Search results

1 – 10 of 312
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Paul Iles

I begin by examining some ways in which organisations have attempted to improve their recruitment and selection procedures to minimise bias and unfair discrimination, and…

Abstract

I begin by examining some ways in which organisations have attempted to improve their recruitment and selection procedures to minimise bias and unfair discrimination, and focus on the assessment centre as a potentially useful technique in this respect, especially for managerial selection. I go on to examine the assessment centre in more detail, including its origins, construction and uses, before discussing the strong evidence for its validity as a selection and assessment procedure. I then describe some recent British innovations in assessment centre design and practice, especially in its use for management and organisation development purposes, before discussing some of my own recent research, in collaboration with Ivan Robertson and Usha Rout, on participants' attitudes towards the use of assessment centres for selection and development purposes, including gender differences in attitudes.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Yanan Feng, Bin Hao, Paul Iles and Nicola Bown

Studies of distributed leadership (DL) are increasing, but are not systematic, often taking a normative position emphasizing the superiority of DL to solo leadership and…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies of distributed leadership (DL) are increasing, but are not systematic, often taking a normative position emphasizing the superiority of DL to solo leadership and using the term in an imprecise way. The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize DL and develop a systematic framework to identify dimensions of DL and their association with team effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a comprehensive review of existing literature, this paper develops a systematic framework of DL and team effectiveness by deriving eight research propositions.

Findings

Based on two perspectives, role space occupation and dependency of actions, the paper identifies four main dimensions of DL: shared, conjoint, fragmented and dispersed leadership, each of which represents a specific pattern of DL activities. A leader-task-context (LTC) framework is developed to analyze outcomes of DL dimensions in different settings. The eight propositions developed clearly identify where DL can be best applied, how particular configurations of DL affect team performance, and in what situations it is most effective.

Originality/value

This paper has made several contributions. First, the authors address the question of what constitutes DL by conceptualizing its dimensions. Second, the authors extend the DL literature by arguing and modeling how different contexts influence the fulfillment of DL. Third, the authors develop an analytical framework of DL – the “LTC” framework – to help build a foundation and guide further research on the relationships between DL and team performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Xiaoxian Zhu, Paul Iles and John Shutt

The purpose of this paper is to report on a three‐year PMI2 project for the British Council in 2008, one of seven to develop and strengthen partnerships with Chinese…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a three‐year PMI2 project for the British Council in 2008, one of seven to develop and strengthen partnerships with Chinese institutions in employability and entrepreneurship. Involving a partnership between Leeds Metropolitan University England and the Zhejiang University of Technology Hangzhou, China, the aim has been to analyse the Hangzhou and Zhejiang economies and examine current Chinese company requirements for skills and talent and their implications for teaching and learning and graduate supply. This was intended to strengthen the existing partnerships at a civic level between Leeds and Hangzhou and the successful MA in Trade and Finance run by the two universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on preliminary interview studies in China of Hangzhou companies in different industrial sectors to analyse the skill and talent needs of such companies, their demands for graduate talent in particular and their views about the adequacy of the supply of that talent from local and national universities.

Findings

The paper clarifies the relationship between talent demand and supply in China, especially with regard to graduate talent, and presents an original analysis of the skill needs of the Hangzhou economy.

Originality/value

The paper suggests ways in which universities in Zhejiang and China generally could strengthen their engagement with businesses over talent demand and supply, and how they could develop courses and programmes that more effectively bridge the gap between universities and businesses.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

Paul A. Iles

Human resource management (HRM), in contrast to “personnelmanagement” and “personnel administration”, is oftenheld to be proactive rather than reactive, strategic rather…

Abstract

Human resource management (HRM), in contrast to “personnel management” and “personnel administration”, is often held to be proactive rather than reactive, strategic rather than tactical, and integrated with corporate strategy rather than marginal or peripheral. Argues that it is important to distinguish several dimensions of “integration” ‐internal, external and institutional – and that the strategic integration of human resource development (HRD) is achievable through the adoption of career‐focused, competence‐based models. However, existing competence frameworks are criticized for their generic character, their retrospective orientation, their abstract nature and their focus on the individual job rather than the career stream or wider organizational role. Prospective, organization‐specific, anchored, collaborative and career‐focused models seem more promising vehicles for achieving not only “internal integration” – the consistent, coherent application of a range of HR policy levers – but also “external integration”, the integration of HR strategies with corporate strategies. Explores such a framework in relation to two empirical studies of competence‐based approaches to managerial assessment and development, one a management development programme in the National & Provincial Building Society, the other a senior management development workshop in Oxford Regional Health Authority.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

