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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

DOUGLAS J. THOM

The path analysis technique was introduced in educational research relatively recently. It is very effective for conceptualizing research and for linking theory and the…

Abstract

The path analysis technique was introduced in educational research relatively recently. It is very effective for conceptualizing research and for linking theory and the “real world”. Major advances are possible if more researchers in education would adopt this technique. However, the outward complex appearance of path analysis diagrams with their many variables, straight and curved arrows and numerical coefficients, and the terminology such as “residuals” and “recursive” associated with discussions of the technique tend to deter researchers. In this article the author gives an overview of the technique in simple terms. Its strengths and weaknesses are discussed and suggestions are made about how to commence use of the technique. Several examples of path analysis used in educational research are presented. The discussion is of an introductory nature with the hope that readers will develop a confidence to investigate the technique further. The intention of the author here is not to debate the many specific, provocative and complex issues about definition, terminology and interpretation surrounding the technique which methodology specialists continue to discuss as the use of the technique grows.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Daniel S. Alemu and Deborah Shea

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which organizational level of functionality is affected by its leadership, its staff, the way task is performed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which organizational level of functionality is affected by its leadership, its staff, the way task is performed in the organization (culture), and the structural and governance makeup of organizations. This study also determined the direct and indirect impacts of these variables on organizational functionality in general and drawing lessons to educational organizations in specific.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative study. Data from 185 participants were analyzed using SPSS software version 24. The data analysis procedure for this study followed various steps. First, multiple factor analysis was conducted to narrow the long list of items and to create a manageable list of construct variables for analyses. Then path analysis, using a series of multiple regression, was conducted to identify the degree of relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Finally, a path model coefficient diagram was created.

Findings

Using path analysis, a new model that depicts the level of interactions among the proposed variables and the extent and direction of influence of each variable on organizational level of functionality has been created. In addition, a path diagram that illustrates the model is provided and explained. This study also determined the direct and indirect impacts of these variables on organizational functionality. Finally, conclusions and implications of the study for educational organizations were presented.

Research limitations/implications

It should be noted that path analysis studies, by nature, are based on assumptions provided by the researchers. Hence, future studies using different variables and different assumption may not necessarily generate the same result. In addition, this study looked at a broader view of organizations rather than a specific type.

Practical implications

This study expanded the use of organizational diagnosis frameworks, beyond studying organizational performance, to study organizational level of functionality which can be used to diagnose the level of function (or dysfunction) of organizations in a holistic manner.

Social implications

The present study contributes to the body of literature in organizational diagnosis in various ways; chief of which is the creation of a new path model which shows the direct and indirect effects of specific variables in numeric terms.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies on the topic, this study suggests that organizational level of functionality should be studied using variables internal to the organization, because any two organizations of similar purpose and capacity, located in similar environment, could function differently due to factors internal to the organizations. Investigating organizational level of functionality using variables internal to the organization is assumed to provide a deeper diagnosis and self-assessment as it minimizes the noises created by variables external to the organization. All the variables in this study are therefore carefully selected to be internal to organizations.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2005

Kevin J. Grimm and John J. McArdle

Every “structural model” is defined by the set of covariance and mean expectations. These expectations are the source of parameter estimates, fit statistics, and…

Abstract

Every “structural model” is defined by the set of covariance and mean expectations. These expectations are the source of parameter estimates, fit statistics, and substantive interpretation. The recent chapter by Cortina, Pant, and Smith-Darden ((this volume). In: F. Dansereau & F. J. Yammarino (Eds), Research in multi-level issues (vol. 4). Oxford, England: Elsevier) shows how a formal investigation of the data covariance matrix of longitudinal data can lead to an improved understanding of the estimates of covariance terms among linear growth models. The investigations presented by Cortina et al. (this volume) are reasonable and potentially informative for researchers using linear change growth models. However, it is quite common for behavioral researchers to consider more complex models, in which case a variety of more complex techniques for the calculation of expectations will be needed. In this chapter we demonstrate how available computer programs, such as Maple, can be used to automatically create algebraic expectations for the means and the covariances of every structural model. The examples presented here can be used for a latent growth model of any complexity, including linear and nonlinear processes, and any number of longitudinal measurements.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Strategy and Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-330-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Sangeeta Sahney

