Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Paul Lambert

Steel reinforcement embedded in concrete is normally protected from corrosion by the formation of a thin passive surface film in the highly alkaline environment provided…

Abstract

Steel reinforcement embedded in concrete is normally protected from corrosion by the formation of a thin passive surface film in the highly alkaline environment provided by the cement paste and pore solution surrounding the steel. Atmospheric carbon dioxide reacts with the alkaline cement paste reducing the level of alkalinity, a process known as carbonation. Steel in carbonated concrete is no longer protected and in the presence of moisture and oxygen can corrode freely. Alternatively, the presence of sufficient quantities of chloride ions at the surface of the steel can cause local depassivation of the reinforcement resulting in pitting corrosion. Chloride ions may be present as a result of admixtures in the original mix or permeation into the concrete from external sources, such as road de‐icing salts or sea spray.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Paul S. Lambert, Koon Leai Larry Tan, Kenneth Prandy, Vernon Gayle and Manfred Max Bergman

This paper aims to present reasons why social classifications which use occupations should seek to adopt “specific” approaches which are tailored to the country, time…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present reasons why social classifications which use occupations should seek to adopt “specific” approaches which are tailored to the country, time period and gender of the subjects under study.

Design/methodology/approach

The relative motivations for adopting a specific approach to social classifications are discussed and theoretical perspectives on specificity and empirical evidence on the contribution of specific approaches are reviewed. Also the practical costs of implementing specific social classifications are evaluated, and the authors' development of the “GEODE” data service (grid‐enabled occupational data environment), which seeks to assist this process, is discussed.

Findings

Specific approaches make a non‐trivial difference to the conclusions drawn from analyses of occupation‐based social classifications. It is argued that the GEODE service has reduced the practical challenges of implementing specific measures.

Research limitations/implications

There remain conceptual and pragmatic challenges in working with specific occupation‐based social classifications. Non‐specific (“universal”) measures are adequate for many purposes.

Practical implications

The paper argues that there are few excuses for ignoring specific occupation‐based social classifications.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that recent technological developments have shifted the balance in the long‐standing debate between universal and specific approaches to occupation‐based social classifications.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2016

Paul Belleflamme and Thomas Lambert

This chapter shows how the theory of industrial organization can help us understand some important aspects of crowdfunding that go beyond the finance sphere of the firm. A…

Abstract

This chapter shows how the theory of industrial organization can help us understand some important aspects of crowdfunding that go beyond the finance sphere of the firm. A special attention is devoted to the role and behavior of crowdfunding platforms, which intermediate between entrepreneurs and contributors.

Details

International Perspectives on Crowdfunding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-315-0

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Paul Lambert

635

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Content available

Abstract

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 50 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Laura M. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory which connects social stratification processes to the international problem of human trafficking for sex and labor purposes.

1573

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to articulate a theory which connects social stratification processes to the international problem of human trafficking for sex and labor purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a social politics theory to connect concepts from social stratification to the study of human trafficking. It draws on data provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services' Rescue and Restore program for trafficked victims to illustrate how traffickers move victims trans‐nationally. It cites sources from Australia and Sweden to show how national laws and policies regarding prostitution can contribute to or discourage human trafficking for sex and labor purposes.

Findings

The social politics theory is a theoretical idea based on observations of how social, political, legal, and economic changes within “Weak” and “Failing” states create an environment conducive to human trafficking for sex and labor purposes as well as other forms of injustices.

Originality/value

The social politics theory was created to acknowledge the influence of extraneous combined socio‐political and socio‐economic forces existing in modern societies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Miriam E. David

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between social and gender inequalities and how they have been studied over the last 30 years. What have we…

3610

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between social and gender inequalities and how they have been studied over the last 30 years. What have we learned, as academic sociologists in higher education, about how the socio‐cultural context, policies and global social transformations in the UK, and North America influence social stratification? The key focus is on how gender differences influence forms of social stratification through complex relations between “work”, family and education.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reflects on changing research methodologies from their origins in sociology and second wave feminism by addressing three international studies about the troubled question of mothers’ work. All three studies reflexively address the question of changing knowledge and methodologies about social inequality or stratification.

