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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Liran Christine Shan, Áine Regan, Frank J. Monahan, Chenguang Li, Fiona Lalor, Celine Murrin, Patrick G. Wall and Áine McConnon

In response to increasing public health concerns about processed meat consumption, many innovations in meat technology focus on health-oriented product reformulations…

Abstract

Purpose

In response to increasing public health concerns about processed meat consumption, many innovations in meat technology focus on health-oriented product reformulations. Processed meat is not a homogeneous food category. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer perception of the “healthier” reformulation of different processed meat products using two approaches: salt and fat reduction; and enrichment with healthy ingredients.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven focus group interviews were carried out with 40 Irish regular meat consumers (30 female, ten male) who were solely or jointly responsible for food shopping. Two rounds of card sorting procedures were employed to reveal perceptions on reformulation of 20 different processed meat products. Thematic analysis was used for analysing transcripts.

Findings

Health and flavour concerns and product popularity were the main factors influencing participants’ perceptions. Some participants were unsure or had misconceptions about the healthiness of certain meat products. Participants suggested reducing salt and fat content in processed meat products they perceived as the least healthy ones (theme 1) and improving the healthiness of products which were favoured by children (theme 2) and those meat products which people consumed regularly as a source of protein (theme 3). Participants were not in favour of any reformulation of speciality-type products (theme 4).

Originality/value

Consumer insights identified in this study can inform future approaches to making processed meats healthier.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Liran Christine Shan, Aine Regan, Frank J Monahan, Chenguang Li, Celine Murrin, Fiona Lalor, Patrick G. Wall and Aine McConnon

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes towards and interest in enriching processed meat with healthy ingredients (“functional processed meat”).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes towards and interest in enriching processed meat with healthy ingredients (“functional processed meat”).

Design/methodology/approach

Seven focus groups across age and gender were conducted. Discussions were analysed using an inductive thematic approach.

Findings

Strategies that participants felt as important for improving the healthiness of processed meat mainly included the use of better quality meat and less salt, fat, preservatives and other additives. “Functional processed meat” was a new concept for participants. Four themes were constructed to reflect participants’ attitudes towards functional processed meat: opposing views on processed meat as a carrier of healthy ingredients; belief in the health benefits of functional processed meat; perceived value of functional processed meat for different consumer groups; and trust and perceived risk surrounding the functional food concept. A large proportion of the participants were unconvinced about the concept of functional processed meat; however many of the participants expressed an openness to purchase this food product if taste and price remained uncompromised.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size of the current study is small. Complementary quantitative research with a more representative sample should be implemented. Adopting a quantitative approach, the findings from this study should be explored further to investigate their application in a representative sample of the population.

Originality/value

This study represents a first exploratory investigation of consumer views on functional processed meat. It can inform further consumer and market research in relation to the development of “healthier” processed meat.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Fiona Lalor, Jean Kennedy and Patrick G. Wall

This study aims to investigate whether nutrition knowledge impacts on the credibility and purchase behaviour of foodstuffs that make health claims.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether nutrition knowledge impacts on the credibility and purchase behaviour of foodstuffs that make health claims.

Design/methodology/approach

The UCD Food and Health Survey is a monthly online survey, which began in November 2008. In March 2009, participants were asked a series of questions pertaining to nutrition and health claims and 665 completed questionnaires were included for analysis. Participants' level of nutrition knowledge was measured using a combined and modified version of Parmenter and Wardle's General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (1999) and that of Hawkes and Nowak (1998). Perceived credibility was gauged using a semantic differential scale and the questionnaire was designed to also assess participants' purchasing behaviour of functional foods.

Findings

Females scored significantly higher than males for nutrition knowledge (p=0.004) but there was no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between age groups. “Reduces feelings of hunger” was deemed the most credible claim. With the exception of “This yogurt drink will strengthen your bones and teeth”, there was no difference in credibility between high and low nutrition knowledge groups. Health claims were more credible to participants when found on yogurt and breakfast cereal when compared with pasta and chocolate. Products claiming to reduce cholesterol were purchased more in the previous month than any of the other products and the same product was purchased statistically more often by those participants in the older age group.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study was that the panel were younger and more formally educated than the general public. They were also more likely to be female. The gender bias may be because the survey was food and health‐based and therefore may not have appealed to men as a more generally themed survey might have done. The results of this study should be considered therefore with this limitation in mind.

