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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Paul Andell

County lines involving the exploitation of vulnerable children and young people by gangs have been described as a bigger threat than the exploitation exposed by the…

Abstract

Purpose

County lines involving the exploitation of vulnerable children and young people by gangs have been described as a bigger threat than the exploitation exposed by the Rotherham scandal (The Times, 27 November 2017). The purpose of this paper is to explain the contingencies and drivers informing gang identities in the irregular economy of drugs and make some suggestions to address these.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the social reality (ontology) of UK gangs in the UK and the different theories of knowledge about gangs (epistemologies) that can both help and hamper gangs’ policy and practices. The paper is based on recent research and sets out strategic ideas for good community safety practice in order to develop multi-modal partnership interventions in gang-affected neighbourhoods. Recent policies are located within the broader political economy of crime, which raises questions of current policy direction to achieve safer neighbourhoods.

Findings

A critical realist approach to gangs (Pitts, 2016) assumes that unobservable structures (patterns of relations and roles) cause observable events (gang behaviour). This suggests a reality of gangs independent of theories about them. In this paradigm, the author’s theories about the world are historically, socially and culturally situated and always partial. Not only do gangs change in space and time, but also so do the author’s representations of them.

Research limitations/implications

Arguably, at this moment, the authors’ best ideas about the underlying causal forces which precipitate gangs involve social structures which have push and pull factors acting in conjunction with culturally enmeshed individuals with limited choices. The pushes of social exclusionary factors such as institutional racism and unemployment act in consort with pull factors of excessive consumerism. However, the author’s ideas about gangs are partial and fallible, and this demands a methodological pluralism that involves a range of stakeholders when researching and formulating appropriate interventions.

Practical implications

To address the impact of gang violence at the micro or neighbourhood level, Andell and Pitts (2009, 2013, 2017) developed an interactive model of action research which is inclusive of the experiences and knowledge of stakeholders. This knowledge can be valuable not only to build multi-modal strategies in gang-affected neighbourhoods, but can also be useful as a reflexive spur to provide feedback and direction on what works to reduce community harms. Earlier research experience (Andell and Pitts 2009, 2013, 2017) informs ideas that that single agency or “siloed” approaches to problems associated with gangs and drug markets can cause confusion and mistrust for other stakeholders and that more integrated approaches are needed.

Social implications

In order to assist young people to attain their potential with the assistance of institutions, both micro and macro changes need to take place. The social capital of community networks needs to be enhanced and the redistributive potential of economic policy needs to be enacted. Therefore, policy is needed which is founded on the belief that research is capable of understanding the mechanisms that produce material and cultural domination, and this analysis, in conjunction with stakeholder knowledge, could lead to a realistic program for collective actions in both the micro and macro spheres that reduce relative deprivation and curb the cultural mores for excess.

Originality/value

The paper suggests a critical realist approach to gangs (Pitts, 2016) and assumes that unobservable structures (patterns of relations and roles) cause observable events (gang behaviour). This imputes a reality of gangs independent of theories about them. In this paradigm, the author’s theories about the world are historical, socially and culturally situated and always partial. Not only do gangs change in space and time, but also so do the author’s representations of them.

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

John Pitts

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Safer Communities, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2015

Stephanie A. Andel, Derek M. Hutchinson and Paul E. Spector

The modern workplace contains many physical and interpersonal hazards to employee physical and psychological health/well-being. This chapter integrates the literatures on…

Abstract

The modern workplace contains many physical and interpersonal hazards to employee physical and psychological health/well-being. This chapter integrates the literatures on occupational safety (i.e., accidents and injuries) and mistreatment (physical violence and psychological abuse). A model is provided linking environmental (climate and leadership), individual differences (demographics and personality), motivation, behavior, and outcomes. It notes that some of the same variables have been linked to both safety and mistreatment, such as safety climate, mistreatment climate, conscientiousness, and emotional stability.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-016-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Liz Ritchie, Bernard Burnes, Paul Whittle and Richard Hey

Describes a research project carried out within the Manchester Royal Infirmary (MRI) to evaluate and improve the recycling and disposal of pharmaceutical products…

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7213

Abstract

Describes a research project carried out within the Manchester Royal Infirmary (MRI) to evaluate and improve the recycling and disposal of pharmaceutical products. Discusses supply chain management practices in the National Health Service and, in particular, focuses on the concept of reverse logistics (the recycling of pharmaceutical stock for later re‐use). The research involved the analysis of returned stock from 28 hospital units and, from this data, the development and implementation of a revised recycling process within MRI Pharmacy. Concludes by arguing that there are significant financial and operational advantages to the NHS, and other organisations, in developing effective reverse logistics processes.