Findings

The paper finds that while all three studies are from a feminist perspective and consider methodologies in the light of the so‐called “neo‐liberal project” and the knowledge economy, they come to rather divergent conclusions. The three studies illustrate the complexities of knowledge and methodologies about social stratification and gender inequalities.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how alternative methods contribute to our knowledge and the rich diversity of sociological work as an academic practice.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Robert M. Blackburn

The purpose of this paper is to explain the difference between social inequality and identity.

10741

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the difference between social inequality and identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a conceptual view.

Findings

The paper notes that the concepts are often confused, as in arguments that equality is impossible because everyone is different. It is pointed out that equality and inequality are not opposites; that equality is simply the zero point on the infinite range of inequality. The existence of inequality depends on socially recognised difference. The difference may often be simply a basis for socially imposed inequalities, as with ethnicity and gender, or it may be a real cause of inequality as with health differences. Nine important inter‐related bases of inequality are considered. Equality does not require zero inequality on all aspects but merely a balance of inequalities. However, the complexity means it is difficult to define or recognise total equality. The nearest would be that all individuals are regarded and treated as equally important. The zero point of inequality may be unattainable, but the real issue is the actual extent of inequality, which could be very substantially reduced.

Originality/value

This original paper is of value in correcting some misconceptions and improving understanding of an important subject.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Sarah Irwin

The purpose of this paper is to foreground social relations and inter‐connections as important components in a conceptualisation of social structure. The paper argues that…

1371

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to foreground social relations and inter‐connections as important components in a conceptualisation of social structure. The paper argues that the seeming disconnection between the normative and the social structural is a problem of explanation rather than a novel feature of contemporary social life.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are used from extended interviews conducted on two areas, concerning ethnicity and belonging, and gender, work and care, generated during the ESRC funded “CAVA” project (Research Group for the Study of Care, Values and the Future of Welfare).

Findings

It is argued that more productive analyses of social diversity and social change ensue from better delineating the mutuality of normative and social processes.

Originality/value

Through its cultural turn, sociological research has reaffirmed the importance of normative and evaluative processes in shaping human experience and social life. However, new accounts have faced difficulties in connecting the normative and subjective with social structural processes. This paper confronts that challenge.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 28 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

William G. Holt

When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans on August 29, 2005, the category 3 storm’s surge caused nearly every municipal levee to break leaving 80% of the city flooded. In…

Abstract

Purpose

When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans on August 29, 2005, the category 3 storm’s surge caused nearly every municipal levee to break leaving 80% of the city flooded. In the aftermath of the storm, television images of stranded residents, drowned hospital patients, looted stores, and chaos in designated shelters ignited an ethical debate over the role of race and class in modern America. As debates raged over how, or whether, to rebuild New Orleans, the idea of cultural sustainability underlies these discussions.

Design/methodology

Drawing on the largest diaspora since the American Dust Bowl of the 1930s, I begin by examining the concept of a civil society through Habermas’ (1994) utopian model of an ideal speech community. I extend Habermas’ idea to the environmental justice movement with an emphasis on the utilitarian approach. This includes my discussion of Hinman’s (1998) pluralistic view of moral ethics within a multicultural society coupled with Bullard’s (1993, 1994, 2008) applied environmental social justice in low-income racial minority neighborhoods disproportionately impacted by hazardous waste sites. Then, I expand this argument into the concept of cultural sustainability in which the concept of a free speech community and environmental justice are embedded.

Findings

Drawing on a case study of New Orleans, I examine how the city’s divided racial and class cultures provide major challenges to applying cultural sustainability practices in the post-Katrina rebuilding process.

Originality

This chapter uses a case study to explore the application of cultural sustainability practices highlighting the concepts implicit roots in Habermas’ utopian free speech community and underlying ties to the environmental justice movement.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

Keywords

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