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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Yeri Tordecilla Avila, Jana Schmutzler, Patricia Beatriz Marquez Rodriguez and Eduardo Gómez Araujo

This paper aims to evaluate whether entrepreneurs with an innovative product/service are more likely to formally register their businesses. Understanding the decision of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate whether entrepreneurs with an innovative product/service are more likely to formally register their businesses. Understanding the decision of business registration as a rational choice of the entrepreneurs, where she weighs the costs versus the benefits of such formalization, the study expands the literature on informal entrepreneurship by looking at the benefit-side rather than the typically evaluated cost-side of an individual cost-benefit evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors relied on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) adult population survey to evaluate the hypothesis. Specifically, the authors used the GEM data of 2016 for Colombia, covering 2,069 observations (a representative sample at the country level), evaluating the relationship between innovativeness and business registration for the early stage of the entrepreneurial process. Given the nature of our dependent variable, the authors estimated a logistic regression model.

Findings

Different from what the authors hypothesized, they did not find empirical evidence for a positive correlation between an innovative product or service and business registration. Instead, businesses that compete with many others offering the same product/service have a higher tendency to register at the Chamber of Commerce. Contrarily of what might be suspected, opportunity-based entrepreneurship – as opposed to necessity-based – is not a relevant variable when formalizing a business, providing evidence for our hypothesis that necessity-based entrepreneurship cannot be equalized with informal entrepreneurship. Additionally, the authors show that an entrepreneur with higher socioeconomic status is more likely to register his company.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide first exploratory evidence that the benefit evaluation may play a role in formalizing a start-up, thus calling for future research that not only tackles the influence of registration costs and administrative burden but rather looks at the outcome of a cost-benefit analysis. The data imply several limitations which future research should address: variables measuring the innovativeness of the product/service are rather coarse measures and need to be expanded and detailed in future research. Additionally, the authors acknowledge that a relatively high number of missing values may generate a selection bias in our population sample. Finally, because of situating the research in a developing country, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.

Practical implications

In a country like Colombia with very high levels of informality, it is necessary that the government fully understands the role of innovation in the formalization process of start-ups. The results indicate that a differentiation of support mechanisms to increase the formalization of businesses according to the different stages of their development may be necessary and that aside from costs, benefits of formalization play a role. A higher level of formality is not only related to economic growth but also much better protection of workers, therefore going beyond the reduction of registration costs and the implied administrative burden should be an additional public policy target for decreasing informality. Finally, the correlation of socioeconomic stratum with the decision to register hints at a varying evaluation of formalization, a point that merits attention by government and academia.

Originality/value

The study shifts the focus from the evaluation of solely costs for business registering as a barrier to start-up formalization to the cost-benefit analysis. The authors propose – and show – that such an evaluation is not generalizable for all kinds of business. Specifically, the authors show that a start-up is more likely to register when it competes with a large number of competitors than when it competes with a smaller number of others offering the same. At the same time, the authors also show that the stage at which the start-up company is at influences the decision to formalize.

Propósito

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar si los empresarios con un producto/servicio innovador son más propensos a registrar formalmente sus negocios, entendiendo la decisión de registrar el negocio como una elección racional, en la que el emprendedor sopesa los costos frente a los beneficios de dicha formalización. Este estudio amplía la literatura sobre el emprendimiento informal al plantear un análisis enfocado en los beneficios de una formalización del negocio.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se utiliza la encuesta Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Adult Population Survey para evaluar nuestras hipótesis. Específicamente, utilizamos los datos del GEM de 2016 para Colombia, cubriendo 2.069 observaciones (una muestra representativa a nivel de país), evaluando la relación entre una oferta innovadora y el registro de negocios para la etapa temprana del proceso emprendedor. Dada la naturaleza de nuestra variable dependiente, estimamos un modelo de regresión logística.

