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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2011

Calum G. Turvey, Guangwen He, Rong Kong, Jiujie Ma and Patrick Meagher

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the farm and rural credit system in China. To do this the authors use the so‐called “7 Cs” of credit (these include…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the farm and rural credit system in China. To do this the authors use the so‐called “7 Cs” of credit (these include: Credit, Character, Capacity, Capital, Condition, Capability, and Collateral) and for each “C” provide some aspect of importance related to agricultural finance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is largely based on a survey of 897 farm households in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, and extensive interviews of agricultural lenders conducted in the summer and fall of 2009. These data are used in simple form and in regression form to explain a variety of credit issues in China.

Findings

A number of key factors related to credit delivery and demand are found. First, using the 7 Cs as a guide proved to be very fruitful for disentangling the many institutional and cultural facets affecting rural credit in China. Under “Character” the authors discuss the cultural characteristics of the Chinese farmer in terms of informal lending and borrowing; under “Capacity” the authors discuss the challenges of delivering credit to farms with limited resources; under “Condition” the authors discuss group guarantees and credit worthy villages, credit rationing and insurance and incomplete markets; under “Capability” the authors discuss income inequality and challenges in economies of scale and size; and for “Collateral” the authors discuss the implications of lack of collateral and limitations on farm economic growth due to the collectivization of land and the potential for agricultural lending from the transferability and mortgagability of land or forestry use rights.

Research limitations/implications

Although the assessment provides a great deal of breadth and depth across many credit‐related issues in China, it is not an exhaustive study. Agricultural and rural credit in China is very complex and in many instance under developed. The survey results from Shaanxi and Gansu tell a story that is consistently told throughout China, but the authors would caution against using the data to characterize farm credit across China as a whole.

Social implications

Large swaths of China have either no or very rudimentary credit services. Even in areas where credit is in supply there are issues of poverty that could be aided with credit access and delivery. In order to improve livelihoods through credit institutions, it is important to understand rural credit in many dimensions. This paper takes a step in that direction.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of rural credit in China, it is largely understudied and not well understood. This paper makes progress in providing such an understanding. Our reasoning for using our unique approach is that by understanding the 7 Cs of credit one comes to understand the elemental characteristics of the credit decision from the lender's point of view but in a way that takes into account conditions at the farm level. The 7 Cs provide an objective approach to credit assessment that balances both the supply of and demand for credit.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Rong Kong, Calum G. Turvey, Guangwen He, Jiujie Ma and Patrick Meagher

China frequently suffers from weather‐related natural disasters and weather risk is recognized as a source of wide‐spread systemic risk throughout large swaths of China…

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Abstract

Purpose

China frequently suffers from weather‐related natural disasters and weather risk is recognized as a source of wide‐spread systemic risk throughout large swaths of China. During these periods farmers' crops are at risk and for a largely poor population few can afford the turmoil to livelihoods that goes along with drought. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the willingness of Shaanxi and Gansu farmers to purchase weather insurance.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on surveyed results of 890 farm households in Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. The survey was designed specifically to extract willingness to pay for weather insurance. Factor affecting willingness to pay are explained using linear regression.

Findings

The authors find strong evidence that the demand for drought insurance is downward sloping and also believe from the analysis that the demand is fairly elastic. This suggests that price matters and the results suggest that in order for wide spread adoption of weather insurance farmers will require a substantial premium, perhaps in the order of 80 per cent, as is being applied to current crop insurance initiatives. The authors find, as expected, that crop producers would be willing to pay more for insurance than livestock producers, but also find, as one would expect, that the key indicator is risk. Using a Pert distribution, the authors constructed from information gathered from farmers the expected values and standard deviations of gross revenues and yields of the most prominent crop and constructed the coefficient of variation. It was found in both cases that the higher the CV the greater the willingness to pay.

Originality/value

The authors believe that this is the first willingness‐to‐pay study of weather insurance uptake in China. The authors used a unique “experimental” design and investigation technique to determine weather insurance demand.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

James B. Shein, Rebecca Frazzano and Evan Meagher

The case discusses the operational, strategic, and financial turnaround at Solo Cup, a manufacturer of disposable dining wares. Solo Cup’s troubles were compounded by the…

Abstract

The case discusses the operational, strategic, and financial turnaround at Solo Cup, a manufacturer of disposable dining wares. Solo Cup’s troubles were compounded by the acquisition of a larger rival, Sweetheart Company, which had its own problems and presented issues of merger integration that management could not solve. David Garfield, a managing director at turnaround consulting firm Alix Partners, must first recognize Solo Cup’s core competencies in order to determine the appropriate change in strategic course, strip out the assets that no longer support the operations necessary for that strategy, and monetize them in order to rationalize its balance sheet. This case teaches that a three-pronged approach will invariably produce greater results than any one-dimensional turnaround.

Students will learn turnaround techniques necessary to restructure a company operationally, strategically, and financially, and will learn how Alix Partners' relentless focus on “letting data rule” allowed the firm to revive a faltering company.

