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Western management development assistance (MDA) is being viewedwith scepticism in Poland – a scepticism fuelled by the rapidproliferation of MDA programmes which sometimes…
Western management development assistance (MDA) is being viewed with scepticism in Poland – a scepticism fuelled by the rapid proliferation of MDA programmes which sometimes compete with one another, frequently lack intellectual clarity, and often are short‐sighted. Discusses some of the barriers, challenges and opportunities associated with developing MDA programmes for post‐communist countries, presents a method for analysing variables in planning MDA programmes, and offers recommendations for those seeking to develop MDA programmes for post‐communist countries.
The context in which business is conducted worldwide is changing radically and is creating new types of global business enterprises, as well as management attitudes and practices. Consequently, a new style of management has emerged using “geopolitical” concepts as a theoretical foundation for its formulation.
Confidentiality in adoption has been the norm in this country since the 1930s. Traditionally, it has been perceived as beneficial to all sides of the adoption triangle…
Confidentiality in adoption has been the norm in this country since the 1930s. Traditionally, it has been perceived as beneficial to all sides of the adoption triangle: the adoptive parents, the adoptee, and the birth parents. Adoption agencies have supported the policy of confidentiality, and as a result the practice of concealment is almost universal in the United States. Alaska, Hawaii, and Kansas are the only states that allow adult adoptees access to their birth and adoption information.
Such reports as reach us go to prove that few, if any, attacks on library finances, such as are usually frequent in the municipal budgetting month of February, have been made this year; and that in spite of the fact that local rates have risen to an unprecedented extent throughout the Kingdom. This is our general impression, although librarians are somewhat reticent upon the matter. Last year we appealed for information as to reductions and retrenchments, but received little response; it appeared that the matter was not sufficiently interesting to librarians to make them express their views or state their experiences concerning it. Library finance is in spite of that a vital matter to us all, and the primary need in connexion therewith is accurate information. We therefore venture to repeat our request for news of the kind. It will be used with discretion.
This paper serves two purposes. It is an introduction to the theme of this issue of Society and Business Review which is devoted to “Phenomenological approaches to work…
This paper serves two purposes. It is an introduction to the theme of this issue of Society and Business Review which is devoted to “Phenomenological approaches to work, life and responsibility” as well as a presentation of the authors' various contributions. The authors of this paper share the sentiment that management sciences and practices may drive us in a way such that the sense of life has been altered and people, contrary to Kant's definition of moral behavior, are treated as means instead of ends. Moreover, starting from a widely‐spread malaise in modern organizations, they argue how phenomenology can provide us with an approach that can be helpful in assessing our present situation as well as getting a renewed perception concerning work and life.
The authors demonstrate the relevance of Husserl's phenomenology in criticizing management techniques for they direct us to objectives that are abstract, calculable, not one's own, and distant. They single out Husserl's concept of epoche for its high relevance with the theme of this issue and its different papers.
The findings suggest Husserl's concept of epoche (suspension) can be considered as the starting point of a process allowing us to firstly take distance with our usual taken for granted assumptions regarding life and work (bracketing) and then to re‐establish a genuine connection with Husserl's “world of life”. In addition, they establish how epoche can be perceived as a hub linking and introducing the work of other researchers comprising this special issue and their various inspiring authors (Koselleck, Levinas, Henry).
By using a phenomenological perspective, this paper brings an original contribution to critical‐management approaches. It can contribute to a social responsibility renewal in the business arena by providing reflexive practitioners with clues that can trigger new and more human practices. Overall, this paper provides one as a human being an opportunity to analyze the causes of one's malaise and identify better ways to live one's life.
Drawing upon notions of agency and the body, the purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of agency as a gendered concept through a consideration of women…
Drawing upon notions of agency and the body, the purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of agency as a gendered concept through a consideration of women sex‐workers. Specifically, the paper analyses how far women sex‐workers may be regarded as social agents. It then considers how far notions of agency, in relation to sex‐workers' embodied boundaries, may be gendered.
The paper reviews existing literature on sex‐workers and sex‐work practices, looking at indoor sex‐work (massage parlours), outdoor sex‐work (street sex‐work) and trafficking. It considers these types of sex‐work in relation to agency, gender and the body.
The paper acknowledges the diversity of women's experience within different aspects of the sex trade. The paper recognizes claims that treating sex‐workers as “victims” could further jeopardize their social position. However, the paper finds that the “options” available to sex‐workers are severely constrained. Specifically, the lack of capacity among sex‐workers to set embodied “rules of engagement” with clients makes the notion of agency problematic. The paper contends that “agency” is itself a gendered concept not only in relation to sex‐work, but also in the context of women's work more broadly.
Through the idea of agency as a gendered concept, the paper offers alternative ways of exploring agency, the body and women's work.
The paper puts forward the notion of agency as a gendered concept. This opens up possibilities for further research on women's “choices”, and who “makes the rules” within different labour markets.
This chapter explores the parental experiences of 21 mothers of young and/or adult children who have been diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DD). Specific…
This chapter explores the parental experiences of 21 mothers of young and/or adult children who have been diagnosed with developmental disabilities (DD). Specific attention is paid to mothers’ reflections on marginalization, stress, and resiliency. Intersectionality of marginalization was explored with a select number of participants who identified with minority racial groups, with the LGBTQ community, and/or as a single or young mother. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Eighteen mothers reported experiencing elevated levels of stress specifically related to challenges associated with DD; the need for greater investments of time and money was emphasized. However, nearly every participant highlighted stories of resilience and acclimation to these challenges associated with raising a child with DD. Thirteen mothers overtly discussed experiences of discrimination and marginalization. Some of these scenarios included being stared at or criticized in public, being excluded from social events, and facing discrimination within school settings. Select participants from marginalized backgrounds (being as a young parent, or as Black, single, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgender) provided insight into how layers of marginalization negatively impacted their parental experiences. These personal accounts provide additional evidence that mothers of children with DD experience courtesy stigma. In addition, they provide a holistic illustration of motherhood experiences that does not center on only negative or positive aspects. Finally, the reports of mothers who identified with multiple marginalized identities strengthen the call for additional empirical focus on intersectionality as it concerns mothers of children with DD.