Conclusiones

Contrario a la hipótesis propuesta, no encontramos una correlación estadísticamente significativa positiva entre un producto o servicio innovador y el registro de empresas. En su lugar, las empresas que compiten con muchas otras empresas que ofrecen el mismo producto/servicio tienen una mayor tendencia a registrarse en la Cámara de Comercio. Asimismo, el emprendimiento basado en la oportunidad -en contraposición al basado en la necesidad- no es una variable relevante a la hora de formalizar un negocio, hallazgo en congruencia con a nuestra hipótesis de que el emprendimiento basado en la necesidad no puede equipararse al emprendimiento informal. Además, mostramos que un emprendedor con un estatus socioeconómico más alto tiene una mayor probabilidad de registrar su empresa.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Los resultados obtenidos proporcionan la primera evidencia exploratoria de que la evaluación de los beneficios puede desempeñar un rol en la formalización de una empresa de nueva creación, por lo que se requiere mayor investigación que no sólo aborde la influencia de los costos de registro y administrativos asociados, sino que examine el resultado de un análisis costo-beneficio. Los datos utilizados tienen varias limitaciones que una investigación posterior debería abordar: las variables que miden el carácter innovador del producto/servicio son medidas muy básicas y deben ampliarse y detallarse en futuros estudios. Además, el número relativamente alto de valores perdidos puede generar un sesgo de selección en nuestra muestra empleada. Por último, al situar nuestra investigación en el contexto de un país de desarrollo, los resultados pueden ser poco generalizables. Por lo tanto, futuras investigaciones deberían abordar en detalle los hallazgos presentados.

Implicaciones prácticas y sociales

En un país como Colombia, con niveles muy altos de informalidad, es necesario que el gobierno comprenda plenamente el papel de la innovación en el proceso de formalización de las empresas emergentes. Nuestros resultados indican que una diferenciación de los mecanismos de apoyo para aumentar la formalización de las empresas según las diferentes etapas de su desarrollo puede ser necesario. A su vez, además de los costos, los beneficios de la formalización juegan un papel importante. Un mayor nivel de formalidad no sólo está relacionado con el crecimiento económico sino también con una mejor protección de los trabajadores, por lo que ir más allá de la reducción de los costos de registro y de la carga administrativa implícita debería ser un objetivo adicional de política pública para disminuir la informalidad. Por último, la correlación del estrato socioeconómico con la decisión de registrarse sugiere que la evaluación de formalizarse varía dependiendo del estatus socioeconómico, un punto que merece la atención del gobierno y la academia.

Originalidad/valor

Nuestro estudio desplaza la atención exclusiva en los costos de registro de una empresa, y sus barreras asociadas, hacia el análisis costo-beneficio como parte de la evaluación y decisión de formalización de las nuevas empresas. Proponemos ‐y demostramos‐ que dicha evaluación no es generalizable para todo tipo de empresas. En concreto, demostramos que es más probable que una empresa emergente se registre cuando compite con un gran número de competidores que cuando compite con un número menor de otras que ofrecen lo mismo. A su vez, también mostramos que la etapa de desarrollo en la cual se encuentra la empresa emergente influye en la decisión de formalizarse.

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Jose Albors, Jose Luis Hervas, Patricia Marquez and M. Cristina Martinez‐Fernandez

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of firms’ innovative activities from the knowledge‐intensive service activities (KISA) point of view and analyse…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of firms’ innovative activities from the knowledge‐intensive service activities (KISA) point of view and analyse their relation to the firms’ competitive performance in the case of a mature industry, the Spanish ceramic tile cluster.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a field survey. Through a selection of variables multivariable tests were applied to map the industry from the KISA standpoint and evaluate the impact of certain knowledge intensive service activities on innovation and performance.

Findings

Internal and external knowledge‐intensive service activities were related to their output in terms of innovation, competitive advantages and economic performance.

Research limitations/implications

Further research must consider and segment customers, suppliers, and other firms in the industry as other sources of KIBS.

Practical implications

Understanding how firms access and employ the variety of innovation‐related KISA available to them in different industries, and at different times, will help policy makers to design targeted policies and programs to actively stimulate innovation across them. For firms, KISA offers a strategic choice in their innovation objectives.