Practical implications

People do not consider products with health claims to be a uniform category of foodstuffs and participants' level of nutrition knowledge does not have a significant impact on their behaviour towards products carrying health claims.

Originality/value

Knowledge of nutrition does not impact on people's reactions to products with health claims and different foods demonstrate different levels of credibility as carriers for health claims.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2011

Fiona Lalor and Patrick G. Wall

The purpose of this paper is to review and compare the scientific and regulatory environments for nutrition and health claims on foodstuffs in the USA, Japan and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review and compare the scientific and regulatory environments for nutrition and health claims on foodstuffs in the USA, Japan and the European Union.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature and the relevant legislation in the three different countries is conducted. Regulations are reviewed and scientific evidence requirements are outlined in each country.

Findings

Full regulatory approval for claims across all three countries requires the support of robust scientific evidence. To obtain this, companies must submit comprehensive dossiers and detailed applications to the regulators with full descriptions of the tests and studies completed during product development. However in the USA and Japan, an alternative process exists. A health claim that is suggested but not supported by scientific evidence is known as a qualified health claim and is permitted in the USA and Japan, but not in the EU.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates the difference in regulatory requirements in different countries which leads to different claims being permitted in different countries. It also leads to different levels of scientific support for similar claims which causes consumer confusion and develops an uneven playing pitch for the industry. Given that the industry operates in a global market place, it is imperative that a consensus is reached as to the level of scientific evidence required to approve a health claim. In that way, consumers can be safeguarded from being misled, consumer confusion will not be a concern and products can be globally distributed in line with the increasing liberalisation of trade.

Originality/value

This paper is of value to regulators and the food industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Donal K. Casey, James S. Lawless and Patrick G. Wall

This paper aims to provide a focused overview of two dioxin incidents, with particular emphasis on regulatory successes and failures and their respective causes. The paper…

1929

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a focused overview of two dioxin incidents, with particular emphasis on regulatory successes and failures and their respective causes. The paper seeks to adopt a comparative approach to the case studies, with considerable use made of primary sources such as parliamentary debate, government reports and EC legislation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a review of the strengths and weaknesses in the management of the Belgian and Irish dioxin contanimation incidents.

Findings

It is concluded that open, transparent and decisive risk management, based on robust risk assessment, is paramount in ensuring confidence in both the food supply chain and, in the feed and food safety regulatory process. It is also concluded that the 2008 Irish dioxin incident tested the reforms prompted by previous food scares.

Practical implications

It is important that the lessons from these two incidents are learnt if they are not to be repeated in other jurisdictions.

Originality/value

This is the first academic study of the 2008 Irish dioxin incident, one of the most significant recent food scares in the European Communities. The incident emphasises the vital role of open, transparent and decisive decision making in managing risk. In addition, through a comparative analysis of the Belgian and Irish incidents, the utility of the reforms prompted by previous food scares is demonstrated. In particular, the study highlights the important role played by the European Food Safety Authority in one of its first major tests as a risk assessor and risk communicator.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Jean Kennedy, Sarah Gibney, Aisling Nolan, Stephen O'Brien, M. Ann S. McMahon, David McDowell, Seamus Fanning and Patrick G. Wall

The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene's (IFH) approach to infectious disease prevention is “targeted hygiene”, which means identifying the routes of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene's (IFH) approach to infectious disease prevention is “targeted hygiene”, which means identifying the routes of transmission of infection in the home and community, and targeting hygiene measures at “critical points” (CPs) to break the chain of transmission. This paper aims to identify and prioritise CPs in the home kitchen environment during food preparation in order to inform food safety campaigns.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved: filming participants (n=60) while they prepared a meal according to a specified recipe (30 beef/salad burgers and 30 chicken salads); swabbing key potential contamination sites in the participant's kitchen for microbiological testing; sampling the meat and salad components of the cooked meal for microbiological testing; visual inspection and temperature check of the meat after cooking; and administering a survey of knowledge, attitudes and demographic factors.

Findings

This study has identified the critical points (CPs) during domestic food preparation as: CP1: correct cooking practices; CP2: prevention of cross‐contamination; and CP3: correct food storage practices. Statistically significant links were found between food safety knowledge and behaviour as well as between food safety attitudes and demographic factors.

