Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2018

Andrew Palmer Wheeler

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the p-median model to construct optimal patrol areas. This can improve both time spent traveling to calls, as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the p-median model to construct optimal patrol areas. This can improve both time spent traveling to calls, as well as equalize call load between patrol areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an introduction to the use of integer linear programs to create optimal patrol areas, as many analysts and researchers in the author’s field will not be familiar with such models. The analysis then introduces a set of linear constraints to the p-median problem that are applicable to police agencies, such as constraining call loads to be equal and making patrol areas geographically contiguous.

Findings

The analysis illustrates the technique on simplified simulated examples. The analysis then demonstrates the utility of the technique by showing how patrol areas in Carrollton, TX can be made both more efficient and equalize the call loads given the same number of patrol beats as currently in place.

Originality/value

Unlike prior applications of creating patrol areas, this paper introduces linear constraints into the p-median problem, making it much easier to solve than programs that have non-linear or multiple objective functions. Supplementary code using open source software is also provided, allowing other analysts or researchers to apply the model to their own data.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Elizabeth R. Groff, Lallen Johnson, Jerry H. Ratcliffe and Jennifer Wood

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the Philadelphia Police Department instituted a large‐scale randomized controlled trial of foot patrol as a policing strategy…

Downloads
2076

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how the Philadelphia Police Department instituted a large‐scale randomized controlled trial of foot patrol as a policing strategy and experienced 23 percent fewer violent crimes during the treatment period. The authors examine whether activities patrol officers were conducting might have produced the crime reduction. The activities of foot and car patrol officers research takes a closer look at what types are examined separately and differences between car patrol activities pre‐intervention and during the intervention are explored. Activities of foot versus car patrol officers during the study period are compared across treatment and control areas.

Design/methodology/approach

Official data on police officer activity are used to compare activities conducted by foot patrol officers with those by car patrol officers in 60 treatment (foot beat) and 60 control areas consisting of violent crime hot spots. Activities of car patrol officers are described pre‐intervention and during the intervention. Foot patrol officers’ activities are described within treatment and control areas during the treatment phase of the experiment. Car patrol officers’ activities are reported separately. The statistical significance of changes in car patrol activity pre and during intervention is evaluated using a series of mixed model ANOVAs.

Findings

There were noticeable differences in the activities conducted by foot and car patrol. Foot patrol officers spent most of their time initiating pedestrian stops and addressing disorder incidents, while car patrol officers handled the vast majority of reported crime incidents. Car patrol activity declined in both treatment and control areas during the intervention but there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment and the control areas.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation of this study is the restricted set of data describing officer activity that is captured by official records. Future studies should include a more robust ethnographic component to better understand the broad spectrum of police activity in order to more effectively gauge the ways in which foot patrol and car‐based officers’ activities interact to address community safety. This understanding can help extend the literature on “co‐production” by highlighting the safety partnerships that may develop organically across individual units within a police organization.

Practical implications

The study provides evidence that individual policing strategies undertaken by agencies impact one another. When implementing and evaluating new programs, it would be beneficial for police managers and researchers to consider the impact on activities of the dominant patrol style, as necessary, to understand how a specific intervention might have achieved its goal or why it might have failed to show an effect.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the understanding of the separate and joint effects of foot and car patrol on crime. In addition, it provides police managers with a clearer picture of the ways in which foot patrol police and car‐based officers work to co‐produce community safety in violent inner‐city areas.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Luke Bonkiewicz

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the combined crime rate and staffing levels of a patrol area affect patrol officers’ productivity. Specifically, the author…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the combined crime rate and staffing levels of a patrol area affect patrol officers’ productivity. Specifically, the author identified and analyzed two macro-level correlates of patrol officer productivity: reported violent crimes per officer and reported property crimes per officer (a beat’s “crime-to-cop” ratios).

Design/methodology/approach

Using hierarchical linear modeling, the author estimated the effects of a patrol area’s violent crimes per officer ratio and property crimes per officer ratio on the annual number of traffic citations, warrants, misdemeanor arrests, and felony arrests generated by patrol officers (n=302). The author also examined the effect of these crime-to-cop ratios on a more advanced productivity metric.