Originality/value

The present analysis contribution to KISA validates a mathematical model to simulate the relation between KISA and the competitive advantage of the firm in the case of a mature medium‐tech industry.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Cristina Marín-Palacios, Oliver Carrero Márquez and Rhona Patricia Lohan

The social and work inclusion of people with disabilities is an important area of public action and research today. Future trends in the economy and lifestyle represent…

Abstract

Purpose

The social and work inclusion of people with disabilities is an important area of public action and research today. Future trends in the economy and lifestyle represent new challenges for the inclusion of disabled people. This paper aims to provide a bibliometric analysis of the growing amount of research publications currently dealing with problems associated with people with disabilities in employment. The papers are analysed to gain a perspective on any changes in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the analysis is conducted using a literature review and bibliometric analysis techniques in particular. The bibliographic source supporting this analysis resulted from a search of Scopus using Disability, Employment and Work as search terms, which yielded 750 publications spanning the previous nine years. VOSviewer was applied to facilitate the analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that up until 2016, the conversation revolved around health and employment, and from 2017 onwards the research has become more focused on the employment of people with disabilities. Socioeconomic factors affecting people with disabilities appear as one of the causes impairing their inclusion, such as the different intellectual disabilities curtailing their employment and education for work.

Research limitations/implications

This analysis limited itself to only one database and open access articles. Therefore, further research is needed with a larger bibliographic base covering other aspects related to the future of disability employment.

Practical implications

This review may serve as a valuable source of information for researchers for further investigations in this area. And to aid in the development of effective policies to address existing social stereotypes.

Originality/value

This research illustrates, through the use of VOSviewer, the present studies in the area of disability and employment and sets the foundations for further research.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Patricia Rocha and Rui Calejo Rodrigues

The purpose of this paper is to review the status of knowledge on the subject of building maintenance from an integrated perspective that incorporates the building…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the status of knowledge on the subject of building maintenance from an integrated perspective that incorporates the building lifecycle, that is, from the design stage to the end of life. This work considered the main aspects to be taken into account in determining and implementing maintenance strategies, which requires a cross-sectional view of the entire construction process. At the same time, this approach contributes to the organisation of building management.

Design/methodology/approach

Bibliometric review has been carried out to identify relevant subjects and topics about scientific production on building maintenance by analysing the contents of about 745 publications, over the last 15 years, between 2000 and 2016 (first quarter). The survey results were gradually organised into a database grouped into seven main themes which were found to be more discussed and others six emergent themes with topics on building maintenance research.

Findings

This research enabled a synthesis of the focal points in the literature on building maintenance, as well as debates among researchers and institutions in the field. The result is a view to the future regarding what issues merit further research and what content requires greater depth of understanding, allowing us to envision research directions that encompass topics and sub-topics for future development. To this end, this bibliometric study draws on knowledge developed over the last 15 years, using research studies published in refereed journals indexed in ISI/SCOPUS as its data source.

Originality/value

The novelty of this topic, and the aspect in which it differs from existing studies, is that the researchers analysed a single sub-topic: that is, content regarding maintenance. Thus, this bibliometric literature review allows us to achieve a comprehensive and integrated view of key issues developed in the field of building maintenance. The results show which topics have been more thoroughly developed and which still exhibit gaps and weaknesses. This review allows us to envision well thought out guidelines for future development that have the potential to be relevant to progress in building maintenance research. It also contributes to our understanding of the state of the art in this field of knowledge.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

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Executive summary
Publication date: 28 May 2019

COLOMBIA: Growing tensions undermine peace prospects

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-ES244164

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Juan R. Freudenthal

“A knowledge of different literatures is the best way to free one's self from the tyranny of any of them.” Jose Marti, Cuban writer, poet and statesman.

Abstract

“A knowledge of different literatures is the best way to free one's self from the tyranny of any of them.” Jose Marti, Cuban writer, poet and statesman.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

JUAN R. FREUDENTHAL

THE VAST PORTIONS of land south of the United States, commonly known as Latin America, form a political, social and cultural structure which—with very few exceptions—owes…

