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Book part
Publication date: 19 April 2017

Juan Alcácer, Karin Beukel and Bruno Cassiman

Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them…

Abstract

Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong growth in patents, trademarks, and industrial designs used by firms to protect their IP globally. We then show that IP protection remains fragmented; the quality of IP applications might be questionable; and developing a comprehensive IP footprint worldwide is very costly. Growing numbers of applications are causing backlogs and delays in numerous Patent and Trademarks Offices and litigation over IP rights is expensive, with an uncertain outcome. Moreover, local governments can succeed in transferring value to local firms and influencing global market positions by using IP laws and other regulations. In essence, the analysis shows a global IP environment that leaves much to be desired. Despite these challenges, there are successful strategies to capture value from know-how and reputation by leveraging an array of IP tools. These strategies have important implications for management practice, as we discuss in our concluding section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and nonmarket tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.

Details

Geography, Location, and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-276-3

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Filippo Buonafede, Giulia Felice, Fabio Lamperti and Lucia Piscitello

Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to transform the organisation of all the activities carried out by firms. The growing diffusion of these technologies is…

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to transform the organisation of all the activities carried out by firms. The growing diffusion of these technologies is increasingly challenging multinational enterprises to reinvent their businesses. Accordingly, many scholars argue that AM may reduce countries’ participation in global value chains (GVCs) or, at least, affect GVCs’ geography, length and further developments. However, so far, the lack of available data on the real worldwide diffusion of these technologies has precluded the possibility to study this phenomenon from an empirical standpoint.

This study investigates AM technologies, with a particular focus on their possible impact on GVCs, in the framework of the current debate in international business. In order to examine this relationship and overcome the lack of adoption data, the authors identify a potential proxy of AM diffusion – that is, patenting activity. Coherently, the authors employ this proxy and a country-level measure of GVC participation (i.e., the Share of Re-Exported Inputs on Total Imported Inputs) to empirically investigate the role of AM in influencing countries’ participation to GVCs. This country-level analysis is focussed on three specific industries and the aggregate economy in 58 countries for the period 2000–2014.

The results show that AM decreases a country’s participation in GVCs, both at the country level and, in particular, in the sectors which are more likely to be affected by AM technologies. This evidence suggests that this phenomenon might be induced by a decreasing reliance on intermediates processed abroad, hence an increasing importance of domestic goods, manufactured via AM.

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International Business in the Information and Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-326-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Rónán O’Beirne

374

Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Reza Ghazal and Muhamed Zulkhibri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of innovation outputs proxied by number of patent applications, trademarks and industrial designs in developing…

1089

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of innovation outputs proxied by number of patent applications, trademarks and industrial designs in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a panel data and Negative Binomial method to analyse the main determinants affecting the innovation outputs.

Findings

The results implicitly suggest that providing a fertile ground to attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) can lead to much better innovation outputs. The study also strongly supports the role of institutions and governance for increasing innovation activities in developing economies as indicated by positive impacts of governance factors in the model. However, the impact of economic freedom indicators on improving innovation outputs is mixed.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways: it examines the effect of FDI and research and development on innovation of selected developing countries; and the study uses a panel data approach to increase the accuracy of the results through exploiting the significant variations of innovation outputs across countries, while controlling for a larger number of innovation outputs and product determinants. To the authors knowledge, this is the first empirical study on the behaviour of innovation outputs for developing countries.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Tomi Heimonen

The purpose of this paper is to report on a study aimed at identifying factors that affect the innovativeness of growing small and medium‐sized firms (SMEs). It aims to…

5659

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on a study aimed at identifying factors that affect the innovativeness of growing small and medium‐sized firms (SMEs). It aims to use intellectual property rights (IPRs) as a proxy for innovations. The IPRs to be used include patents, trademarks, utility models and registered designs.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model was developed and tested on longitudinal sample data representing 348 continuously growing SMEs located in two diverse regions in Finland. The firms in the sample represented various industries. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the data.

Findings

About 8 per cent of the firms in the sample could be defined as innovative growth SMEs. Most of these firms operate in the service and manufacturing sectors. They are small businesses that employ ten to 49 people and are between five and 19 years old. Innovative firms in this class were found to be less likely successful in the short‐term than their non‐innovative counterparts. The results obtained seem to be consistent with the expected preconception that growing IPR‐intensive firms may be subject to greater financial pressures than those that do not produce IPRs. Public research and development (R&D) funding seems to increase the likelihood of innovation.

Practical implications

From a policy perspective, the allocation of resources to R&D has been an appropriate strategy for increasing the amount of IPRs generated by growing SMEs.

Originality/value

This paper reports one of a very small number of studies that have sought to identify and analyse factors that affect innovation in growing SMEs.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Jungwoo Suh and So Young Sohn

The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding core technological competencies and identifying the trends on the technological convergence of a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding core technological competencies and identifying the trends on the technological convergence of a business ecosystem using the patent information of leading firms in the system.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed framework is composed of two steps: time-sequential text clustering analysis for comprehending changes in general technological fields and association rule analysis for identifying the trends of convergences in each field. The authors applied the proposed framework to the patents applied to United States Patent Trademark Office by Samsung Electronics, a market leader of the electronics industry, during the period from 2000 to 2011.

