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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Ghazala Naz

Fathers' participation in childcare is not only important in promoting gender equality but can be also important for the child's better upbringing. To promote fathers'…

Abstract

Purpose

Fathers' participation in childcare is not only important in promoting gender equality but can be also important for the child's better upbringing. To promote fathers' involvement and participation in childcare, in the 1990s Norway and other Scandinavian countries have evolved their parental leave schemes such that employed fathers may have equal access to paid parental leave as mothers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that determine use of parental leave in Norway.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper's dependent variable is ordinal. An individual has three options: do not take leave, use leave up to the paternity quota or use leave in excess of the paternity quota. For modelling the choice between these three categories, an ordered logit model is used.

Findings

Fathers' workplace type has no effect on their use of paternity quota, but they opt to take gender‐neutral leave if they are working in female‐dominated professions. In addition the effects of mothers' relative income, education, working time and number of pre‐school children are more important for the use of gender‐neutral leave by fathers as compared with leave up to the paternity quota.

Originality/value

Several studies in Scandinavia have investigated the determinants of use of paternal leave but this paper differs from the existing literature in the following respects. First, it differentiates the determinants of taking paternity quota and gender‐neutral leave and it focuses sharply on the difference between husbands' and wives' characteristics. In addition, it uses a large dataset that includes information from several public registers, merged by Statistics Norway. In contrast, the previous studies in Norway were based on relatively small samples and self‐reported data.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Bila Sorj and Alexandre Fraga

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leave policies and social inequalities. It seeks to analyze the historical course of maternity and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between leave policies and social inequalities. It seeks to analyze the historical course of maternity and paternity leave legislation in Brazil, and also provides quantitative evidence that access to leave is impacted by social stratification, revealing different inequalities.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate access to leave policies, this study uses data from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua Anual de 2017 (Annual National Continuous Household Sampling Survey of 2017), conducted by IBGE/Brazil.

Findings

The results point out the existence of inequalities in the conceptions of leave policies in Brazil, and lead to quantitative confirmation that access to leave is stratified and permeated by inequalities of gender, class, race and age.

Social implications

By pointing out the social inequalities resulting from the contributory scheme of maternity and paternity leave, the results of this paper may generate debate on the transformation of leave into a universal right of citizens and impact public policy agenda in the future.

Originality/value

This is the first Brazilian study to analyze the relationship between leave policy and social inequality through quantitative data, showing the existence of social stratification of gender, class, race and age concerning the employed population’s access to maternity and paternity leave.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Kehinde Olowookere

At the end of this chapter, learners should be able to:

  • Discuss the origin of family-friendly policies.
  • Explain the different types of family-friendly policies.
  • Explain the…

Abstract

Learning Objectives

At the end of this chapter, learners should be able to:

  • Discuss the origin of family-friendly policies.

  • Explain the different types of family-friendly policies.

  • Explain the importance of family-friendly policies.

  • Explore the financial implications of family-friendly policies.

  • Understand how to calculate leave payment.

  • Explain possible limitations of family-friendly policies.

Discuss the origin of family-friendly policies.

Explain the different types of family-friendly policies.

Explain the importance of family-friendly policies.

Explore the financial implications of family-friendly policies.

Understand how to calculate leave payment.

Explain possible limitations of family-friendly policies.

Details

Financial and Managerial Aspects in Human Resource Management: A Practical Guide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-612-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Ivana Dobrotić and Nada Stropnik

This article explores the patterns and dynamics of parenting-related leave policy reforms in the European former socialist countries (EFSCs). It sheds light on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This article explores the patterns and dynamics of parenting-related leave policy reforms in the European former socialist countries (EFSCs). It sheds light on the development pattern of their leave policies and their potential to reproduce, impede, or transform traditional gender norms in employment and care.

Design/methodology/approach

The article provides a historical comparative analysis of leave policy developments in 21 EFSCs in the 1970–2018 period. It systematically explores continuity and changes in leave policy design − generosity (leave duration and benefits level) and fathers' entitlements to leaves − as well as policy concerns and gender-equality-related implications.

