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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Richard Reed and Susan F. Storrud‐Barnes

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to build a model that predicts the optimum tactics for capitalizing on inventions within the context of competitive interaction among large firms. For patenting, the paper seeks to show how invention value and firm rivalry drive the tactics of competing, deterring competitors, retreating from markets, and cooperating. It also aims to explore the effects of the contingencies of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness.

Design/methodology/approach

The work is conceptual.

Findings

The base model shows that patenting can be used to protect markets where there is high invention‐value and high rivalry. When both invention‐value and rivalry are low, the best tactic is to cooperate. When value is high and rivalry low, patenting can be used as a signaling and deterring mechanism, but when value is low and rivalry is high the best option is to let patents lapse and retreat from markets. The moderating effects of patent bulking, technology complexity, spheres of influence, resource similarity, and complementary‐resource tacitness affect rivalry and the amount of patenting that will be done.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides propositions for empirical testing that are predictive of firm performance, rivalry, and patent bulking. Despite the authors' attention to key contingencies, it is impossible to be completely comprehensive in addressing all contingencies.

Practical implications

The framework provides tactics for competing and, consequently, maximizing income and minimizing costs.

Originality/value

The work synthesizes extant thinking on patents and multipoint competition. While the base model should be valuable for managers, the overall work should be valuable for academics.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2020

Milad Dehghani, Atefeh Mashatan and Ryan William Kennedy

Understanding a technology’s patent landscape, including patent strategies, helps organizations position themselves regarding their innovation and provides insight about a…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding a technology’s patent landscape, including patent strategies, helps organizations position themselves regarding their innovation and provides insight about a technology’s future direction. This study aims to provide an overview of the blockchain technology patenting trends and outlines an exploratory framework of patenting strategies for blockchain.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 3,234 registered patents are analyzed to determine the geographical distribution and identify key actors patenting around the globe. In addition, an empirical study consisting of multiple case studies in the form of ten in-depth interviews with owners/managers of organizations based in North America was conducted to understand organizations’ strategies for patenting the blockchain technology.

Findings

Several novel insights regarding the strategies are used for blockchain technology patenting. For example, the existence of strong anti-patent sentiment which results in a lack of patenting by start-up organizations or has led to a form of open source patenting strategy. Larger organizations appear to be patenting defensively, and small to medium organizations are primarily patenting to defend their competitive advantage.

Practical implications

Start-up organizations harboring anti-patent sentiment should consider the open-source patenting strategy to ensure that the collaborative innovation network can continue. They should also consider collaborating with other actors within the network to have a competitive position in the market.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to conduct an empirical study with organizations currently using the blockchain technology to understand patenting strategies used for blockchain.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2008

Ulrich Doraszelski

The literature on R&D races suggests that noncolluding firms invest excessively in R&D. We show that this result depends critically on the winner-take-all assumption…

Abstract

The literature on R&D races suggests that noncolluding firms invest excessively in R&D. We show that this result depends critically on the winner-take-all assumption. Although rents continue to be dissipated once the winner-take-all assumption is relaxed because firms in general fail to provide the optimal R&D effort, the mechanisms behind this rent dissipation change with the degree of patent protection. We then illustrate how the patent system can be used to elicit the optimal R&D effort.

Details

The Economics of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53255-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

Vittorio Chiesa, Federico Frattini, Elena Gilardoni, Raffaella Manzini and Emanuele Pizzurno

The purpose of this paper is twofold: firstly, to identify the factors that are capable of influencing the value of a technological asset that is exchanged in the context…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: firstly, to identify the factors that are capable of influencing the value of a technological asset that is exchanged in the context of a business transaction and, secondly, to identify the direction of the relationship between each factor and the technological asset value.

Design/methodology/approach

First of all, an in‐depth analysis of the available literature about the assessment of technological asset value was conducted. Then a panel study was organised, involving several intellectual property managers and consultants and senior practitioners working in the field of IP assessment. Finally, an illustrative case study was conducted.

Findings

The paper proposes a framework that encompasses the following classes of factors: asset related; firm related; context related; risk related; and transaction related. It is shown that these factors are capable of influencing the value of a technological asset that is exchanged in the context of a business transaction and the direction of their impact is indicated.

Practical implications

The paper is believed to be a useful instrument capable of supporting managers and appraisers who, in the context of a specific business transaction involving the exchange of a technological asset between the counterparts, are called to assess its value.

Originality/value

The value of a technological asset is typically estimated through monetary techniques (cost, income and market methods) that often turn out to be disappointing in practice. This is mainly due to their quantitative nature, that impedes them to appropriately take into account qualitative variables capable of affecting the value of the asset. This paper is the first attempt, to the best knowledge of the authors, that draws together these variables in a comprehensive form and suggests the direction of their impact on the asset value.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Sevim Süzeroğlu-Melchiors, Oliver Gassmann and Maximilian Palmié

In the intellectual property (IP) and management literature, the question of how external patent attorneys impact patent filings has been understudied. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

In the intellectual property (IP) and management literature, the question of how external patent attorneys impact patent filings has been understudied. The purpose of this paper is to advance this area of research by examining how the use of external patent attorneys influences the patent filing strategies of firms and what impact firms’ level of experience with the exclusive use of in-house resources has on filing strategies. This study, thus, provides insights into the strategic dimension behind patent filing, a process which is affected by patent attorneys’ work and decision-making processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The econometric analysis is based on a patent database of 922,553 patents which is combined with an EPO patent database covering applications from 1990 to 2010. The authors test the hypotheses for this study using patent indicators addressing the impact of in-house firm experience vs the use of external patent attorneys on firm’s filing strategy.

