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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Patrick Besson and Christian Mahieu

Research has recognized the importance of middle management in the strategy process. Nonetheless, two questions raised by the involvement of middle management remain…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has recognized the importance of middle management in the strategy process. Nonetheless, two questions raised by the involvement of middle management remain largely unexplored; they are central to this study. The first question concerns the conditions of this involvement. Before the 1970s, middle managers were subjected to operational processes. During the 1980s and 1990s they often embodied bureaucratic unwieldiness. How, then, has an actor in an organization migrated from a position excluded from the strategy process to a key position in this process? The second question concerns the functioning of the strategy process itself: what are the conditions of strategic creativity in this type of expanded process? This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken is that of a longitudinal case study.

Findings

On the basis of a seven‐year longitudinal case study of strategy practices in a firm facing radical change, this article pinpoints two research results. The first result shows that becoming a strategist is not the simple result of training in strategy techniques. Involvement in the strategy process goes beyond the cognitive dimension; it entails the construction of new systems of roles and identities, along with development of appropriate dialogue modes. The second result is more interesting, and was largely unpredicted. The observations indicate that to achieve the necessary strategic creativity, the strategizing process itself must be transformed. If strategy is envisioned as an emerging social reality made up of strong situations and interactions between strategists, in a dynamic context structured by role systems, spatial and temporal conditions and discourse, developing a new strategy necessitates transformation of its social fabric.

Practical implications

Understanding the microprocesses at play in the inclusion of middle managers in the strategy process is important to help companies better conceive and apply their policy of including middle managers in the strategy process. This entails the definition of activity content and new skills required, along with career and loyalty building, and of the forms of organization in which middle managers evolve and develop. In this sense, the approach we proposed can be practical for companies and their stakeholders facing these challenges.

Originality/value

The longitudinal and very detailed case study over a long period of middle managers doing strategy during a radical change situation.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Madeleine Besson, Patricia Gurviez and Julia Carins

When fighting the burden of overweight and obesity, diet remains a powerful preventive factor. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate more efficient interventions on…

Abstract

Purpose

When fighting the burden of overweight and obesity, diet remains a powerful preventive factor. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate more efficient interventions on diet change by synthesising knowledge of previous weight loss programmes based on the use of digital devices.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses approach, a systematic literature review through five databases was undertaken focussed on the assessment of studies oriented towards diet change that incorporated digital devices including computers, tablets, mobile phones, portable and non-portable tracking devices. In total, 15 empirical studies (2004–2018) were identified and examined for efficacy and presence of theory and behaviour change techniques.

Findings

Digital devices supporting weight loss programmes have evolved rapidly over the past 15 years, from reminders using the short message system to self-quantification through mobile applications. Nine studies show a significant difference between conditions, in favour or one (or more) intervention arm. The remaining studies failed to find significance between conditions but were using a comparison with an active intervention, potentially indicating equivalent efficacy. A low level of theory use and use of behavioural techniques was evident.

Research limitations/implications

The literature review is limited to studies that have scientifically evaluated the (potential) weight loss associated with the weight loss intervention. This review could be put into perspective with other complementary research, in particular, qualitative research aimed at exploring participants’ motivations to use (or not) digital devices to lose weight.

Social implications

Given their low cost and the size of the overweight population, it appears that public health policies could integrate digital devices more strongly in their efforts to combat obesity. Social marketing can add its expertise to medical-based programmes which in return bring their need for more quantitative evaluation of the efficacy of the interventions.

Originality/value

Few previous reviews have examined the extent of the efficiency in digital diet change programmes. The review shows that, in general, digital interventions can support weight loss for adults; however, more studies are required to provide a strong evidence base for efficacy. Given their low cost and the size of the overweight population, public health policies could integrate these devices more strongly in their efforts to combat obesity. A theory-driven social marketing perspective could enhance development ensuring interventions are effective and valued by users.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2020

Wided Batat

So far, most studies in cultural tourism have looked at visitors in relation to the experience itself. This study aims to bring a broader view on what constitutes the…

Abstract

Purpose

So far, most studies in cultural tourism have looked at visitors in relation to the experience itself. This study aims to bring a broader view on what constitutes the daily environment of younger visitors and how museums could use this knowledge to develop a service delivery that is more adapted to their needs without sacrificing the museums’ integrity and authenticity. As such, this research brings a unique and deeper analysis of young visitor behavior, in relation to arts and cultural practices that could be expanded to other areas of tourism experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study examines the main art and cultural tourism activities among adolescents. Using 32 in-depth interviews with adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, this research takes a closer look at their experience and perceptions of art museums and exhibitions.