Findings

In the sequential text clustering analysis, trends of 14 technological fields such as data storage medium and data processing, mobile, lights and heats and memory are identified. Moreover, changes of technological convergence in each field are identified using association rule analysis. For instance, in the case of technologies related to lights and heats, convergences occurred between radio transmission systems and modulated-carrier systems during the period from 2000 to 2001. However, recent convergences appeared between technologies regarding controlling lights and liquid crystal materials since 2008.

Originality/value

Utilization of the framework will suggest new business opportunities to SMEs in a business ecosystem by identifying the trends of technological convergences.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Davis Klaila and Lynne Hall

You may be surprised to discover that millions of dollars in revenue are sitting, undiscovered, inside your own organization. Follow the authors as they walk you through…

2864

Abstract

You may be surprised to discover that millions of dollars in revenue are sitting, undiscovered, inside your own organization. Follow the authors as they walk you through different areas of your business to discover the untapped potential of “forgotten” intangible assets that may already exist, including patents, trademarks, licensing arrangements, employee know‐how, infringement protection plans and much more. Learn how to manage these assets to their fullest potential by creating an Intellectual Asset Management Portfolio (I‐AMP). The authors reveal their own five‐step process and then present three case studies (an energy company, a high‐tech manufacturer and a telecom company), which illustrate the remarkable increases in revenue generated by this program. In one case, $1 billion was shifted from the expenditure to the revenue side of the ledger!

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2012

Ross D. Petty

This research aims to examine a number of legal sources for evidence that US marketers were interested in protecting their brand identities in the 1800s.

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Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to examine a number of legal sources for evidence that US marketers were interested in protecting their brand identities in the 1800s.

Design/methodology/approach

The research examines historical legal records including registrations for commercial prints and labels, design patents and trademarks as well as other legal records. The work discusses the evolution of the concept of brand identity by examining various legal methods that were used to try to protect brand identity from imitation.

Findings

The research suggests that marketer interest in the development and protection of brand identity preceded the US Civil War and confirms that this interest was led by marketers of patent medicines, tobacco and liquor. However, the study also demonstrates strong interest by marketers of many other types of products from disposable products to durable manufactured items.

Research limitations/implications

Many original records were lost in the 1836 Patent Office fire or have been simply lost. Some of the databases examined are too large to be comprehensively examined.

Originality/value

The examination of legal records from this period of uncertainty shows how the practice of brand identification led to the concept of brand identity: the legal data examined offer a wealth of information for marketing historians.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Thomas M. Apke

Explores the issue of global licensing of technological advancement. Deals particularly with the legal side of things, minimizing risk in particular. Indicates that the…

2357

Abstract

Explores the issue of global licensing of technological advancement. Deals particularly with the legal side of things, minimizing risk in particular. Indicates that the fastest and best way of penetrating foreign markets is to use a local branch already established in the foreign market, or, alternatively, establish a subsidiary or joint venture. Focuses then on licensing and some of the problems that can arise from that – piracy, exploitation, competition and financial implications if things go wrong. Suggests ways to circumvent this through licensing agreements, patents, trademarks, copyright, technology transfer agreements, and/or national intellectual property laws. Defines a licensing agreement, covering the subject matter of the license, technical assistance provisions, specification of the scope of the license, royalty compensation, quality standards and warranties, infringement of licensed rights, and duration and termination of the agreement. Mentions, also, antitrust considerations and the tax aspects of licensing. Recommends this approach as it spells out terms and conditions clearly to all parties, thereby, hopefully, reducing misunderstanding and disputes.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Mohammad Nurunnabi, Monirul Hossain and Hossain

The purpose of this paper is to examine the intellectual capital reporting (ICR) practices of listed non‐financial companies in Bangladesh as an example of a South Asian…

1050

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the intellectual capital reporting (ICR) practices of listed non‐financial companies in Bangladesh as an example of a South Asian developing country, and to empirically investigate some company characteristics as determinants of such practices.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an empirical study of ICR by 90 listed companies in Bangladesh in 2008‐2009 using content analysis of annual reports. The study uses a weighted disclosure index and ordinary least squares regression analyses to test the association between company characteristics and the extent of ICR.

Findings

The study finds that despite the stock market growing significantly during the recession period, there is a tendency of companies not to disclose IC. The study also confirms that size and industry are important attributes to explain the IC disclosure (ICD) issues in Bangladesh. Unlike prior studies, the study finds that the IT sector does not tend to disclose more extensively, and that companies currently fail to disclose many important items such as patents, trademark and copyrights. The result is an indication that companies in Bangladesh are reluctant to disclose IC. The study is also similar to Abeysekera and Guthrie, who found that Sri Lanka is a proactive rather reactive country in terms of ICR. The study also finds ICR depends on the self‐interests of the company.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this study is limited to single year, 2008‐2009. It would be interesting to replicate this study in other developing countries or a group of developing countries in South Asia that have many similarities to the Bangladesh socio‐economic environment. Nevertheless, the study incorporates the current level of ICR transparency in Bangladesh.

Originality/value

Unlike previous studies, the present study is based on a developing country where the capital market is growing significantly during the recession years. The study also develops a weighted disclosure index in a developing country context, based on the extensive literature of ICD and some new characteristics, namely non‐family ownership, audit committee and liquidity risk.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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