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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2020

Raed EL-Khalil, Zachary Moran Leffakis and Paul C. Hong

This paper empirically examines the implementation pattern of different types of lean management (LM) techniques on the shop-floor. Based on the socio-technical systems…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper empirically examines the implementation pattern of different types of lean management (LM) techniques on the shop-floor. Based on the socio-technical systems framework, LM techniques are classified as social improvement tools and technical process standardization and stability practices. This categorization facilitates investigating their implementation relationship in a complex production system.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the survey data from managers of the three major US auto-manufacturers and their suppliers (n = 137), measurement scales are developed using confirmatory factor analysis for the LM process improvement, stability, and standardization constructs. Hypotheses are tested by applying the Sobel test technique for mediating regression.

Findings

Statistical results confirm the mediation role of LM improvement tools between standardization and stability goal practices, indicating that technical process-oriented practices are not directly related and that their association is impacted by the corresponding implementation of social tools on the shop-floor.

Practical implications

The results indicate that LM practices should not be randomly implemented on the shop-floor but rather adopted and executed based on a systematic pattern. In LM systems, the implementation of process stability, standardization, and improvement practices on the shop-floor are more tightly integrated than traditionally assumed.

Originality/value

This study establishes a new categorization of specific LM tools based on social and technical characteristics. The conclusions highlight the importance of adopting a social emphasize of continuous improvement to establish a technical focus of process standardization and stability for LM implementation success.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Paul C. Hong, Kainan Wang, Xu Zhang and Youngwon Park

Over the decade the trend of Global Fortune 500 firms has shown significant changes – Japanese and Chinese firms in particular. The purpose of this paper is to present…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the decade the trend of Global Fortune 500 firms has shown significant changes – Japanese and Chinese firms in particular. The purpose of this paper is to present trend analysis of Global Fortune 500 – Japanese and Chinese firms. Key research questions are: what are the relevant macro-level changes that have affected the growth and decline of Japanese and Chinese firms? What are the industry-level changes that have occurred in Japanese and Chinese firms in terms of firm characteristics and financial performances? What are the lessons and implications from the firms added to or removed from Global Fortune 500? Data analysis is conducted based on Fortune database from 1995 to 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs descriptive analysis to examine the trend of Japanese and Chinese firms listed in Global Fortune 500 including: based on revenue and profit figures from 1995 to 2013; the authors perform trend analysis for each of those five types from 1995 to 2013; the authors replicate the analyses for different industry types in terms of the above five types; the authors compare the performances of Japanese and Chinese firms; based on 2011-2013 data, the authors conduct more in-depth analysis for selected firms.

Findings

The findings suggest five distinct types of firms including “Sustainables,” “New Comers,” “Move Ups,” “Decliners,” and “Drop Outs”; it is interesting to note that the changes in Global Fortune 500 firms suggest how these two countries show their relative competitive advantage. Chinese firms show steady flows of new firms that join in the rank of Global Fortune 500 whereas Japanese firms suggest continuous drop of firms that move out of Global Fortune 500 firms. As China increases its size of economy, state-owned financial institutions, resource-focus firms (e.g. mining and petroleum) firms also rapidly increased its overall size. Although the number is still small, privately owned Chinese global firms (e.g. Lenovo, Huawei, Zhejiang Geely Holding Group, Ping An Insurance) also are now listed as Global Fortune 500 firms. In contrast, Japanese firms that lost their global market positions steadily disappeared from Global Fortune 500 firms. Representative firms include Daiei, Mitsubishi Motor Company, and NEC.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of the analysis on financial indicators is that the authors select only a few firms and focus only on two time points. Nevertheless, it provides the authors information about the financial factors that characterize the two types of Global Fortune 500 firms. Moreover, it opens up new opportunities for future research.

Practical implications

Factors that influence the behaviors of Global Fortune 500 firms suggest both external environmental and internal managerial factors. Although serious external factors (e.g. Global Financial Crisis) affect the outcomes of these competitive positioning, it is still the managerial leadership that makes differences in cases of many Japanese firms. To Japanese firms maintaining domestic advantage is not enough to sustain their position in Global Fortune 500. Global competitiveness matters. On the other hand, it is unclear whether changes occurring in Chinese firms are more managerial than externally dictated. In case of many Chinese financial firms and resource rich firms, the huge domestic advantage has much to do with their position in Global Fortune 500.

Originality/value

This is the first trend analysis that examines the Global Fortune 500 firms from Japan and China. The authors identify five types of firms that would be an important basis for the further benchmarking studies of Global Fortune 500 firms in other counties (e.g. the USA, Germany, Korea, and other Emerging Economies – Russia, India, Brazil).

