The aviation industry recognised the significance of human error in accidents in the 1970s, and has been instrumental in the development of special training, designed to…
The aviation industry recognised the significance of human error in accidents in the 1970s, and has been instrumental in the development of special training, designed to reduce error and increase the effectiveness of flight crews. These crew resource management (CRM) programmes focus on “non‐technical skills” critical for enhanced operational performance, such as leadership, situation awareness, decision making, team work and communication. More recently CRM has been adopted by other “high reliability” team environments including anaesthesiology, air traffic control, the Merchant Navy, the nuclear power industry, aviation maintenance, and the offshore oil industry. This review paper describes the basic principles of crew resource management, then outlines recent developments in aviation and other high reliability work environments.
This paper aims to respond to the circumstances that have made hybridity both a popular term in cultural analysis and a contested, problematic concept. It promotes the…
This paper aims to respond to the circumstances that have made hybridity both a popular term in cultural analysis and a contested, problematic concept. It promotes the need to look at what has been dismissed in discussions of hybridity, namely, mundane and un-exotic examples of cultural mix.
This study uses a conceptual and interpretive approach to theoretical and empirical work that engages with the theme of hybridity.
The findings highlight how a celebration of hybridity has limited the ways in which the concept can be used for empirical work. It proposes the paradigm of everyday hybridity to work with practical examples of cultural hybridity.
The implications are to decentre the Western bias that has theorised hybridity without exploring how the concept is relevant to other regions, such as East Asia.
The value of this work is in providing an audit of the concept of hybridity and a working paradigm for future qualitative research.
The aim of this study is to evaluate rugby fans’ attitudes toward financial sponsorship, specifically event sponsorship and Dove Men+Care and its association with the…
The aim of this study is to evaluate rugby fans’ attitudes toward financial sponsorship, specifically event sponsorship and Dove Men+Care and its association with the Welsh Rugby Union. The study examines four issues: How do rugby fans perceive event sponsorship? How does such sponsorship affect consumption choices? Do fans engage in long-term relationships with the event’s sponsoring brand? Are relationships affected by the event sponsor’s engagement with other international teams and rugby events?
This paper is a theory-building, exploratory study that utilised a qualitative framework. Data were collected over a 12-month period, incorporating the autumn internationals of 2012 and 2013, with 198 fans participating in focus groups before and after games.
The results reveal a distinct lack of brand awareness on the part of the participants, a collective perception of the sponsor as incongruent given the event and a demonstration of enmity arising from rival sponsorships by the sponsoring brand. Additionally, the findings reveal a reluctance to consume the sponsoring brand in either the short or long term given its incongruence, lack of functionality, pre-existing schematic frameworks and obdurate brand preferences.
Given that autumn internationals are held every season by several of the international rugby board (IRB) ranked teams, the findings of this research have an immediate and direct application for brand managers involved or implementing sponsorship programs. The research outlines both short and long term mistakes made by the sponsor as perceived by the fans’ themselves, and suggests that those brands considering becoming involved in sport and event sponsorship instigate a more informed, strategic approach to their sponsorship activities. However, the work is context driven and therefore not generalisable.
The findings enable marketing brand managers to effectively evaluate events against the backdrop of strategic fit, as well as fan/consumer expectations, their needs and wants and willingness to engage.
Despite rugby union’s growing global presence, little or no research has examined sponsorship within the context of rugby union and none exists that has evaluated event sponsorship, and been driven by fans’ perspectives. This paper fills that void. The research delineates fans attitudes, opinions and brand conceptualisations relating to event sponsorship, incorporating evaluations of identity, congruence and fit. Moreover, the paper highlights what to avoid from a strategic and brand building perspective when considering event sponsorship in a rugby union context.