TingTing Jiang and Paul Iles

This paper seeks to clarify the process that leads employees and prospective applicants to be attracted to remain with the organization or apply for a job offer in private…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to clarify the process that leads employees and prospective applicants to be attracted to remain with the organization or apply for a job offer in private companies in Zhejiang, China.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies concepts from marketing to people management, particularly the concept of brand equity. It proposes, on the basis of a literature review and preliminary interview data in three private companies in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, that prospective applicants and employees evaluate job offers or organizational positions based both on organizational attractiveness (OA) and on employee‐based brand equity (EBBE) perceptions. It then presents a model of the relationship between OA and EBBE for future research in China, proposing the particular importance of the dimensions “economic value”, “development value” and “social value” for Chinese employees. It then suggests implications for future research and practice, especially the relationship between OA and EBBE for both Chinese employees, job seekers and applicants.

Findings

The private economy is significant to China, accounting for 65 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) and 56 per cent of total tax revenue. For Zhejiang, a private economy‐dominated province, talent recruitment and turnover are problems that hinder future development. OA and EBE may play a key role in intentions to accept a job offer, and as a mediator and a key variable in the initial recruitment.

Research limitations/implications

The paper draws on preliminary interview studies in China to propose a framework for future research to clarify the role of OA and EBBE in Chinese job choice intentions and behaviours.

Practical implications

Recruitment messages and internal branding communications should focus on EBBE so as to influence OA perceptions and job intentions in China. Social, economic and development value are suggested as particularly important dimensions of EBBE in China.

Originality/value

The study clarifies the role of OA and EBBE in the process that leads to the intention to apply, respond to job offers, and remain with the organization, and discusses implications for further research and practice in China.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Elisabeth M. Wilson and Paul A. Iles

The UK public sector has had a long‐standing policy commitment to equal opportunities, alongside limited access to managerial positions for women, ethnic minorities and…

Abstract

The UK public sector has had a long‐standing policy commitment to equal opportunities, alongside limited access to managerial positions for women, ethnic minorities and people with disabilities. In place of equal opportunities, a new paradigm, managing diversity, originating in the USA, has been proposed. This paper examines five areas of difference between equal opportunities and managing diversity: an internal or external driving force; an operational or strategic focus; the perception of difference; the focus of action; and finally, the epistemological basis. The paper discusses the application of this model to the public sector, discussing power and equity, the relevance of the “business case” argument, the focus on customer responsiveness, and a possible explanation for the 1980s backlash. There are case studies of an NHS Trust and a local authority. The paper discusses necessary attitudinal changes and skills to implement the managing diversity paradigm in the public sector.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 April 2011

David E. Gray, Paul Iles and Sandra Watson

This article aims to explore dimensions and tensions in the relationship between theory (usually produced by academics) and practice (the domain, normally of…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore dimensions and tensions in the relationship between theory (usually produced by academics) and practice (the domain, normally of practitioners) in human resource development (HRD).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines, from a conceptual perspective, the nature of mode 2 research, where knowledge is generated in the context of multi‐stakeholder teams (academics and practitioners) that transcend the boundaries of traditional disciplines, working on problems to be found in working life.

Findings

Mode 2 research has been seen in dichotomous terms of theory versus practice, referred to in various ways such as: the research‐practice gap; the implementation gap; the research‐practice divide; and the theory‐practice void. This gap is also typified by mode 1 research, an approach which adopts the principles of “normal science” and which generates results, the main beneficiaries of which are the academic community. The authors forward mode 2 research as an approach that requires both academic rigour and practical relevance. The article presents and critically evaluates a number of examples of academic‐practitioner partnerships in action in order to highlight both the potential and the challenges for the development of mode 2 research. It also recommends strategies for the advancement of mode 2 research, including getting academics to attune themselves more closely with the needs of practitioners, encouraging academics to write for practitioner journals, and the use of the kinds of research methodologies that can generate richer stories and cases that resonate with practitioner interests. Practitioners, however, need research that has a practical focus and which can be applied immediately.