Findings

This research finds empirical evidence that external patent attorneys’ work has an effect on patent scope, international scope, and patenting speed. Moreover, it can be shown that external patent attorneys have a positive impact on most filing dimensions, such as patent scope, international scope and the Patent Cooperation Treaty option, whereas the level of in-house firm experience has a negative impact on most filing dimensions. This implies that external patent attorneys seem to pursue a “maximization approach” while experienced firms seem to pursue a more differentiated approach to filing patents, for instance, drafting narrower and more focused patents.

Practical implications

The study suggests that effective filing strategies require an integrated approach between diverse IP stakeholders. More particularly, filing strategies should be communicated and aligned between all actors, including external patent attorneys in order to achieve the targeted patenting output.

Originality/value

The current study develops a patent filing typology, which accounts for patent attorneys’ decision options. In providing insights into patent attorneys’ work and their impacts on intellectual property rights management, the study is a useful complement to prior research, which has predominantly focused on applicants or examiners.

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Li Zhao, Yang Xiang and Qiulu Yi

As a resource input in enterprise technological innovation, patents play an important role in influencing innovation performance. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

As a resource input in enterprise technological innovation, patents play an important role in influencing innovation performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of fuzzy front end (FFE) patent management on innovation performance, and the mediating role of patent commercialization and the moderating effect of technological lock-in.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a questionnaire survey from a sample of 203 high-tech Chinese enterprises across multiple industries. Structural equation modeling and the hierarchical regression method were used to test the hypothesis.

Findings

The results show that the FFE of patent management, namely, patent acquisition and patent protection, positively affect innovation performance. Specifically, patent commercialization mediates the relationship between FFE patent management and innovation performance. Moreover, technological lock-in moderates the relationship between patent management and innovation performance.

Practical implications

This study puts forward suggestions relating to institution innovation and mechanism innovation for effective patent management in firms, and provides some guidelines for firms to efficiently utilize patents to improve innovation performance.

Originality/value

This paper provides certain empirical evidence for the study of organizational structure, strategic management, and knowledge governance. As the main participators in technology innovation, high-tech enterprises should utilize both inside and outside resources to acquire patents.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Peter Fleming

The classic distinction between two types of organizational learning – exploitation and exploration – has been unsettled under new forms of workplace regulation. This…

Abstract

The classic distinction between two types of organizational learning – exploitation and exploration – has been unsettled under new forms of workplace regulation. This paper investigates management practices that exploit by exploring, capturing, and enclosing employee efforts (including learning) that occur beyond the formal enterprise. Life itself or bios is put to work. This largely unpaid work is of increasing importance to organizations that require employee qualities it cannot provide on its own accord. Three types “free work” are identified: free time, free self-organization, and free self-development. A critical sociological explanation of this trend is developed and its implications for employment studies discussed.

Details

Managing ‘Human Resources’ by Exploiting and Exploring People’s Potentials
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-506-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Andy Miah

Abstract

Details

Drones: The Brilliant, the Bad and the Beautiful
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-985-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1977

J.G. NOAM ASHER

“Deep in all of us”, wrote a Homes and gardens sub‐editor in April 1965, headlining Elspeth Huxley's article A cottage on a hillside, “is a craving for a quiet country…

Abstract

“Deep in all of us”, wrote a Homes and gardens sub‐editor in April 1965, headlining Elspeth Huxley's article A cottage on a hillside, “is a craving for a quiet country retreat, old, mellow and secluded.” If true, this had clearly been true of England at least for a very long while. “Of late there has been a positive spate of books about living in the country”, wrote Philip Gosse in 1935. “The rustic life is all the rage.” “The cult of the country cottage”, declared J. Gordon Allen in 1912, “which was thought a few years ago to be merely a passing whim, has recently developed apace”. The manner in which a sizeable proportion of the English middle class were persuaded over several decades to forsake or at least to contemplate forsaking urban living is of some interest to, amongst others, sociologists and social historians. Since we are concerned here with the bibliographical aspects of this radical shift of attitudes, it would be as well to dispose at the outset of one possible analysis: namely the idea that literary precedents had much to do with this. Agreed, masters of urban living much earlier than the English—the Romans—invented apparently the away‐from‐it‐all stance: Horace, generals returning to the plough with Rome saved, the Georgics. Agreed also, their Augustan imitators had much to say about places in the country. But consider Wootton's

Details

Library Review, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Atul Nerkar, Srikanth Paruchuri and Mukti Khaire

This paper proposes that patents are real options that allow holders of patents the right but not the obligation to sue others. We suggest that the likelihood of a patent

Abstract

This paper proposes that patents are real options that allow holders of patents the right but not the obligation to sue others. We suggest that the likelihood of a patent being litigated is positively associated with value of the patent and the extent of disclosure (prior art cited) in the patent. However, under conditions of greater value, increases in disclosure reduce the likelihood of litigation of the focal patent. Similarly, under conditions of greater disclosure, increases in value reduce the likelihood of litigation of the focal patent. Rare events logit analyses of business method patents that were litigated, compared to patents that were not litigated, offer empirical evidence supporting the hypotheses.

Details

Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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