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Elizabeth Johnston Ambrose

This chapter argues that Eminem and Rihanna's 2009 “Love the Way You Lie” is a cultural artifact representing contemporary attitudes about domestic violence; thus, this…

Abstract

This chapter argues that Eminem and Rihanna's 2009 “Love the Way You Lie” is a cultural artifact representing contemporary attitudes about domestic violence; thus, this chapter models a trauma-informed methodology for guiding students through analysis and discussion of these narratively violent texts. In so doing, instructors can help students recognize the discursive strategies through which stories about gender violence are constructed and examine what is at stake in telling and circulating these stories. The chapter begins by defining trauma-informed pedagogy and critical pedagogy, arguing that when used together in the classroom, they can promote empathy, self-advocacy, resistance, and resilience. The chapter then contextualizes the song and music video within the context of the #MeToo movement, encouraging instructors to validate the perception of students who experience allyship with Rihanna as a survivor. The chapter moves on to provide instructors with a model for guiding students both through semiotic analysis and close reading of the song's and video's narrative and visual discourses. This model pays attention to the lyric's reliance on the point of view of the unreliable narrator and pronoun shifts to interpellate listeners into the abuser's world view while also truncating the victim's testimony; this model also examines the content of the lyrics to identify gender violence mythologies constructed within both the abuser's and victim's narratives. Equipped with these insights, instructors can help students deconstruct the visual discourses of the video, which repeat the gender violence mythologies of the song lyrics.

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2022

Marek Jeziński

The death of John F. Kennedy (JFK) was one of the most remarkable facts of the second half of the twentieth century. Not surprisingly, it was reflected numerous times in…

Abstract

The death of John F. Kennedy (JFK) was one of the most remarkable facts of the second half of the twentieth century. Not surprisingly, it was reflected numerous times in popular culture, including in popular music. In this chapter, I discuss songs published in the 1963–1968 period in which the image of JFK was represented as an idea, a cultural motif or a political myth created, transformed and maintained by artistic means. In song lyrics, a real person (who was a genuinely influential politician) was portrayed as a person who acquired a certain mythical status, stemming from JFK's charismatic features and augmented by his tragic death. Thus, separate from the real political career as the president, JFK serves as a kind of mythological structure used by several artists to generate meanings and mirror cultural iconography present in American culture.

Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Kenneth C. Wenzer

Henry George came to maturity at a time when the simplicity and democratic values that had governed the United States were under assault. Slow and placid rhythms of life…

Abstract

Henry George came to maturity at a time when the simplicity and democratic values that had governed the United States were under assault. Slow and placid rhythms of life prevailed, but their future would be brief. Factories were flinging mass-produced goods into an economy accustomed to expecting a hat or a pair of shoes to come to an individual consumer from a local craftsman, or perhaps from a merchant drawing craft products from small shops at some distance. Canals and then rail tracks had begun slicing into the backcountry. Cities were taking on a character Americans might more quickly have expected of ancient times: overcrowded housing, uncollected sewage, the ravages of cholera, and the spread of street crime.

Details

Henry George, the Transatlantic Irish, and their Times
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-658-4

Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2015

Howard Lune

How do transnational social movements organize? Specifically, this paper asks how an organized community can lead a nationalist movement from outside the nation. Applying…

Abstract

How do transnational social movements organize? Specifically, this paper asks how an organized community can lead a nationalist movement from outside the nation. Applying the analytic perspective of Strategic Action Fields, this study identifies multiple attributes of transnational organizing through which expatriate communities may go beyond extra-national supporting roles to actually create and direct a national campaign. Reexamining the rise and fall of the Fenian Brotherhood in the mid-nineteenth century, which attempted to organize a transnational revolutionary movement for Ireland’s independence from Great Britain, reveals the strengths and limitations of nationalist organizing through the construction of a Transnational Strategic Action Field (TSAF). Deterritorialized organizing allows challenger organizations to propagate an activist agenda and to dominate the nationalist discourse among co-nationals while raising new challenges concerning coordination, control, and relative position among multiple centers of action across national borders. Within the challenger field, “incumbent challengers” vie for dominance in agenda setting with other “challenger” challengers.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-359-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Abstract

Details

SDG3 – Good Health and Wellbeing: Re-Calibrating the SDG Agenda: Concise Guides to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-709-7

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Kathryn Gasparro

In the years following the 2009 recession, local governments in the US have struggled to adequately maintain and manage infrastructure projects. As a result, community…

Abstract

In the years following the 2009 recession, local governments in the US have struggled to adequately maintain and manage infrastructure projects. As a result, community organizations are using new tactics to increase social and financial support for specific projects in the hopes of capturing local government attention and motivating infrastructure project delivery. This chapter explores how one community organization initiated a consensus movement by using civic crowdfunding to mobilize resources for a specific infrastructure project. Based on a matched pairs case study with two protected bike lane (PBL) projects in Denver, CO, USA (one that used consensus movement tactics and one that did not), this analysis focuses on the emergence of a consensus movement and its implications for project stakeholders. As a consensus movement supporting infrastructure, I argue that the project-based nature is important in defining movement success. Additionally, I argue that the relationship between the social movement organization and the state is more important than a typical consensus movement because infrastructure delivery requires a high level of state coordination and resources. The implications of using a consensus movement to support a specific infrastructure project point to shifting roles between social movement organization and the state.

Details

Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-895-2

Keywords

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