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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Paul Haggarty

Describes the importance of estimating energy requirements and therelationship between energy expenditure and requirements. To estimatehabitual expenditure, and hence…

Abstract

Describes the importance of estimating energy requirements and the relationship between energy expenditure and requirements. To estimate habitual expenditure, and hence requirements, it is necessary to make measurements over long enough periods to take account of daily variation in expenditure (e.g weekday versus weekend) and the methodology adopted should not require that the subjects leave their normal environment or alter their typical activity pattern. Discusses traditional methods of measuring energy expenditure together with their limitations. Outlines the advantages of the doubly labelled water method for estimating habitual energy expenditure and describes the theoretical basis of the method. However, to estimate requirements as described by recent Department of Health and FAO/WHO/UNU reports requires the application of both the doubly labelled water method and traditional methodologies. Also discusses the usefulness of simultaneous heart rate monitoring.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 92 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1992

Louise M. McCorkindale

Taste is defined in a variety of ways, and arises fromphysiological processes which are influenced by social factors.Explanations of taste therefore require information…

Abstract

Taste is defined in a variety of ways, and arises from physiological processes which are influenced by social factors. Explanations of taste therefore require information from biological, sociological and cultural perspectives. Discusses the contribution made to our understanding of taste by the biological and social sciences, with reference to recent sociological and social anthropological research and writing. It argues that food is a particularly powerful medium for the realization of social relationships and the creation of individual identity. The social context therefore has an indirect but causal relationship with individual tastes. The cultural context is also crucial, as the socially constructed meaning of a food can influence taste perception itself. Explanations of taste therefore require an understanding of the social and cultural contexts of food‐related behaviour.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 92 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Asli D.A. Tasci, Basak Denizci Guillet and William C. Gartner

The purpose of this study is to examine if consumers have substantially common color preferences in hospitality uniforms for destination brands. Employee uniforms with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine if consumers have substantially common color preferences in hospitality uniforms for destination brands. Employee uniforms with their dimensions of style, material and color are a crucial part of the coordinated brand message of a business or a destination; however, this has been a void in tourism and hospitality literature. Current visitors to Hong Kong were studied using intercept surveys in four different groups controlling for potential confounding factors. Although results reveal the common perception and preference for black-white-formal uniforms for Hong Kong’s hospitality industry across different treatment groups as well as different cultural groups, implications and discussions are provided as a call for further research in this venue of inquiry.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a cross-sectional study using a site intercept survey with structured questionnaires on Chinese and international travelers in Hong Kong. Four different surveys were used as different treatments for four groups of respondents that were randomly assigned into each group. Each group was presented with a different default pair of male and female uniform pictures for the initial evaluation on the first page of the survey, followed by a list of uniforms with different colors and styles on the second page of the survey to select and evaluate their own pairs of male and female uniforms.

Findings

Results revealed that consumers’ general favorite colors may not apply to their preferences for the employee uniforms for a destination they visit. Also, there were similarities in the favorite color and choice uniform color for the three general culture groups, such as Chinese, Asia-Pacific and Western consumers, included in the study. Besides, findings implied that Hong Kong may be a strong brand with a uniform color preference for hospitality uniforms for different consumer segments.

Research limitations/implications

This study needs to be considered as an exploratory attempt to bring researchers’ attention to the several questions still to be answered by future research. The results and discussions provided in this study are beyond being robust or conclusive; insights about potential brand connotations with employee uniform colors need to be taken as potential leads for future studies because there is a need for further study in this area.

Practical implications

The importance of hotel employee uniforms for quality hotel experience was the highest for the Chinese group, whereas it was the lowest for the Western group. Chinese and Asia-Pacific respondents placed more importance on uniforms as a cue for a quality hotel experience, which signal a higher level of involvement in visible cues in the consumption environment. Hence, hotels as well as destinations catering to these groups need to take their market segment preferences into consideration before making decisions about brand cues for their products.

Originality/value

There is a lack of attention to the color aspect of service encounter in tourism and hospitality literature. Therefore, color needs attention from researchers as a new venue of research in tourism and hospitality, especially in the tourism destination context. This study is a spearhead to generate interest by intriguing questions for future attention from researchers.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Javed Hussain, Harry Matlay and Jonathan M. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.

Design/methodology/approach

A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non‐ethnic SMEs.

Findings

The results show that owner/managers of micro‐businesses have lower educational achievements as well as higher financial education needs than their counterparts in small and medium‐sized firms. In contrast, owner/managers in small and medium‐sized businesses have relatively higher educational achievements and a better appreciation of the role of financial education. Similar trends were observed in non‐ethnic SMEs in the control sample.

Originality/value

This article makes an empirically rigorous contribution to a relatively under researched aspect of SME research. The authors recommend that government agencies collaborate with leaders of ethnic minority communities to raise awareness of the benefits of education in general and financial education in particular.

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