Findings

The results suggest that a patrol area’s rate of property crimes per officer is associated with a moderate decrease in an officer’s annual number of traffic citations, warrant arrests, and misdemeanor arrests; a patrol area’s rate of violent crimes per officer is also associated with a moderate decrease in an officer’s annual number of traffic citations; and a patrol area’s rate of violent crimes per officer is associated with a moderate increase in an officer’s annual number of warrant and misdemeanor arrests. Notably, the crime-to-cop ratios are not correlated with a more sophisticated patrol productivity metric.

Research limitations/implications

The author analyzed data from a mid-sized US police department that uses a generalists policing style. It is unknown if these results translate to smaller or larger police departments, as well as those agencies practicing a specialized policing style.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that police scholars should not only recognize how the crime-to-cop ratios of a patrol area might impact patrol officer productivity, but also incorporate more sophisticated metrics of patrol officer activity in future studies. These findings likewise signal to police practitioners that an area’s crime-to-cop ratios should be considered when allocating officers and other resources across patrol areas.

Originality/value

To the authors knowledge, this is the first study to identify and examine the link between a patrol area’s crime-to-cop ratios and patrol officer productivity.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 April 2018

Martin A. Andresen and Tarah K. Hodgkinson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of a police foot patrol considering micro-geographic units of analysis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of a police foot patrol considering micro-geographic units of analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Six years of monthly crime counts for eight violent and property crime types are analyzed. Negative binomial and binary logistic regressions were used to evaluate the impact of the police foot patrol.

Findings

The impact of police foot patrol is in a small number of micro-geographic areas. Specifically, only 5 percent of the spatial units of analysis exhibit a statistically significant impact from the foot patrol.

Originality/value

These analyses show the importance of undertaking evaluations at the micro-scale in order to identify the impact of police patrol initiative because a small number of places are driving the overall result. Moreover, care must be taken with how small the units of analysis are because as the units of analysis become smaller and smaller, criminal events become rarer and, potentially, identifying statistically significant change becomes more difficult.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Wichai Pawgasame and Komwut Wipusitwarakun

The border control becomes challenging when a protected region is large and there is a limited number of border patrols. This research paper proposes a novel…

Abstract

Purpose

The border control becomes challenging when a protected region is large and there is a limited number of border patrols. This research paper proposes a novel heuristic-based patrol path planning scheme in order to efficiently patrol with resource scarcity.

Design/methodology/approach

The trespasser influencing score, which is determined from the environmental characteristics and trespassing statistic of the region, is used as a heuristic for measuring a chance of approaching a trespasser. The patrol plan is occasionally updated with a new trespassing statistic during a border operation. The performance of the proposed patrol path planning scheme was evaluated and compared with other patrol path planning schemes by the empirical experiment under different scenarios.

Findings

The result from the experiment indicates that the proposed patrol planning outperforms other patrol path planning schemes in terms of the trespasser detection rate, when more environment-aware trespassers are in the region.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment was conducted through simulated agents in simulated environment, which were assumed to mimic real behavior and environment.

Originality/value

This research paper contributes a heuristic-based patrol path planning scheme that applies the environmental characteristics and dynamic statistic of the region, as well as a border surveillance problem model that would be useful for mobile sensor planning in a border surveillance application.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Blair J. Berkley and John R. Thayer

Entertainment is now the largest trend in retailing and urban redevelopment, and is credited with revitalizing many downtowns. Consequently, many other cities are…

Downloads
3022

Abstract

Entertainment is now the largest trend in retailing and urban redevelopment, and is credited with revitalizing many downtowns. Consequently, many other cities are attempting to replicate this success by developing pedestrian‐oriented entertainment districts consisting of movie theaters, nightclubs, bars, restaurants, and retail shopping. This paper summarizes the results of 30 police‐manager interviews and a nationwide survey used to identify entertainment‐district features that create problems and demands for police resources, and effective strategies and tactics for policing entertainment districts. The most effective policing is done at the district planning and design stage by engineering out features that cause problems. Good entertainment‐district policing then requires continuous training and education of business managers and private security personnel. Finally, night‐time district patrol requires a multi‐prong effort to pre‐empt problems and assure public safety.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Chun-Yin Cheung, H.T. Yoon and Andy HF Chow

This paper aims to present an application of location optimization techniques for deploying police facilities subject to budgetary and feasibility constraints. The…

Downloads
294

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an application of location optimization techniques for deploying police facilities subject to budgetary and feasibility constraints. The objectives considered included minimizing the distances and maximizing the coverage of police stations over potential crime spots.