Findings

Following the state-socialist commitment to gender equality, the EFSCs introduced childcare/parental leaves early. Nevertheless, they developed mother-centered leaves of equality-impeding character, in that they did not promote gender equality. The divergence of EFSCs' leave policies intensified in the period of transition from socialism to capitalism, as competing priorities and inter-related policy concerns – such as re-traditionalization, fertility incentives, gender equality, and labor market participation – influenced policy design. Leave policies of the EFSCs that joined the EU gradually transformed towards more gender-equal ones. Nonetheless, the progress has been slow, and only three countries can be classified as having equality-transforming leaves (Slovenia, Lithuania, and Romania).

Originality/value

This article extends existent comparative studies on maternity/paternity/parental leaves, exploring the region that has been overlooked by such research. It provides valuable insights into the implications of intersectional dimensions of leave design as well as competing priorities and concerns embedded in it. It points to the methodological complexity of evaluating the development of parental leave policies in a cross-country perspective.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Esther M. Dermott

Considers the exclusionary processes arising from the way in which fathers are excluded from childcare activities. Outlines the parental leave provisions in the UK and…

Abstract

Considers the exclusionary processes arising from the way in which fathers are excluded from childcare activities. Outlines the parental leave provisions in the UK and explores the nature of the assumptions made about fatherhood. Compares the take up of parental leave by both men and women in other European countries. Concludes that whilst the current system supports a balanced work and home life but the significant gender differences in take‐up of parental leave between men and women means that legislation may be making gender division with respect to early childcare more marked rather than reduced.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 21 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2018

GuÐný Björk Eydal and Tine Rostgaard

The Nordic welfare model is known in the literature for its explicit support of the equal treatment of men and women in both family and gender equality policies as well as…

Abstract

The Nordic welfare model is known in the literature for its explicit support of the equal treatment of men and women in both family and gender equality policies as well as its achievements in these policy areas. Policy arguments have to promote gender equality and act in the best interest of the child, ensuring that the child access to care from both parents as well as to early childhood education and care. However, the knowledge of how the Nordic welfare states frame and promote active fatherhood remains fragmented.

The chapter asks whether the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have developed similar policies on fatherhood or have taken different paths. Hence, the chapter examines three main policy areas affecting fatherhood: family law, family cash benefits and paid parental leave. Comparative perspective is applied and the chapter asks how the policies frame and promote active fatherhood while also looking into how fatherhood is shaped in interaction between policies, cultures and the daily practices of fathers.

Results show that while all Nordic governments promote a dual-earner/dual-carer social democratic welfare state model emphasizing the active participation of fathers in the care of their children, variations exist in policy and practices. Care policies and entitlements to a father quota of paid parental leave are a defining factor for enhancing fathers’ role in care of their children and the findings show that Nordic fathers are making use of their quota and gradually increasing their share in taking leave for the care of young children.

Details

Fathers, Childcare and Work: Cultures, Practices and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-042-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Abigail Gregory and Susan Milner

This paper seeks to focus on the role of organizations in mediating the impact of national work‐life balance (WLB) policy on employees, in particular fathers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to focus on the role of organizations in mediating the impact of national work‐life balance (WLB) policy on employees, in particular fathers.

Design/methodology/approach

It presents existing research about WLB policy implementation in organizations as well as the findings of empirical work in insurance and social work in France and the UK (questionnaire survey, case study analysis, interviews with national and sector‐level trade union officials).

Findings

These indicate that fathers' take‐up of WLB policies is the outcome of a complex dynamic between national fatherhood regimes, organizational and sector characteristics and the individual employee. They suggest that fathers tend to use WLB measures to spend time with their families where measures increase their sense of entitlement (state policies of paternity leave) or where measures offer non‐gendered flexibility (reduced working time/organizational systems of flexi‐time). In line with other studies it also finds that fathers extensively use informal flexibility where this is available (individual agency).