Research limitations/implications

This is a conceptual paper that draws on secondary examples to support the authors' contentions, making it appropriate to gain further background information on bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Practical implications

The paper critically evaluates a number of examples of academic‐practitioner partnerships in action.

Originality/value

This paper provides an in‐depth analysis of the challenges of undertaking effective and robust practice‐based research, through articulating philosophical differences in research approaches and discussing tensions between academic and practitioner needs.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Xin Chuai, David Preece and Paul Iles

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether talent management (TM) practices are fundamentally different from traditional approaches to human resource management (HRM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether talent management (TM) practices are fundamentally different from traditional approaches to human resource management (HRM) and whether TM in China is an element of the struggle by those in the human resource (HR) profession to improve its credibility and status.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies are the main method of collecting data. These are supplemented by documentary analysis. Four in‐depth case studies were undertaken in Beijing. The target organizations were chosen from the information technology, health care and education sectors. The interviews were semi‐structured and were conducted with a range of stakeholders in each organization, including at least one HR specialist (normally, the senior HR professional, senior and functional managers as well as non‐managerial staff. In addition, interviews were also conducted in three management consulting firms regarded as being at the cutting edge in order to explore the orientation of such firms to the TM phenomenon.

Findings

TM emerges as being different from traditional HRM, incorporating new knowledge rather than being a simple repackaging of old techniques and ideas with new labels. Therefore, TM should not be seen simply as “old wine in new bottles” with respect to the case of China. In addition, this study challenges the idea that TM is yet another struggle by HR professionals to enhance their legitimacy, status and credibility within their organizations.

Research limitations/implications

This study concerns itself with only well‐established and recognized multinational corporations in Beijing. There might be different conclusions for the other types of enterprises.

Originality/value

This paper offers new research on TM in China.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Abubakr M. Suliman and Paul A. Iles

Examines the validity and reliability of affective, continuance and normative commitment in the Jordanian context. Using a self‐administered questionnaire, 1,000 employees…

Abstract

Examines the validity and reliability of affective, continuance and normative commitment in the Jordanian context. Using a self‐administered questionnaire, 1,000 employees were surveyed. The study questionnaire was piloted in three industrial firms before being used in the main study. The results from the pilot and main studies reveal that of the three dimensions mentioned above, two are prevalent in the Jordanian work environment, namely: the affective and continuance commitments. The existence of normative commitment in the Jordanian work setting is not supported by the findings of the study. Implications for our understanding of commitment’s role in Jordan and other Arab countries are also discussed in the paper.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 9 January 2012

Daniel G. Dorner, G.E. Gorman and Nicole M. Gaston

Taking as its starting point the view that information literacy (IL) and information literacy education (ILE) are essential for national, social and personal development…

Abstract

Taking as its starting point the view that information literacy (IL) and information literacy education (ILE) are essential for national, social and personal development in countries of the less developed world, this chapter looks at how context informs our understanding of the nature and process of IL and ILE in developing countries of the Asian region, with particular attention to Cambodia and Laos. The principal focus is on definitional issues related to cultural contexts. From the literature and from personal experience as IL/ILE trainers in SE Asia, we maintain that extant definitions and understanding of IL are principally North American in origin and focus, or largely based on the North American perception of IL and ILE. It was not until the mid-years of the first decade of this century that we saw formal recognition that IL competencies are being applied within cultural and social contexts, and that cultural factors are affecting information literacy. Our chapter contributes ‘on-the-ground’ support for this understanding. During the course of a series of IL/ILE workshops in Cambodia and Laos, a series of ad hoc focus groups was utilised to test the contextual effects on understandings of information literacy; contextualised definitions, each specific to and slightly different for individual countries, were developed. What emerged from the focus group discussions about IL was a series of definitional nuances highlighting these key points: (1) information literacy in definition and practice must be contextually grounded; (2) knowledge creation as a product of information literacy is both knowledge based and problem focused; (3) the contexts of a society must be understood quite specifically; and may be unique to each society; and (4) information literacy involves a continuum that comes from and at the same time enables new learning related to the contextual aspects of information. Given these points, we confirm that traditional definitions of IL are not particularly robust in the context of less developed Asian countries. Further, we conclude that local understanding of IL results in definitions aligned with the realities of specific societies. This in our view leads to more robust, contextualised information literacy education.

Details

Library and Information Science Trends and Research: Asia-Oceania
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-470-2

1 – 10 of 312