Design/methodology/approach

The optimization consists of two stages. In Stage 1, a minimum distance model is used to determine the locations of police stations. Given the locations of police stations, Stage 2 uses a maximum coverage model to determine the police patrol area. The framework is applied to a case in the Greater London Area. The authors also evaluate the resilience of the optimal solutions with the terrorist attack scenario on 7 July 2005 in Central London.

Findings

With the optimization models, it is shown that the average distance between police stations and potential crime spots is reduced by 19 per cent. The coverage percentage of potential crime spots is also increased from the existing 91.99 per cent to a nearly perfect 99.82 per cent. Nevertheless, the results reveal that the optimal police resources deployment is less resilient with respect to the existing one. The findings herein suggest the importance of incorporating measures of resilience into the optimization framework and the authors leave this topic for further investigation.

Originality/value

The study highlights the value of location optimization to police force deployment in terms of finding the optimal locations of police force with respect to the spatial distribution of crimes. In particular, the authors investigate its implication on urban resilience, which is among the first study of this kind.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Kenneth J. Novak, Jennifer L. Hartman, Alexander M. Holsinger and Michael G. Turner

This paper adds to a growing body of research which explores the relationship between aggressive police strategies and serious crime. For one month, police enforced…

Downloads
2108

Abstract

This paper adds to a growing body of research which explores the relationship between aggressive police strategies and serious crime. For one month, police enforced disorder crime in a small section of one community. An interrupted time series analysis was utilized to evaluate the effects of this intervention on robbery and aggravated burglary in a target area and a control area. The strategy was found to be unrelated to levels of aggravated burglary and robbery in the target area. There was no spatial displacement of crime. Explanations for the findings are offered.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Rachel Swann, Alison Green, Nick Johns and Luke Sloan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the work of the Street Pastors, a Christian organisation offering support to people in the night time economy (NTE), through the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the work of the Street Pastors, a Christian organisation offering support to people in the night time economy (NTE), through the perceptions of students. The role played by this organisation is becoming more important as a shift from policing “by”, “through” and “beyond” to policing from “below” occurs (Jones and Lister, 2015). While the Street Pastors would not regard themselves as “police agents” there is undoubtedly a close connection albeit with geographical variation (Johns et al., 2009b). An evaluation of their activities and of public attitudes particularly around issues of trust is therefore important.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey using the university’s student “portal” invited students to participate. A small incentive was offered, in the form of a prize draw for £50 worth of shopping vouchers. The survey took place during the first part of the Spring term during 2012 (January and February). The study analyses the 361 responses in reference to their knowledge of the Street Pastors, whether they had any “interactions” with them and whether they were regular users of the NTE.

Findings

Overwhelmingly respondents were either positive or completely ambivalent about the Street Pastors. The responses to the attitude statements indicated that the Street Pastors are seen as “independent” of police officers. The links between Street Pastors and crime reduction are not clear, however, respondents agreed that the Street Pastors did contribute to safety in the city.

Research limitations/implications

There are more than 20,000 students in the city and the findings can therefore be seen as tentative and indicative rather than generalisable to the entire student population. With the increasing emphasis on community involvement in “policing”, the findings from the research does suggest that the street pastor’s voluntary patrols are beneficial in terms of enhancing perceptions of safety.

Practical implications

Street Pastors do have an important role in the policing of the NTE, from handing out water and flip flops to comforting those who are in distress. Within the broader “police family” their role can then make a positive contribution to the practical challenges associated with a volatile environment.

Social implications

The NTE is associated with considerable public health and safety issues and the contribution of a voluntary group to easing some of these problems is significant. Whilst their presence is not entirely unproblematic, particularly in raising questions of accountability, their activities could be argued to contribute to the well-being of revellers.

Originality/value

Research on policing “below” the level of the state is street pastors is an under-explored area. Street pastors have attracted very little attention despite their being a large organisation that are a feature of NTEs throughout the UK.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Jack R. Greene, Thomas M. Seamon and Paul R. Levy

Gives historical background to the new interest in “showcasing” inner cities of the USA. Focuses on Philadelphia as an example of government‐business alliance. Notes the…

Downloads
845

Abstract

Gives historical background to the new interest in “showcasing” inner cities of the USA. Focuses on Philadelphia as an example of government‐business alliance. Notes the former negative attitudes of public and private police toward each other and contrasts this with the growing understanding of their complementary roles.

Details

American Journal of Police, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0735-8547

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000