Practical implications

These findings have implications for the way WLB policies are framed at national and organizational level. At national level they indicate that policies work best when they give fathers a sense of entitlement, by giving specific rights linked to fatherhood (e.g. paternity leave or “daddy month”‐type arrangements), and or by providing universal rights (e.g. to reduced working time and/or flexible working time); however, where measures are linked to childcare they are often framed as mothers' rights when translated to the organizational level. The research also shows that informal flexibility is used and valued by fathers within organizations, but that such informal arrangements are highly subject to local variation and intermediation by line managers and co‐workers; hence, for effective and even coverage they would need to be backed up by formal rights.

Originality/value

Cross‐national comparative research into WLB policy and practice at national and organizational level is very rare. The empirical work presented in this paper, although exploratory, makes a significant contribution to our understanding of WLB policy and practice, particularly as it relates to fathers.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Diane‐Gabrielle Tremblay and Emilie Genin

Paid parental leave for both mothers and fathers has fed countless debates. Four years after the implementation of a new parental leave policy in Quebec, this paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Paid parental leave for both mothers and fathers has fed countless debates. Four years after the implementation of a new parental leave policy in Quebec, this paper aims to assess how parental leave is perceived in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from employee surveys carried out in a municipal police service, the paper employs analysis of variance techniques to compare the perception of parental leave within two groups of respondents: those who had gone on parental leave and those who had not.

Findings

The findings highlight significant differences between the perceptions of parental leave entertained by the respondents who have taken it up and those who have not yet experienced parental leave.

Social implications

Analysing these differences has produced extremely interesting findings: adopting a public policy is not sufficient; organisations need to make employees feel supported in taking parental leave if they really want the policy to achieve the targeted results.

Originality/value

Paid parental leave is relatively new in Europe and almost non‐existent in North America and few studies have been carried out to measure their perception in the workplace. This research shows how important it is to follow the use of the policy to make sure that it does not have negative impacts for those who use it.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

The purpose of this paper is to describe the support that Lloyds Banking Group is offering to employees taking maternity, paternity and adoption leave.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the support that Lloyds Banking Group is offering to employees taking maternity, paternity and adoption leave.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides details of an e‐learning course developed with UK executive‐coaching company Talking Talent, which is part of a broader initiative that will see Lloyds seek to support all employees – especially working parents and their managers – through innovative training, a strong focus on flexible working and a new code of responsibility that demonstrates the bank's commitment to work‐life balance.

Findings

The paper explains that the aim of this enhanced support will be to ensure that employees have a consistently good experience and that Lloyds retains employees before, during and after transitions.

Practical implications

The paper details separate research by Talking Talent that examines some of the pinch points in women's career paths and considers how these can best be overcome.

Social implications

The paper contains useful information on helping employees taking maternity, paternity and adoption leave to make the most of the experience.

Originality/value

The paper describes Lloyds Bank's overall package of support, guidance and advice for employees during key transitions.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Peter Moss and Fred Deven

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of leave policies in Europe, both at a regional and national level, and to consider what future directions such…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of leave policies in Europe, both at a regional and national level, and to consider what future directions such policies might take to meet changing conditions and emerging needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the work of an international network that the authors founded in 2004, which brings together experts on leave policy from over 40 countries, and in particular on an annual review of national leave policies conducted by network members.

Findings

The article presents developments in European legislation on leave policy stretching from 1883 to the present day, and outlines the extent of leave policies in European countries and the wide variations in the design of these policies. It suggests that future directions in leave policy need to address the relationship between this and other policy areas; the need for a life course perspective to leave policy, getting beyond parental leave; and that leave should turn away from being considered an employment benefit towards becoming a universal right to care.

Originality/value

The paper provides a concise overview of leave policy in the global region where leave policies began and are today most developed, at both a regional and national level. It is also intended to stimulate debate about the future directions that leave policy might take.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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