Findings

The findings show that adolescents’ perception of arts and exhibitions do not correspond to museum art criteria held by cultural tourism professionals. Based on the key theoretical themes emerging from the empirical investigation, a conceptual framework of adolescents’ attitudes toward arts and exhibitions is now presented to provide insights into the dimensions of adolescents’ art consumption in today’s western consumer society. Figure 1 provides a graphic model that visualizes adolescents’ art consumption experiences and summarizes the main findings and marketing implications in the arts field.

Originality/value

Based on these findings, new ways of engaging with adolescents in the field of arts are suggested to create new business opportunities for the museum. The findings lean toward the necessity to develop a more youth-centric approach, which differentiates between how adults define art and what adolescents believe art is supposed to be. Thus, the findings demonstrate that adolescents’ art consumption experiences are deeply anchored within the context of their social environment and the value judgments of their peers. The adolescent-centric logic within the arts experiential context is taken into account to underline the gap existing in many current arts marketing strategies that are targeting young visitors – and especially adolescents.

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Raphaël Pieroni and Patrick James Naef

The purpose of this paper is to analyse urban transformation as a tourism resource. Tourism is undeniably a powerful motor for urban transformation but in return, urban…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse urban transformation as a tourism resource. Tourism is undeniably a powerful motor for urban transformation but in return, urban transformation can represent a resource for actors related to tourism. More precisely this paper focuses on one major transformation of modern cities: gentrification.

Design/methodology/approach

The central hypothesis of this paper is that gentrification accompanies tourism, but that gentrification itself may also become an object of the tourist gaze. The paper focuses on local guides and small touristic entrepreneurs in order to identify the tensions that might arise. The presentation of two guided tours – “Subculture Brixton Nightlife Tour” and “Where Brooklyn At?” – will enable us to explore how the gentrification of Brixton (London) and Brooklyn (New York) may be used as a tourism resource for local private entrepreneurs.

Findings

Results presented here are based on ethnographic methods such as observation as well as content analysis and semi-directive interviews. Mobilising the historical concept of “slumming”, this paper proposes an extended conceptual framework, “neo-slumming”, to analyse evolving tourism practices in modern cities, practices that are considered here as tourism’s new frontiers.

Originality/value

However, as tourism transforms cities, the process itself is now of interest to tourists and thus becomes a resource for sector businesses (Naef, 2018). Yet studies about the touristification of urban transformation are still quite rare. This analysis aims to fill this gap by looking at the way a process, such as some spectacular, rapid or radical transformation of the urban fabric, can become a touristic resource associated with specific narratives and representations. In this context, the tourist gaze (Urry, 2002) is directed on a resource characterised by its ongoing change.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2009

George Steinmetz

Anthropologists have long discussed the ways in which their discipline has been entangled, consciously and unconsciously, with the colonized populations they study. A…

