of exploratory research. A more detailed study covering many more local authorities, private care providers and an international prospective will be conducted over the next two years.

Practical implications

This paper provides timely guidance to public sector managers in local authorities and private home care providers seeking best value in home care through commissioning.

Originality/value

Little has been found in the literature on strategies by which private home care providers can deliver best value, yet such strategies are needed urgently to achieve best value. This paper is a timely contribution to addressing this need.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Matloub Hussain and Paul R. Drake

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

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2831

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The model uses the system dynamics and control theoretic concepts of variables, flows and feedback processes and is implemented using iThink® software.

Findings

It has been seen that the relationship between batch size and demand amplification is non‐monotonic. Large batch sizes, that when combined in integer multiples can produce order rates that are close to the actual demand, produce little demand amplification, i.e. it is the size of the remainder of the quotient that is the determinant. It is further noted that the value of information sharing is greatest for smaller batch sizes, for which there is a much greater improvement in the amplification ratio.

Research limitations/implications

Batching is associated with the inventory holding and backlog cost. Therefore, future work should investigate the cost implications of order batching in multi‐echelon supply chains.

Practical implications

This is a contribution to the continuing research into the bullwhip effect, giving supply chain operations managers and designers a practical way into controlling the bullwhip produced by batching across multi‐echelon supply chains.

Originality/value

Previous similar studies have used control theoretic techniques and it has been pointed out that control theorists are unable to solve the lot sizing problem. Therefore, system dynamic simulation has been applied to investigate the impact of various batch sizes on bullwhip effect.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 41 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Matloub Hussain and Paul R. Drake

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Downloads
2344

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of batching on bullwhip effect in a model of multi‐echelon supply chain with information sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The model uses the system dynamics and control theoretic concepts of variables, flows, and feedback processes and is implemented using iThink® software.

Findings

It has been seen that the relationship between batch size and demand amplification is non‐monotonic. Large batch sizes, when combined in integer multiples, can produce order rates that are close to the actual demand and produce little demand amplification, i.e. it is the size of the remainder of the quotient that is the determinant. It is further noted that the value of information sharing is greatest for smaller batch sizes, for which there is a much greater improvement in the amplification ratio.

Research limitations/implications

Batching is associated with the inventory holding and backlog cost. Therefore, future work should investigate the cost implications of order batching in multi‐echelon supply chains.

Practical implications

This is a contribution to the continuing research into the bullwhip effect, giving supply chain operations managers and designers a practical way into controlling the bullwhip produced by batching across multi‐echelon supply chains. Economies of scale processes usually favor large batch sizes. Reducing batch size in order to reduce the demand amplification is not a good solution.

Originality/value

Previous similar studies have used control theoretic techniques and it has been pointed out that control theorists are unable to solve the lot sizing problem. Therefore, system dynamic simulation is then applied to investigate the impact of various batch sizes on bullwhip effect.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2015

Haozhe Chen

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1636

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Kihwan Kim and Eun-Jeong Ko

Using the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model, this paper aims to use longitudinal data to test team level self-efficacy and trust as mediators in the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model, this paper aims to use longitudinal data to test team level self-efficacy and trust as mediators in the relationship between team emotional intelligence (EI) and team cohesion (TC) and examine the relationship between TC and team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experimental design, 347 senior business students (84 teams) played a simulation game for 12 weeks. The authors collected data at three different time points to avoid reverse causal effects in the mediation relationship.

Findings

As hypothesized, trust and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between EI and TC. Moreover, TC is a strong and significant predictor of team performance.

Research limitations/implications

The authors measured most variables using a self-reported survey, which can cause common method bias, and the authors used a business simulation game for the team task with student participants, which may limit the generalizability of the findings to other team contexts or populations.

Practical implications

When forming work teams, managers should consider levels of EI and self-efficacy because they facilitate the development of trust and TC, which, in turn, lead to improved performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on EI and TC by revealing the mediating effects of trust and self-efficacy and contributes to the team literature by leveraging the IMOI model to explicate the mediation effects. This study’s longitudinal study design clarifies the causal relationship among EI, trust and self-efficacy and TC, thereby eliminating reverse causation concerns.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

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