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Paul C. Hong, Joseph Chacko Chennattuserry, Xiyue Deng and Margaret M. Hopkins

This paper aims to examine the relationships between organizational purpose, leadership practices and sustainable outcomes for universities in emerging economies. We…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationships between organizational purpose, leadership practices and sustainable outcomes for universities in emerging economies. We propose that a strong sense of purpose is a fundamental and defining feature in the leadership practices of these institutions, which ultimately contributes to their success.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present a research model that defines the relationships between a sense of purpose, leadership practices, student success outcomes, alumni involvement outcomes and societal reputation outcomes. Over 200 higher education administrators in India participated in the study.

Findings

The institutions' sense of purpose directly relates to their leadership engagement practices and their student success outcomes. Student success outcomes are a crucial linkage between leadership engagement practices and alumni involvement outcomes to achieve their societal reputation.

Practical implications

As competitiveness intensifies, educational institutions under resource constraints must differentiate their organizational practices. This paper demonstrates how their core purpose and leadership actions result in achieving effective outcomes and overall sustainable societal reputation.

Originality/value

There is a significant difference between having an organizational purpose and enacting that purpose through their leadership practices. These results highlight the cascading effect from the institution's fundamental sense of purpose to their leadership practices and the positive outcomes of student success, alumni involvement and societal reputation.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2019

Paul C. Hong, Tomy K. Kallarakal, Mariam Moina and Margaret Hopkins

In view of dynamic and widespread economic transformation in emerging economies, managing organizational change and growth in this context deserves more research…

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Abstract

Purpose

In view of dynamic and widespread economic transformation in emerging economies, managing organizational change and growth in this context deserves more research attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine how three organizations in different industries manage change, growth and transformation in their organizational ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted in-depth interviews with the leadership of three organizations in different economic sectors in India, a country representing an emerging economy. The authors also reviewed historical data from these organizations. Three case studies illustrating the evolution of these organizations were developed from the data collected.

Findings

Lessons and implications from the three case studies suggest the following key elements of effective organizational change mechanisms in an emerging economy: visionary entrepreneurial leadership; program quality excellence; scale growth and scope expansion; network capabilities; and sustainable stakeholders’ engagement. At the same time, this study also shows how these organizations manage change, growth and transformation in the context of a society with strong traditions and cultural norms.

Research limitations/implications

Results and conclusions may be limited by the fact that the study is based on three case studies. Additional studies from a variety of industries with large numbers of participants will be helpful in more fully understanding the ways in which change, growth and transformation can best be developed and deployed in different organizational settings.

Practical implications

The proposed model of organizational change in an emerging economy may assist organizational leadership in designing and sustaining their change efforts.

Social implications

This study highlights the role of visionary entrepreneurial leadership and the impact of organizational growth mechanisms on organizational value delivery capabilities and organizational reputation.

Originality/value

Lessons and implications of five growth steps of outstanding organizations in an emerging economy context provide valuable insight for organizational change, growth and transformation in other emerging contexts.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Yingxia Cao, Haya Ajjan and Paul Hong

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of post-purchase logistic services on customer satisfaction and future purchase decision, to reveal any differences…

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7568

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of post-purchase logistic services on customer satisfaction and future purchase decision, to reveal any differences across China and Taiwan, to fill in a gap in the literature focused on post-purchase logistic activities related to shipping, return, and tracking, to provide managerial guidance in logistics for e-commerce, and to develop insights on logistic services for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a validated survey instrument, 384 respondents in China and 145 respondents in Taiwan are collected. The research model is analyzed using component-based estimation approach to structural equation modeling.

Findings

The structural equation analysis of the study found that post-purchase shipping and tracking have an impact on customer satisfaction in both China and Taiwan. It also found that customer service is the most significant factor among the examined antecedents for online shoppers in China. While, return service is more important for shoppers in Taiwan. Finally, customer satisfaction played a stronger positive role for online shoppers in Taiwan as compared to their counterparts in China.

Research limitations/implications

This research extended the current literature about post-purchase logistic services in an online shopping environment with a literature-based research model and good empirical data support. However, one limitation of the study is that the data collected represents a cross-sectional sample; future research should examine longitudinal sample to study customers’ purchase intentions over time.

Practical implications

This study can help both scholars and practitioners understand the importance of tracking, return, shipping, and customer service in an online shopping environment and across countries. It provides insights on designing e-commerce relevant shipping services to satisfy and attract customers across countries.