Abstract

Anthropologists have long discussed the ways in which their discipline has been entangled, consciously and unconsciously, with the colonized populations they study. A foundational text in this regard was Michel Leiris' Phantom Africa (L'Afrique fantôme; Leiris, 1934), which described an African ethnographic expedition led by Marcel Griaule as a form of colonial plunder. Leiris criticized anthropologists' focus on the most isolated, rural, and traditional cultures, which could more easily be described as untouched by European influences, and he saw this as a way of disavowing the very existence of colonialism. In 1950, Leiris challenged Europeans' ability even to understand the colonized, writing that “ethnography is closely linked to the colonial fact, whether ethnographers like it or not. In general they work in the colonial or semi-colonial territories dependent on their country of origin, and even if they receive no direct support from the local representatives of their government, they are tolerated by them and more or less identified, by the people they study, as agents of the administration” (Leiris, 1950, p. 358). Similar ideas were discussed by French social scientists throughout the 1950s. Maxime Rodinson argued in the Année sociologique that “colonial conditions make even the most technically sophisticated sociological research singularly unsatisfying, from the standpoint of the desiderata of a scientific sociology” (Rodinson, 1955, p. 373). In a rejoinder to Leiris, Pierre Bourdieu acknowledged in Work and Workers in Algeria (Travail et travailleurs en Algérie) that “no behavior, attitude or ideology can be explained objectively without reference to the existential situation of the colonized as it is determined by the action of economic and social forces characteristic of the colonial system,” but he insisted that the “problems of science” needed to be separated from “the anxieties of conscience” (2003, pp. 13–14). Since Bourdieu had been involved in a study of an incredibly violent redistribution of Algerians by the French colonial army at the height of the anticolonial revolutionary war, he had good reason to be sensitive to Leiris' criticisms (Bourdieu & Sayad, 1964). Rodinson called Bourdieu's critique of Leiris' thesis “excellent’ (1965, p. 360), but Bourdieu later revised his views, noting that the works that had been available to him at the time of his research in Algeria tended “to justify the colonial order” (1990, p. 3). At the 1974 colloquium that gave rise to a book on the connections between anthropology and colonialism, Le mal de voir, Bourdieu called for an analysis of the relatively autonomous field of colonial science (1993a, p. 51). A parallel discussion took place in American anthropology somewhat later, during the 1960s. At the 1965 meetings of the American Anthropological Association, Marshall Sahlins criticized the “enlistment of scholars” in “cold war projects such as Camelot” as “servants of power in a gendarmerie relationship to the Third World.” This constituted a “sycophantic relation to the state unbefitting science or citizenship” (Sahlins, 1967, pp. 72, 76). Sahlins underscored the connections between “scientific functionalism and the natural interest of a leading world power in the status quo” and called attention to the language of contagion and disease in the documents of “Project Camelot,” adding that “waiting on call is the doctor, the US Army, fully prepared for its self-appointed ‘important mission in the positive and constructive aspects of nation-building’” a mission accompanied by “insurgency prophylaxis” (1967, pp. 77–78). At the end of the decade, Current Anthropology published a series of articles on anthropologists’ “social responsibilities,” and Human Organization published a symposium entitled “Decolonizing Applied Social Sciences.” British anthropologists followed suit, as evidenced by Talal Asad's 1973 collection Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter. During the 1980s, authors such as Gothsch (1983) began to address the question of German anthropology's involvement in colonialism. The most recent revival of this discussion was in response to the Pentagon's deployment of “embedded anthropologists” in Afghanistan and elsewhere in the Middle East. The “Network of Concerned Anthropologists” in the AAA asked “researchers to sign an online pledge not to work with the military,” arguing that they “are not all necessarily opposed to other forms of anthropological consulting for the state, or for the military, especially when such cooperation contributes to generally accepted humanitarian objectives … However, work that is covert, work that breaches relations of openness and trust with studied populations, and work that enables the occupation of one country by another violates professional standards” (“Embedded Anthropologists” 2007).3 Other disciplines, notably geography, economics, area studies, and political science, have also started to examine the involvement of their fields with empire.4

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-667-0

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Roy Parker

The purposes of this paper are threefold. First, to draw attention to an overlooked feature of children’s institutions in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries;…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are threefold. First, to draw attention to an overlooked feature of children’s institutions in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; namely, the widespread existence of boys’ brass bands. The second purpose is to explain why these were created and the third is to consider what implications membership of a band had for a boy’s subsequent life.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies upon archival and secondary sources.

Findings

The study traces the influences that led to the formation of so many boys’ bands. These included the background of brass bands in popular culture; the belief in the power of music as an agent of social reform; the money-spinning value of a band that gave public performances, and the opportunity for a band-boy to join a military band, thereby securing a foothold in the juvenile labour market. Over and above these findings is the fact that so many boys from deprived backgrounds could be taught to play a musical instrument to a competent standard.

Originality/value

As far as the author knows this is the only study of children’s homes’ bands. Its value lies in emphasising the fact that some of the most disadvantaged children are likely to have latent aptitudes and talents that can be discovered and developed. That is the message for today.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Mojtaba Talafidaryani

While the dynamic capabilities perspective is the most cited strategic theory in the information systems field of research, little effort has been made to review and…

Abstract

Purpose

While the dynamic capabilities perspective is the most cited strategic theory in the information systems field of research, little effort has been made to review and integrate the associate literature of this perspective in the field. Accordingly, this paper aims to systematically analyze the information systems literature on dynamic capabilities and provide a holistic understanding of the topical composition and trend of dynamic capabilities studies in information systems research.

Design/methodology/approach

Using latent Dirichlet allocation as the text analysis algorithm, the author conducted a topic modeling of the dynamic capabilities corpus in the information systems field of research to quantitatively review, summarize and classify the prior literature. The review covered 191 articles published on dynamic capabilities between 1998 and 2018 in pioneering information systems journals and conference proceedings.

Findings

In accordance with the topic modeling results, the topical composition of the dynamic capabilities corpus in information systems research dominantly includes seven themes titled T1. Information systems value, T2. Information systems change, T3. Digitalization, T4. Information systems agility, T5. Big data, T6. Information systems innovation and T7. Information systems alignment. Also, the overall and topical trend of dynamic capabilities studies in the information systems field of research were revealed. The trends indicated that the investigated domain and its prominent sub-domains have generally had positive productivity over the past years.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the domain by developing knowledge and improving literature on dynamic capabilities in information systems research, discovering the main topics of interest for information systems researchers to deploying the dynamic capabilities perspective in their studies, and prioritizing the future information systems research on dynamic capabilities based on the identified trends of topics.

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