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– This paper aims to describe a new methodology for controlling highly flexible automated manufacturing cells for use in aerospace manufacturing and repair.
This paper aims to describe a new methodology for controlling highly flexible automated manufacturing cells for use in aerospace manufacturing and repair.
The design methodology and rational of the FLEXA control architecture are described along with it implementation and testing.
The trials completed so far show that the level of flexibility required can be achieved both at factory, or enterprise level, and at shop floor level.
This work has significant practical implications through its direct applicability for aerospace and other automated manufacturing processes.
The originality of the paper lies in the truly flexible nature of the control system described and its ability to mimic traditional cell control architectures but be expanded through the use of virtual Programmable Logic Controller to control any number of cells without the need for significant extra hardware.
Assessment, care management and service planning for people with challenging needs should be sensitive to gender and ethnicity for equitable and appropriate service…
Assessment, care management and service planning for people with challenging needs should be sensitive to gender and ethnicity for equitable and appropriate service provision. This paper explores the relevant literature to map and identify the issues, and profiles a exploratory study of special schools, adult residential services and community support teams, to identify the gender and ethnic characteristics of people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviours. The findings suggest that gender stereotypes contribute to the attribution of maladaptive behaviour in boys, significant in severe and moderate learning disabilities in schools. The findings on ethnicity are discussed with reference to staff training and the implications of providing gender‐sensitive and culturally appropriate service responses and support.
Self‐injurious behaviour can become an intransigent difficulty, reduce people's quality of life and lead to hospital admissions or other restrictive outcomes (such as the…
Self‐injurious behaviour can become an intransigent difficulty, reduce people's quality of life and lead to hospital admissions or other restrictive outcomes (such as the wearing of protective devices to prevent serious injury). Over the last 15 years there have been some important developments in the treatment of severe self‐injury, but the evidence is that these are making little impact on most people's lives. The reasons why this might be are discussed, and it is proposed that it is time for a radical new approach to interventions for self‐injurious behaviour.
The popular total quality management (TQM) approach has tended to focus on internal processes, rather than external issues such as competitiveness and market appeal, and…
The popular total quality management (TQM) approach has tended to focus on internal processes, rather than external issues such as competitiveness and market appeal, and is more reactive and adaptive than anticipative. The time has come to go beyond TQM and to understand the nature and application of organizational learning. Learning organizations envision change, are committed to generating and transferring new knowledge and innovation, and have learned how to learn. TQM may be embedded in the learning organization, but TQM is but the first step or wave in transforming and creating organizations which continuously expand their abilities to change and shape their futures. This article first defines and identifies the characteristics of a learning organization, then explores some techniques to develop and transform an organization into a learning organization, and finally suggests some traditional and newer techniques, such as data envelopment analysis (DEA), as ways to measure and evaluate organizational learning.
There are many definitions of profound and multiple learning disabilities. Most definitions include having a high degree of learning disability in conjunction with at…
There are many definitions of profound and multiple learning disabilities. Most definitions include having a high degree of learning disability in conjunction with at least one other severe impairment, such as visual, auditory or physical impairments (Male, 1996; Ware, 1996; Lacey, 1998). Bunning (1997) adds that people with such disabilities are very reliant on others for support, including support in taking part in communicative events. Establishing reliable and consistent methods of communication may be exceptionally difficult (Florian et al, 2000). However, it is important to consider the individuality and extreme diversity of this population (Detheridge, 1997; Hogg, 1998), which includes variability in communication strengths and needs (Granlund & Olsson, 1999; McLean et al, 1996). Communication is often given little attention when services are planning ways of supporting individuals to participate, develop independence and make choices (McGill et al, 2000). While the individual's communication strengths and needs should remain central within any discussion, the significant others and the environment will also have an important influence. This article explores some of the communication issues experienced by people with profound and multiple learning disabilities and highlights the importance of the communication partnership within interventions.
Research into the communication skills of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is extremely limited. This paper aims to evaluate the nature of these skills…
Research into the communication skills of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is extremely limited. This paper aims to evaluate the nature of these skills and impairments in CdLS using a detailed informant assessment of pre-verbal communication skills.
The study used the Pre-verbal Communication Schedule to evaluate communication skills in individuals with CdLS (n=14), aged five to14 years. The group was compared with a contrast group of individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS; n=14) who were matched for age and intellectual ability.
A significant difference was identified in understanding non-vocal communication (p<0.005), with the CdLS group showing a greater deficit. These findings indicate the presence of a syndrome-specific deficit in understanding non-verbal communication in individuals with CdLS and suggest that there may be a dissociation between the processing of verbal and non-verbal communication.
The findings indicate that, in many ways, these two syndrome groups are not dissimilar in terms of their communication skills. However, individuals with CdLS show a syndrome-specific deficit in understanding non-vocal communication relative to the CdCS group.
This article lists the publications of Jack Tizard from 1965 to 1979, with commentary on the development of his interests through that time, and his major contribution to research and social policy.
Appropriate self‐regulation of exposure to driving in view of age‐related declines in driving ability is a significant problem for older individuals in the UK, as…
Appropriate self‐regulation of exposure to driving in view of age‐related declines in driving ability is a significant problem for older individuals in the UK, as programmes designed to encourage and support self‐regulation are sorely lacking. This paper outlines the development of a CD‐based Mixed Media and Virtual Reality (MMVR) programme, consisting of: information and reference material; cognitive tests; and virtual reality (VR) driving simulator components, all of which are orientated to address the older driver. The research on the self‐regulation of driving that informs the rationale and development of the ‘shell’ of the MMVR programme is overviewed, followed by a description of state of development of the cognitive tests and VR driving simulation components of the CD. It is argued that the development of programmes such as that proposed in this paper are necessary to reconcile the mobility needs of the expanding UK elderly population and public safety concerns.
Children with learning disabilities are recognised as being at increased risk of developing mental health problems or challenging behaviour. The need for mental health…
Children with learning disabilities are recognised as being at increased risk of developing mental health problems or challenging behaviour. The need for mental health services for this group of children, while acknowledged, has been inadequately addressed by child mental health services and adult services for people with learning disabilities and mental health problems. Services designated for this group of children have to be able to offer a comprehensive assessment of the problems that the children present with, on‐going short‐ and long‐term management and dissemination of information to other professionals. This paper outlines a model of service provision for these children.