Originality/value

The study investigated how post-purchase activities contributed to customer satisfaction in online shopping and explored the influence of customer satisfaction on future purchase intention in China and Taiwan. This is one of the first studies available in the literature to provide empirical support and managerial insights about post-purchase activities related to shipping, tracking, and returns for e-commerce with cross-regional comparison.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

YeJin Park, YoungWon Park, Paul C. Hong and Soye Yang

The purpose of this paper is to examine how clarity of corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientation of Japanese small and medium enterprises (SMEs) achieves…

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1033

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how clarity of corporate social responsibility (CSR) orientation of Japanese small and medium enterprises (SMEs) achieves constructive firm performance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of the literature review, the authors present a research model that defines key constructs and provide propositions that explain the interrelationships with theoretical rationale and practical implications. Using careful selection criteria, the authors have further conducted the in-depth interviews of the executives of two prominent Japanese SMEs.

Findings

The results suggest that CEOs with strong CSR orientation are more likely to influence their firms to achieve effective firm performance. If CSR philosophy is strategically formulated, clearly communicated, and widely accepted, then such firm is more likely to attain desirable business performance outcomes for larger stakeholders. Furthermore, CSR implementation of SMEs is not necessarily too costly; in fact, the long-term rate of return on SMEs’ CSR investment, with proper priority and prudent focus, is quite competitive.

Research limitations/implications

In spite of the specificity of the two case studies, the research model and the study findings give valuable insight on the role of CEO’s philosophy on CSR implementation in the international market. The linkage mechanism between business operation and CSR by these SMEs is applicable to many innovative entrepreneurial firms that target beyond domestic markets.

Originality/value

The authors highlight how the clarity of CSR philosophy in terms of firm orientation and linkage mechanism aids SMEs in overcoming their resource constraints. Furthermore, well-implemented CSR activities may become instrumental in achieving long-term desirable performance in the form of customer loyalty, employee’s sense of pride, and corporate socio-economic reputation.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2018

Yingxia Cao, Haya Ajjan, Paul Hong and Thuong Le

The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers, practices, and outcomes of social media use in the management of organizational supply chain.

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2088

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the drivers, practices, and outcomes of social media use in the management of organizational supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

Online questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 285 organizations representing different industries in China. The data then were analyzed with structure equation modeling using SmartPLS.

Findings

The results indicate that key antecedents such as external pressures, internal readiness, expected benefits, strategic goals, and perceived risks influence organizational social media use, which subsequently impact organizational performance outcomes in operation and marketing as well as the satisfaction level of both internal and external constituents, such as customers, employees, partners, and suppliers.

Research limitations/implications

The study obtained data about one organization from only one respondent and did not used random sampling.

Practical implications

This study provides insights on why and how companies should use social media for relationship building and business outcomes.

Originality/value

Drawing from the resources-based view, social networks, strategic choice theory, and technology organization and environment framework, a new social media utilization model for business outcome was established and testified using empirical data. This study is one of the first studies that adopts technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework of technology adoption theory to study organizational social media use. The findings in this study confirm the validity of the TOE framework for analyzing social media adoption and use in various organizations.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Abstract

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Jimmy Chan Hung Ngai and Paul Ellis

Recent studies conducted in the USA and the UK have shown evidence of a relationship between market orientation and company performance. The overall aim of the research…

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3548

Abstract

Recent studies conducted in the USA and the UK have shown evidence of a relationship between market orientation and company performance. The overall aim of the research reported in this paper was to build on this limited body of literature by considering the evidence from another, non‐Western, business environment, namely Hong Kong. In addition, this study sought to clarify the distinction, not often made in the literature, between a market‐ and a marketing‐orientation. Data from 73 textiles and garments manufacturers were collected using an instrument based on Narver and Slater’s (1990) scale. Consistent with previous findings in Western cultures, the results of this study are suggestive of a relationship between market orientation and company performance. However, surveyed firms exhibited a much higher marketing orientation suggesting that it is possible to be effective at implementing the marketing function without possessing a market‐oriented organisational culture.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2018

Mingu Kang, Paul Hong, Roman Bartnik, Youngwon Park and Changsuk Ko

The purpose of this paper is to examine how to align purchasing portfolio management with sourcing negotiation styles.

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1068

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how to align purchasing portfolio management with sourcing negotiation styles.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have adopted two-step field tests: a case study; and a follow-up experimental test with 77 sourcing professionals.

Findings

The authors note that Kraljic Portfolio Matrix (KPM) provides a valuable guide for determining sourcing negotiation styles (i.e. competitive negotiation for leverage items, collaborative negotiation for strategic items and accommodative negotiation for bottleneck items). Interestingly, effective buyers adopt right negotiation styles based on the switching costs of changing suppliers, the dependence level on specific suppliers and the availability of alternative suppliers.

Originality/value

This study shows that aligning purchasing portfolio management with sourcing negotiation styles improves the chances of effective buying outcomes. Practical implications suggest that successful buyers move beyond interpreting generic predictions of the KPM framework and rather implement specific negotiation styles to maximize the potential benefits of purchasing portfolio management.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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