Through an analysis of 15 Latin American countries, the purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of several institutional variables (economic, regulatory, and…
Through an analysis of 15 Latin American countries, the purpose of this paper is to explore the importance of several institutional variables (economic, regulatory, and cultural), which affect women’s careers towards being members of boards of directors in the region.
Based on primary and secondary information, the authors carry out multivariate analyses to understand the institutional reasons affecting the reduced presence of women on boards of directors in the region.
Their findings reveal differences within the region, the importance of protecting women’s professional careers in the labour market, and the effect of cultural dimensions, such as masculinity and power distance.
Research limitations and implications
The analysis provides an updated cross-section of the institutional and cultural conditions of the 15 countries, considering the limitations to developing data in the region.
Latin America has witnessed important changes in the dynamics of the labour market over recent decades: women’s participation in the labour force is on the increase, and corporate strategy is evolving towards the incorporation of practices and initiatives to manage the diversity of their talents. However, the presence of women in leadership positions is a pending subject. This study, in part, reveals the institutional origin of gender inequality on boards of directors in the region. The analysis provides essential tools for public policy and for companies to help promote female leadership in the region.
Recent debate and research on the scarce participation of women on corporative boards of directors have revealed a growing interest in analysing the causes of such issues despite the progress recorded in terms of gender equity in most societies. Studies on the topic in Latin America are scarce and the aim of this paper is to help to fill part of this gap.
El presente trabajo explora en quince países de América Latina la importancia de distintas variables institucionales (económicas regulatorias y culturales) que afectan a las carreras de las mujeres hacia los consejos de administración en la región.
A partir de información primaria y secundaria, los autores desarrollan diversos análisis multivariantes para entender las razones institucionales que afectan tras la reducida presencia de mujeres en los consejos de la región.
Los resultados de los análisis realizados muestran las diferencias dentro de la región así como la importancia de de analizar las carreras profesionales de las mujeres en el mercado de trabajo y el efecto de las dimensiones culturales como la masculinidad y la distancia al poder.
El análisis muestra un corte transversal de la realidad institutional y cultural de los 15 países lo más actual posible, teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones en el desarrollo de datos en la región.
En América Latina, se han producido cambios importantes en la dinámica del mercado laboral en las últimas décadas: las tasas de participación de mujeres en la fuerza de trabajo están en aumento y las estrategias empresariales van evolucionando hacia la incorporación de prácticas e iniciativas que tienden a gestionar la diversidad de sus talentos. Sin embargo la presencia de mujeres en puestos de liderazgo empresarial es una asignatura pendiente. El presente trabajo muestra en parte el origen institucional de las desigualdades de género en los consejos de administración en la región. Este análisis provee de herramientas esenciales para la política púlica y las empresas en la búsqueda de la promoción del liderazgo femenino en la región.
Recientes debates e investigaciones sobre la escasa incorporación de mujeres en los consejos directivos en las corporaciones, han evidenciado el creciente interés por analizar las causas de estas cuestiones a pesar de los avances registrados en términos de equidad de género en la mayoría de las sociedades. Sin embargo, hay una escasez de estudios en esta área en América Latina. El presente artículo busca llenar en parte ese hueco.
This study aims to understand how the development of teaching and research competencies affects graduate (MS and PhD level – called stricto sensu courses in Brazil…
This study aims to understand how the development of teaching and research competencies affects graduate (MS and PhD level – called stricto sensu courses in Brazil) management professors' work-family relations.
This research is a case study about work-family conflicts in academic careers. The data collection and analysis occurred during the period between June 2009 and January 2012. The population is composed of 45 professors: 33 men and 12 women, corresponding, respectively, to 73 and 27 per cent of the professors in the programs. Eleven female professors and 26 male professors were interviewed in this research. Analysis of work-family conflicts was performed by means of open questions based on three conflict dimensions: time, strain and behavior.
Investment in the development of teaching competencies brings conflicts into work-family relations. Among the three conflict dimensions considered, time stood out. When the conflict dimension was analyzed, more specifically in terms of behavior, it was evident that men perceive the effects of work-family conflicts to a lesser extent, as women suffer more from the triple impact (work, family and studies).
Context of a sector within a determined place.
This text highlights the importance and current theme of gender and career for researchers and academy. Thus, this paper contributes so society can reflect on the roles men and women hold in the distribution of the responsibilities, highlighting the importance of balancing their division between couples, in family routines and in childcare. Such balance can improve a family's life, providing better conditions so women can manage their careers.
Likewise, this paper supports public policies that improve the life quality of women or those who will adopt children, such as policies that incentive public and private organizations to extend maternity leave for mothers and adoptive couples, and public policies that contribute so women can proceed in their careers and therefore can contribute to the advancement of society and their own bio-psycho-social development. This text also brings implications in order that organizations design policies that allow all employees to better balance work-time and other life activities in general.
By selecting the graduate MS/PhD (stricto sensu) educational sector in particular, it was possible to learn the challenges, difficulties, achievements and limits inherent to the profession (professors), just as it was possible to verify existing conflicts, many times experienced and debated in organizational routines but not identified and shown by academic research in this sector.
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