We examine the relevance of governmental accounting information to the citizenry by analyzing the association between various financial and non-financial measures of local…
We examine the relevance of governmental accounting information to the citizenry by analyzing the association between various financial and non-financial measures of local government performance and residential property values. The link between government performance measures and residential property values is based on a model of housing value capitalization developed by Yinger (1982). Using a model of firstdifferences, we find that changes in housing values are associated with government financial measures, including reported surplus and changes in outstanding debt. Further, we find that changes in housing values are also associated with non-financial measures of performance by county schools. Overall our results suggest that both financial and non-financial government performance measures are economically relevant to citizen property owners.
This study provides public administrators with an introduction into research of the determinants of audit fees. A working knowledge of external audit cost determinants can…
This study provides public administrators with an introduction into research of the determinants of audit fees. A working knowledge of external audit cost determinants can help public administrators hone their evaluation skills for use in audit-procurement. Most prior research on audit cost determinants has focused on the few hundred cities in the nation with populations exceeding 50,000. As a result, this study investigated the audit costs incurred by small cities with populations less than 50,000.
Besides providing a glimpse of small-city auditing practices, the study tested the significance of the Single Audit Act in audit-fee determination. Missouri municipalities with populations between 2,000 and 50,000 provided the sample for the study. Because Missouri is one of the few states in the nation that neither legislates nor monitors municipal auditing, it represents an unregulated audit market in which town officials decide on the need for an audit, the firm to conduct the audit, and the process by which the audit firm is selected. The results of a nine-variable regression model suggested that the size of the town, the existence of a city administrator, the complexity of the town's operation, the method of accounting, the timing and completion time of the audit, and audit-firm specialization in municipal auditing were important determinants of audit fees.
Accounting researchers have performed many studies related to public sector budgeting and financial management. Public sector accounting research seeks to explain the role…
Accounting researchers have performed many studies related to public sector budgeting and financial management. Public sector accounting research seeks to explain the role of accounting and auditing in the public sector. For example, researchers examine issues such as (1) the use of accounting information by elected officials, (2) the demand for auditing, and (3) the determination of bond ratings. This review of the public sector accounting literature describes some of the theoretical foundations utilized in public sector accounting research and reviews a sample of selected empirical studies.
This paper presents a study of the audit delay experienced by 289 U.S. local governments. The study extends prior research by considering explanatory variables thought to…
This paper presents a study of the audit delay experienced by 289 U.S. local governments. The study extends prior research by considering explanatory variables thought to be correlates of audit quality and by comparing city and county delay. Models of audit delay and audit fees are estimated using two-stage least squares regression. The study finds that audit delay is positively associated with correlates of audit quality and that cities experience less delay than do counties. The results indicate that, while audit fees have no explanatory power concerning audit delay, delay exerts a positive influence on fees.
The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a research study that sought to identify the key dimensions of luxury from a UK consumers’ perspective.
The project was empirical in nature and based on a two-stage methodology that involved a series of depth interviews with consumers and a street intercept survey of 131 consumers in the UK.
The project found that UK consumers appear to recognise five dimensions of luxury (affect, characteristics, status, gifting and involvement).
The main limitation was a small sample size and limited statistical significance.
The paper should usefully focus the attention and efforts of managers of luxury brands, managers of ordinary brands who desire to develop them into luxury brands, and managers who are considering creating luxury brands in the UK. The findings should inform management decisions relating to product development, advertising, promotion and distribution of luxury products and services.
The paper makes an original contribution to knowledge by reporting the findings of an empirical study of luxury from the UK consumers’ perspective. It has value to academic researchers who are interested in the concept of luxury as well as those involved in or considering luxury brand management.
The relationship between the size of state audit budgets, audit responsibilities, professional characteristics of staff, risk, and tax and expenditure limitations is…
The relationship between the size of state audit budgets, audit responsibilities, professional characteristics of staff, risk, and tax and expenditure limitations is explored. Bivariate relationships are examined and then a model is estimated which controls for size, complexity, financial risk factors, and political risk factors. This provides a framework for considering the incremental influence of specialized audit inputs. Both "brand names" and size have been used in past research to proxy for quality dimensions intended to differentiate the audit product provided by different suppliers. This research extends such work by considering characteristics of the auditing services as reflected by specific inputs and by using cost data rather than audit fee data. The states are observed to differ in their responses to financial and political factors by spending resources on peer review, continuing professional education, certifications of professional staff, and expertise in both the computer science area and in law. A positive association of cost and auditor differentiation, implicit in past audit fee literature is corroborated.
Over the past decade, the accountability of nonprofit organizations has been a concern. Our paper reports one form of accountability, the "A-133" or "single" audit, which…
Over the past decade, the accountability of nonprofit organizations has been a concern. Our paper reports one form of accountability, the "A-133" or "single" audit, which is required for nonprofits receiving substantial federal funding. We report on 11,841 audits from 1997 to 1999. Overall, compliance appears to be quite high. Our study indicates that smaller nonprofits, those that are new to government grants, and those with prior audit findings have a significantly higher rate of adverse audit findings. One policy implication of our work might be to provide federal funding specifically for Single Audit Act compliance to these nonprofits.
This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the…
This paper analyzes the impact of economic downturns on the revenue and expense sides of city financing for the period 2003 to 2009 using a convenience sample of the audited end of year financial reports for thirty midsized US cities. The analysis focuses on whether and how quickly and how extensively revenue and spending directions from past years are altered by recessions. A seven year series of Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) data serves to explore whether citiesʼ revenues and spending, especially the traditional property tax and core functions such as public safety and infrastructure withstood the brief 2001 and the persistent 2007 recessions? The findings point to consumption (spending) over stability (revenue minus expense) for the recession of 2007, particularly in 2008 and 2009.