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Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2017

Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Brian Slack and Claude Comtois

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Handbook of Logistics and Supply-Chain Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-8572-4563-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Anushree Tandon, Puneet Kaur, Namita Ruparel, Jamid Ul Islam and Amandeep Dhir

Scholars are increasingly focusing on the adverse effects of digitization on human lives in personal and professional contexts. Cyberloafing is one such effect and…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars are increasingly focusing on the adverse effects of digitization on human lives in personal and professional contexts. Cyberloafing is one such effect and digitization-related workplace behavior that has garnered attention in both academic and mainstream media. However, the existing literature is fragmented and needs to be consolidated to generate a comprehensive and contemporary overview of cyberloafing research and map its current intellectual boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on systematic literature review (SLR) in cyberloafing and cyberslacking in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A SLR is conducted to assimilate the existing research. A total of 87 studies selected through a robust protocol are analyzed through content analysis.

Findings

A total of four thematic research areas and inherent gaps are identified, including conceptualization, operationalization, antecedents and stakeholders and consequences. Results are used to assimilate thematic gaps and potential research questions (RQs) to be addressed by future scholars. To advance cyberloafing research, the authors propose a theoretically grounded comprehensive framework based on the SLR findings.

Originality/value

Our study's novelty rests in its state-of-the-art synthesis of cyberloafing research, which encompasses a broader scope than prior SLRs. Furthermore, developing a theoretically grounded comprehensive framework for advancing future research is a unique contribution of this study.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Laetitia Teixeira, Maria João Azevedo, Sara Alves, Cátia L. Pires and Constança Paúl

In Portugal, the three main kinds of care services available for older people are nursing homes, day centers and home care services. The use of these care services is…

Abstract

Purpose

In Portugal, the three main kinds of care services available for older people are nursing homes, day centers and home care services. The use of these care services is mostly based on complex socioeconomic and functional criteria; however it is not clear if this placement corresponds to a higher/lower risk of adverse outcomes. The purposes of this paper are: to characterize clients of each type of service; to estimate the proportion of individuals at perceived risk of each adverse outcome according to type of service; to assess the ability of the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC) to identify the risk profiles according to type of service.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised individuals aged 65+ (n=224), receiving care at home, in day centers or in nursing homes. The identification of individuals at risk for three adverse outcomes (institutionalization, hospitalization and death) was performed using a short pre-screen instrument (RISC).

Findings

The RISC identified mental state issues as the unique factor that differentiated clients according the type of care services (χ2 (6, N=224)=20.96, p=0.002), with day center presenting the lowest percentage of mental health concerns and nursing home presenting the highest percentage (44.44 and 71.91 percent, respectively). Additionally, a gradient was found between perceived risk of adverse outcomes (institutionalization and hospitalization) and care of levels required.

Originality/value

The RISC can be used to discriminate people in different settings of care and can be helpful in the selection of groups at risk that will benefit more from available services.

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2015

Abstract

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-016-6

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Marwan Al Qur’an

This study aims to explore critical success factors contributing to the selection of beneficial foreign markets by Arabian international firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore critical success factors contributing to the selection of beneficial foreign markets by Arabian international firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple case study method was adopted in the study, and thus, two rich-information comparative case studies were purposefully selected from Arabian large firms. Additionally, seven international market selection (IMS) decisions were examined through relying on personal interviews and archival data, and field notes as secondary data resources. Two main stages of analysis were undertaken, i.e. within and cross-case analyses.

Findings

The results showed four critical factors contributing to the selection of beneficial international markets by Arabian firms, i.e. international business experience of the selected management team, the market knowledge about the potential international markets, in-house and external consultations with international business experts and identification of a trustworthy and internationally experienced manager for the international operation.

Practical implications

The results have important implications to business managers by improving their foreign market selection behavior. Further, the research’s findings can assist less-experienced firms, willing to internationalize their businesses, in enhancing their decision-making process to arrive at beneficial country for their international operations.

Originally/value

The research findings provide significant theoretical contribution to literature review on the internationalization process of firms through addressing critical success factors in IMS decision process. Further, it provides significant methodological contributions in relation to the effectiveness of the case study approach in capturing elements of the IMS process.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Paul Michael Cozens, Greg Saville and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate…

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31890

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate the available evidence on the contribution of crime prevention through environmental design as a crime prevention strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Large‐scale evaluations of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are reviewed with a view to clarifying current knowledge on the evidence of crime prevention through environmental design.

Findings

The review concludes that there is a growing body of research that supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is effective in reducing both crime and fear of crime in the community.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper may not review all the evaluations of CPTED, it nonetheless provides a detailed compilation and overview of the most significant research in the area, including an extensive and modern bibliography on the subject. Research implications will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.

Practical implications

CPTED is an increasingly fashionable approach and is being implemented on a global scale. Additionally, individual components such as territoriality, surveillance, maintenance, access control, activity support and target‐hardening are being widely deployed. However, the evidence currently available is inconclusive and much criticised, which effectively prevents widespread intervention and investment by central government. The paper details the difficulties associated with demonstrating the effectiveness of CPTED.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that although empirical proof has not been definitively demonstrated, there is a large and growing body of research, which supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is a pragmatic and effective crime prevention tool. This review provides an extensive bibliography of contemporary crime prevention through environmental design and a follow‐up paper will discuss the future research priorities for it.

Details

Property Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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