Abstract

THE VAST PORTIONS of land south of the United States, commonly known as Latin America, form a political, social and cultural structure which—with very few exceptions—owes its singularity to its spiritual ties with Spain and Portugal. Although sharp social and cultural contrasts among the Latin American nations do exist, the Spanish language is a formidable link which has helped to overcome many differences. Latin American literature, despite its very distinctive voices, proclaims in unison a literary wealth which ignores political and geographic boundaries. The development of modern Latin American literature springs from the modernista movement, which roughly spans the period between the late 1880's and the 1930's. The Nicaraguan Rubén Darío (1867–1916) is considered the focal point of this new literary school which led to “the discovery of the emotional life made by the romantic, the almost professional awareness of what literature and its latest fashions are” and “the pride of belonging to an Hispanic American generation which, for the first time, is able to specialize in art”. By the time Latin American literature reached European and North American shores during the late 1920's, a vigorous regionalist novel developed. Its basic themes were played against the background of the Argentinian pampa, the Venezuelan plains, the Andean mountains, the villages of revolutionary Mexico or the jungle of Brazil. In essence, this literature was concerned more with nature than with the social and cultural realities of city life. Writers sought to present exotic materials to the urban dwellers.

Details

Library Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1996

Edward L. Kain

The papers in this collection address a set of important issues facing our discipline. These issues cross national boundaries, and indeed are important far beyond the…

Abstract

The papers in this collection address a set of important issues facing our discipline. These issues cross national boundaries, and indeed are important far beyond the sociological sphere. My brief comments here will use these papers as a springboard for noting several important curricular challenges and trends for sociology, in particular, and academia, more generally, as we enter the next century.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2008

Patricia A. McAnany

The most powerful and effective forces of hierarchizing are those that naturalize difference so that it is beyond dispute and something to be tacitly accepted. In the…

Abstract

The most powerful and effective forces of hierarchizing are those that naturalize difference so that it is beyond dispute and something to be tacitly accepted. In the Classic Maya world, this “social speciation” was materialized and naturalized through a complex web of ritual practice, deity emulation, enhancement of body aesthetics, and the fabrication and possession of hypertrophic goods. The architecture of Classic Maya royal courts broke with an older Maya residential pattern of accretional construction filled with ancestral burials in order to materialize more effectively social difference, to provide space for exclusive ritual performance, and to showcase the highly valued and gendered labor of textile production. Such instruments of authority are “weapons of exclusion” that can be wielded to fend off assaults on hierarchy. From this perspective, informed by the ritual economy approach, the profound transformations of the 9th century in the Maya lowlands are considered an assault that was not defendable.

Details

Dimensions of Ritual Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-546-8

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Aixchel Cordero-Hidalgo, Javier Tarango, Claudia-Patricia Contreras and José Refugio Romo-González

The purpose of this paper is to determine the challenges of scientific literacy that scientific journalism can promote or suppress as a scientific dissemination activity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the challenges of scientific literacy that scientific journalism can promote or suppress as a scientific dissemination activity. To ensure that universities transfer knowledge to society, this vital activity is studied from the perspectives of their stakeholders: professors, researchers, newspaper directors and heads of research areas of two Mexican universities.

Design/methodology/approach

From a participatory action research perspective that consisted in applying semi-structured interviews, this study was conducted in two public universities in Chihuahua, Mexico. The group of participants constituted of a random sample of 90 Mexican professors, taken from a population of 246 subjects with the status of national researchers (confidence level = 95 per cent; margin of error = 5 per cent; P/Q correlation = 90 / 10 per cent), in addition to six local newspaper executives and eight research managers at participating universities.

Findings

Evidence suggests that scientific dissemination has a low social impact, its recognition by universities and scientific evaluation institutions is limited, and the act of making scientific content accessible to the general public is highly complex, especially when it comes to content related to the exact sciences. These results are predictable under the complex models that evaluate scientific production, because the measurement indicators that define scientific competitiveness levels prioritize specific scientific products other than dissemination products such as newspaper articles.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected from two Mexican public universities under the implication that the behavior identified through data analysis can occur in other similar environments. Although a participatory action research perspective was assumed, and because this research of a projective nature can be a part of a larger research, no particular actions or interventions were planned or executed, apart from the interviews that aimed to collect data that emerged from participants’ own practice and experiences on the issues studied. Further research can consist of developing forward-looking actions that can contribute to the development of scientific literacy, as well as to the exploration and solution of the issues identified through participants’ own practice.

Originality/value

One of the social roles of universities is to ensure that scientific knowledge reaches all citizens. However, there are not sufficient studies regarding scientific dissemination, especially from the perspective of professors as generators of scientific knowledge, newspaper directors and heads of research areas.

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