Educational institutes must embrace the principles of total quality management (TQM) if they seek to remain competitive, and survive and succeed in the long run. An…

Abstract

Purpose

Educational institutes must embrace the principles of total quality management (TQM) if they seek to remain competitive, and survive and succeed in the long run. An educational institution must embrace the principles of quality management and incorporate them into all of their activities. Starting with a theoretical background, the paper outlines the results of a study conducted on both internal and external customers of the educational system, with select engineering and management institutes as foci of study. The study is an attempt toward developing an integrated customer-centric model of quality management in education, through the use of multiple methodologies so as to be able to evaluate service quality; prioritize improvement of service; and guide and develop educational services by incorporating the voice of the customer (VOC). The purpose of this paper is to establish the prioritization for improvement of service design of an educational system through incorporation of the VOC, be it internal or external customers, through the use of multiple methodologies, leading to generalization of results.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses multiple methodologies with various techniques for analysis through the application of the SERVQUAL; quality function deployment (QFD); interpretive structural modeling (ISM); and path analysis. The SERVQUAL was applied to identify the gap and determine the level of service quality. Following this, QFD, ISM and path analysis were used to identify the set of minimum design characteristics/quality components that would meet the requirements the various internal and external customers of the educational system. The QFD was used to identify the set of minimum design characteristics/quality components that meet the requirements of the various internal and external customers of the educational system. The ISM and path analysis were used to identify and prioritize the design characteristics/quality components that would meet the requirements the various internal and external customers of the educational system.

Findings

The findings from the various techniques were amalgamated, and proposed as an integrated model of TQM in higher education. The study helped identify with a customer perspective, the quality components which would help design TQM for higher education institutions in India.

Research limitations/implications

The paper could be useful to government bodies, funding agencies, policy makers and administrators in developing a system that could lead to satisfaction of both internal and external customers of the educational system.

Originality/value

The study includes within its scope the varied customers of the educational system, namely, internal and external customers of the educational system; the internal customers being the faculty and the administrative staff, and the external customers being the students and the industry (as the employer). This is yet to be seen in other research studies. Also, the integration of the multiple tools and their application to the field of higher education in India, has not yet been made available in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Jiuli Yin, Qing Ding and Xinghua Fan

Reductions in emissions intensity have been expressed in commitments of many countries’ intended nationally determined contribution. Energy structure adjustment is one of…

Abstract

Purpose

Reductions in emissions intensity have been expressed in commitments of many countries’ intended nationally determined contribution. Energy structure adjustment is one of the main approaches to reduce carbon emissions. This paper aims to study the causal relationship between carbon emission intensity and energy consumption structure in China based on path analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

After data collection, this paper performs correlation analysis, regression and path analysis.

Findings

Correlation results display clear collinearity among energy structure variables. Regression finds that coal, oil, natural gas and technology can be used as indicators for carbon intensity while primary electricity has been excluded. Path analysis shows that coal had the largest direct and positive impact on emission intensity. Natural gas had a positive direct and negative indirect effect through its negative relationship with coal on emission intensity. Technology has the largest negative elasticity while all fossil energies are positive. Results indicate a negative effect of energy structure adjustment on China’s national carbon intensity.