Originality/value

This is the first study to link all aspects of observed consumer food safety practices in the home to food safety knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, psychosocial and demographic factors to identify these CPs.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

511

Abstract

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Ivan Lee, Patrick Roppel, Mark Lawton and Prudence Ferreira

The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology for evaluating the hygrothermal performance of framed wall assemblies based on design limits. This methodology allows…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a methodology for evaluating the hygrothermal performance of framed wall assemblies based on design limits. This methodology allows designers to evaluate wall assemblies based on their absolute performance rather than relative performance which is typically done for most hygrothermal analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach in developing this methodology was to evaluate wall assemblies against three typical design loads (e.g. air leakage, construction moisture, rain penetration) and determine limits in minimum insulation ratio, maximum indoor humidity and maximum rain penetration rates. This analysis was performed at both the field area of the wall and at framing junctions such as window sills.

Findings

The findings in this paper shows example design limits for various wall assemblies in heating-dominated climates in North America. Design limits for wall assemblies with moisture membranes of different vapour permeance are provided for both the field area of the wall and at window sills. Discussions about the importance of 2D hygrothermal simulation and performance of vapour permeable sub-sill membranes are also provided.

Originality/value

This framework of hygrothermal analysis will enable designers to make better decisions when designing framed wall assemblies suitable to the local climate and interior specifications for their projects. It will also enable the development of a design tool that will allow designers to visually see the implications of certain design decisions and filter out designs that do not meet their design conditions.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

S. Askari and M.H. Shojaeefard

Fanwing airfoil is a new lift‐generating section invented in 1997 by Patrick Peebles. The early shape of the airfoil has not changed until now. So far, no research has…

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Abstract

Purpose

Fanwing airfoil is a new lift‐generating section invented in 1997 by Patrick Peebles. The early shape of the airfoil has not changed until now. So far, no research has been done to change or modify the airfoil shape in order to improve its aerodynamic performance. In this paper, possibility of changing the airfoil shape to improve its aerodynamic performance is studied. For this purpose, six different geometric shapes of the airfoil are investigated numerically to determine the best airfoil on the basis of lift and drag coefficients. Flow over the airfoil is solved by developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The purpose of this paper is to find a more efficient configuration for the Fanwing airfoil with lower power consumption and better performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Flow over the airfoil is investigated by CFD. At the airfoil solid walls, the no slip condition is applied. Re‐Normalization Group kε model is used for turbulence modeling. The pressure‐velocity coupling is calculated by the SIMPLEC algorithm. Second‐order upwind discretization is considered for the convection terms. Finite volume method with rectangular computational cells is used for the entire solution domain.

Findings

It is observed that the airfoil with curved bottom wall and a slot in upper wall has the maximum lift coefficient. Also, the airfoil with curved bottom wall and no slot has the minimum drag or maximum thrust (negative drag) coefficient. Therefore, instead of increasing the airfoil lift or decreasing its drag by enhancing driving motor speed with larger energy consumption, this can be done only by changing the airfoil shape. It is perceived that the airfoil lift coefficient can be augmented at least 10 percent and its drag can be reduced more than 2.8 percent only by changing its shape and no excessive power consumption. Since the airfoil shape is modified, these advantages are permanent and its benefits are cumulative through time. Eccentric vortex inside the cross flow fan that is reported earlier in the research paper is found in this airfoil, too. In addition, velocity vectors, contours of static pressure and distribution of the static pressure over the airfoils surfaces are illustrated for better understanding of the flow details.

Research limitations/implications

Since the airfoil shape is very complicated for numerical study, two‐dimensional simulation has been carried out. Also, flow over the airfoil is considered steady‐state and incompressible.

Practical implications

In this paper, some modifications for the Fanwing airfoil are suggested in order to improve its aerodynamic performance. This is the first research for changing the configuration of the Fanwing airfoil and can be very helpful for the researchers involved in this topic as well as aerospace industries.

Originality/value

This paper is valuable for researchers in the new and up to date concept of the Fanwing airfoil. This work is original.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 81 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Patrick Burke and Daniel L. Junk

In light of the current investigations related to possible conflicts of interest involving Wall Street stock analysts, no general counsel at a securities firm needs to be…

Abstract

In light of the current investigations related to possible conflicts of interest involving Wall Street stock analysts, no general counsel at a securities firm needs to be reminded of e‐mail’s growing importance in litigation and regulatory investigations. Merrill Lynch paid a $100 million settlement to the State of New York based, in significant part, on damaging evidence culled from the e‐mail of its analysts, including its renowned Internet stock analyst Henry Blodget. New York State Attorney General Eliot Spitzer issued additional subpoenas to most of the major Wall Street firms, and parallel investigations are underway by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Keywords

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