This paper investigates how the marketing/entrepreneurship interface functions within the cultural sector. Specifically, the paper considers how cultural entrepreneurs in…
This paper investigates how the marketing/entrepreneurship interface functions within the cultural sector. Specifically, the paper considers how cultural entrepreneurs in the music industry market not to customers, but to networks that control the resources necessary to support entrepreneurial ventures. Evidence is drawn from the qualitative research of a study on access to finance by owner‐managers of independent music companies (“cultural entrepreneurs”). The findings support the notion that “legitimation” is a key factor in accessing such resources. Cultural entrepreneurs have difficulties in establishing either “pragmatic legitimation” (derived from the self‐interest of organisations across marketing networks) or “cognitive legitimation” (derived from perceptions of normality and conformity within marketing networks). Marketing strategies at both individual and industry level are put forward to overcome these barriers. For individual businesses, a “selection strategy” using creative clusters or a “manipulation strategy” that manages the cultural environment are recommended. The implications for relationship marketing models are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the quality of a professional surgical service process, and to reveal the main elements that constitute excellence in…
The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the quality of a professional surgical service process, and to reveal the main elements that constitute excellence in the experience of the surgical service of a private hospital. First, a theoretical framework for the surgical service process is created. Second, empirical research is conducted through a mail survey of surgical patients in a private hospital. A total of 240 questionnaires were delivered and the response rate was 83 per cent. Third, the underlying quality dimensions in the surgical service process are constructed using factor analysis. Finally, the main elements of excellence in a surgical service experience are revealed by utilising discriminant analysis. Empirical results indicate that, in private surgical services, the surgical procedure itself is the single most important element, but that it must be supplemented by quality dimensions in both output and process throughout the whole surgical service process.
The Supreme Court's recent cross burning case – Virginia v. Black (2003) – saw dueling historical narratives. Justice O’Connor, writing for the majority, painted a history…
The Supreme Court's recent cross burning case – Virginia v. Black (2003) – saw dueling historical narratives. Justice O’Connor, writing for the majority, painted a history in which the Klan often burned crosses to intimidate, but also did so for other, “expressive” reasons. Justice Thomas, in dissent, related a history in which the burning cross never speaks. Interestingly, O’Connor and Thomas used many of the same historical sources. How did they reach such different results? While both O’Connor and Thomas interpreted (and stretched) the historical sources in different directions, their dispute ultimately turned on their diverging doctrinal views.
In this part we focus on the structures, systems, and processes that support and encourage the development of leaders in the organization. David Day introduces the theme, exploring the social architecture most conducive to the development of leadership throughout the organization and the role strategic leaders need to play to create such architecture. The next two chapters show how two large organizations have gone about changing their social architecture in order to develop both a broader and a more engaged leadership cadre. Ellen Van Velsor and Patricia O’Connor show how a large US service organization has started to change its social architecture by creatively combining empowerment, learning and performance orientations. Paul Broeckx and Robert Hooijberg show how Nestlé, the Swiss-based global fast-moving consumer goods company, has started to replace the most limiting aspects of the traditional hierarchy to more fully engage the full human capacity of its workforce.
As CD‐ROM becomes more and more a standard reference and technical support tool in all types of libraries, the annual review of this technology published in Computers in Libraries magazine increases in size and scope. This year, author Susan L. Adkins has prepared this exceptionally useful bibliography which she has cross‐referenced with a subject index.
The course and development of capitalism is a central issue in socio‐logical analysis (Marx, 1936; Harrington, 1976; Bernstein, 1985; Badham, 1984; Baran and Sweezy, 1977; Dahrendorf, 1959; Mandel, 1976). Though there is little agreement on the destiny of capitalism, there is general recognition that capitalism has been altered by recent social change. These changes have been widely discussed around ideas pertaining to the regulation of economic actors, legal constraints on wages and the general increase of welfare programmes. Of these developments, welfare and social services have been the most carefully monitored in the sociological literature. Since welfare programmes provide goods and services without regard to social and economic status, welfare has been correctly interpreted as a significant modification of capitalism.