Originality/value

Given the major role of China in global climate change mitigation, significant future reductions in China’s CO2 emissions will require transformation toward low-carbon energy systems. Considering the important role in mitigating global climate change, China needs to transition toward a low-carbon energy system to significantly reduce its carbon intensity in the future.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Ying‐Jung Yeh

A successful TQM implementation requires employees’ engagement in extra‐role behaviors. This study identified and examined the critical factors embedded in the…

Abstract

A successful TQM implementation requires employees’ engagement in extra‐role behaviors. This study identified and examined the critical factors embedded in the organizational system that may enhance or hinder employees’ participation in TQM activities. Factors including individual training and project involvement, job characteristics, organizational structure, social support, and employees’ self‐efficacy were expected to influence employees’ extra‐role behaviors, e.g. continuous quality improvement activities. A study model was tested with the empirical data collected from a city government in the USA. A total of 848 surveys were returned (overall response rate of 38 per cent). Three factors that most strongly predicted employees’ practices of TQM were: a standardized organizational structure, interpersonal support of the organization, and employees’ self‐efficacy. Individuals’ project involvement and training had no direct effect on the practices of quality management, but had indirect positive effects through the impact of self‐efficacy. The suggestions for designing a TQM training program were discussed.

Details

The TQM Magazine, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-478X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Shivaprasad Dandagi, Umesh Bhushi, Virupaxi Bagodi and Deepankar Sinha

The purpose of this paper is to examine the constructs and establish causal relationship between factors for strategically governing a technical university in Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the constructs and establish causal relationship between factors for strategically governing a technical university in Indian context. Further, the paper carries out a systemic study to emphasize on the need for these universities to design strategies that are endurable and sustainable.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire survey was carried out (207 responses). Factor analysis was carried out to bring out the latent variables representing the attributes, and later, the causality between these variables was established using structural equation modelling (SEM). These relationships between the factors helped in developing a robust system dynamic model for strategic management of technical universities.

Findings

The peak points on the contours for varying strategic orientation revealed the adaptability and the time required for attaining that level of adaptability. The contour plots also revealed the limiting values in each case. Finally, it is concluded that university adaptability increases with increasing strategic orientation. The analysis also revealed that the process by which the technical universities formulate their strategies is an important determinant of various factors.

Originality/value

Universities looking to implement strategic management-related methodologies for the improved management focusing on developing effective methods for developing strategy can be expected to yield better performance, rather than concentrating on the technologies and supporting infrastructures.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Sangeeta Sahney, D.K. Banwet and S. Karunes

Education is becoming much more of a “product” with varying customers and stakeholders. There are huge pressures to become more accountable and responsive to customer…

Abstract

Purpose

Education is becoming much more of a “product” with varying customers and stakeholders. There are huge pressures to become more accountable and responsive to customer needs, and educational institutions need to become more efficient, effective and customer‐centric. Quality is fast emerging as a theme that is rapidly spreading within the higher education institutions. However, the emphasis has been essentially an external customer's perspective, i.e. an employer or a student perspective. The internal customer's perspective has generally been ignored. This study aims to examine faculty's, i.e. an internal customer's, perspective about quality systems in higher education.

Design/methodology/approach

The study undertaken is exploratory and diagnostic in nature, aimed at identifying the set of minimum design characteristics/quality components that would meet the requirements of the faculty. An extensive literature review led to identification of variables that were pilot tested for validity and reliability. The empirical study was conducted across engineering and management institutions in and around Delhi, India, imparting graduate and post‐graduate professional degrees/diplomas with the sample comprising the faculty. Multiple tools and techniques were used to quantitatively and qualitatively arrive at a synthesized and integrated model of quality management in education.

Findings

Based on the analysis of data through quantitative and qualitative tools, the study helped in the identification of quality components, which, if adopted and implemented, could lead to satisfaction of the faculty.

Practical implications

Employee satisfaction is a major driver towards adoption of a customer centric philosophy by any organization and the educational system is no exception. Every organization should consider the requirements of their employees and initiate measures to meet them so as to cultivate employee satisfaction.

Originality/value

While quality management in higher education has been a focus of research all over the world, the vast array of literature illustrates that research has essentially focused on the external customer of the educational system. The study was conducted with the objective of obtaining an internal customers' perspective by focusing on the faculty and proposing an integrated framework for quality management in education.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Ahmed Abdel-Maksoud and Bahgat Abdel-Maksoud

The purpose of this study is to propose a performance measurement (PM) model for agricultural extension agents. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a performance measurement (PM) model for agricultural extension agents. Based on an interdisciplinary approach, management accounting-agricultural extension, the study has three main research objectives: highlight the main concepts to be embedded in a PM model for agricultural extension agents in an agricultural extension organization (RO1); identify main PM components of the proposed PM model for agricultural extension agents (RO2); and investigate empirically the causal relationships in the proposed PM model (RO3).

Design/methodology/approach

An interdisciplinary literature review and a proposed PM model for agricultural extension agents are presented (RO1 and RO2). An empirical survey is incorporated, carried out in early 2011 (RO3), to examine three groups, totaling around 274 respondents. Data were collected through personal interviews using structured questionnaire forms. Path analysis technique was applied.

Findings

The authors propose a PM model consisting of five components. The five components are: agricultural extension agents’ characteristics, agents’ work attitudes, services provided, use of agricultural extension services and farmers’ satisfaction with agricultural extension services. The overall findings of the empirical surveys were found to validate the suggested causal relations among the components of the model. Findings indicate that 85 per cent of changes in farmers’ satisfaction with services are explained by changes in the preceding variables in the model.

Research limitations/implications

It is, however, important to view this study with a few limitations in mind; for instance, using a survey method (e.g. sampling and the use of questionnaires in data collection); and the constraints associated with the model. That is to say that the components of the model could be further increased to incorporate other aspects of stakeholders, e.g. the economic impact of governmental financial policies on tax and the customs duties on agricultural products.

Practical implications

A Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations agricultural extension reference manual recommends certain purposes for a PM in agricultural extension organizations; interestingly, all these are already embedded in the proposed PM model, which makes it unequivocally a useful PM model for agriculture extension agents in agricultural extension organizations worldwide. Furthermore, the proposed model contributes significantly to agricultural extension practitioners and academics alike. It focuses the attention of agricultural extension organizations on the causal relationships among the model’s components. These components are linked to the agricultural extension organization strategies.

Social implications

In addition to the practical implications above, the proposed PM model demonstrates the need for placing equal importance on all five components included and setting performance indicator (PI) targets.

Originality/value

The importance of this study emerges from the fact that it is helpful to examine the development and implementation of PM models across various disciplines to enhance understanding. The PM model overcomes the shortcomings in previous PM models of agricultural extension agents’ criteria/models in the agricultural extension literature. It is not merely a theoretically proposed model because the proposed causal relations amongst its variables are empirically investigated. Following management accounting and strategy theories, the authors propose that the relative importance of the attributes of PI in the proposed model differs according to each agricultural extension organization’s strategy, size and organizational structure.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Fahime Sadat Saadatyar, Mojtaba Poursalimi, Omar Al-Tabbaa and Michela Iannotta

This paper aims to theorize and empirically examines the role of perceived spirituality in developing organization competitiveness.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theorize and empirically examines the role of perceived spirituality in developing organization competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a quantitative approach, where the structural equation modeling approached was applied to analyze a unique dataset collected from 550 health-care staff in two international hospitals in Iran.

Findings

The results show that although the workplace spirituality (WS) can indirectly enhance the development of competitive advantages by affecting the level of organizational commitment; however, the direct relationship of WS and competitive advantage has a higher path coefficient than its indirect one. Also, interestingly, it is found that, although WS affects the three dimensions of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative commitment), but only WS by mediating role of affective commitment can affect the competitive advantage at understudied hospitals.

Originality/value

This study makes important theoretical contributions by conceptualizing and validating the effect of WS on the development of organization competitive advantage. As such, the authors explicate the commitment-related paths through which WS can affect organization overall performance.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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